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3 ELEMENTS- 



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MINERALOGY, 



ADAPTED TO THE USE OF SEMINARIES 



AND 



Prtteitc Sttttitnto: 



By J. L v COMSTOCK, M. D. 



" PUBLISHED BY S. G. GOODRICH, BOSTON : 

IOLD BT BILLIARD, GRAY, LITTLB & WILKIH8, B0IT01T ; O. & C.CARYILf, 
KIW-YORK l H. 0. CARRY & L LXA, PHILADELPHIA, 



MDCCCXXVH. 



(iff, Jfjulf 



S. G. Goodrich, Publisher, Boston, invites the correspond- 
ence of persons engaged in the composition of original works, 
or in the preparation of new editions of works already pub- 
lished, who wish to dispose of the copy-right, or procure the 
publication, of the same. Jan. \st. 1827. 






# 



LIBRARY 




***- 



?> 




B DISTRICT OP CONNECTICUT, m. 

E it remembered, that on the Twenty-third day of November, in 
the Fifty-First year of the Independence of the United States of 

America, J. L. Comstock, of the said District, hath deposited in this 

office, the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as Author, in the words fol- 
lowing, to wit ; 

" Elements of Mineralogy, adapted to the use of Seminaries and private Students ; 
by J. L. Ccmstock, M. D." In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, 
entitled, " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps 
" Charts and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the 
" times therein mentioned." — And also to the act, entitled, " An act supplementary 
«« to an act, entitled « An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the co- 
" pies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies 
" during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts 
" of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 
CHARLES A. INGERSOLL, 

Clerk of the District of Connecticut. 
A true copy of Record, examined and sealed by me, 
CHARLES A. INGERSOLL, 

Clerk of the District of Connecticut. 
Norton & RusSELL....Printers....Hartford,Conn. / 

\X> \° 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

In the execution of the following work, the author 
has endeavoured, IstTo make the subject easily under- 
stood by avoiding scientific terms, when common words 
would convey the meaning. 2d. To condense its size 
as much as possible, by the employment of meth- 
od in the language of description, and by the omission 
of all useless words, and 3d. To make the book inter- 
esting to common readers, by the insertion of curious 
particulars. 

In offering the result of his labors to the public, the 

author hopes to contribute in some small degree, to- 

• wards a more general diffusion of taste for Mineralogy, 

by affording a cheaper and more easy introduction to 

its elements, than has before existed in this country. 

The work of Professor Cleveland, though undoubt- 
edly the best which has been published, is too expen- 
sive, and voluminous for general circulation. That of 
Phillips, is entirely wanting in respect to distinctive 
characters, nor have his late editions yet been printed 
in this country. The Manual of Aikin, is too concise, 
to give the learner a proper knowledge of the science. 
These are the only books which have been published 
in this country on Mineralogy. 

Under such circumstances, it was thought that a work 
containing the elements of the science, and of such a 
size as to come within the means of almost every one, 
was much wanted, and if well done, would facilitate 
the progress of science in our country. How far ftie 
following performance is adapted to these views, must 
now be left to the judgment of the public. 



The general plan of arrangement, is that of Phillips, 
though in particular instances, the places of species 
have been changed. 

In respect to authorities, the following works have 
been consulted and quoted. 

Hauy, Jameson, Cleveland, Phillips, Mohs, Lucas, 
Aikin, Lowry, Maw r e, Bakewell, Pinkerton, Brongniart, 
Rees\ and the Edinburgh Encyclopedias, Silliman's 
Journal, Brand's Journal, Annals of the New York Ly- 
ceum, Robinson's Localities, and Dana's Mineralogy, 
of Boston. 

Among these, the systems of Cleveland, Phillips, 
Hauy, and Mohs, have been chiefly depended on. 

Among the gentlemen from whom information and 
advice have been received, it is with much pleasure I 
particularize Professor Hall, of Washington College, 
who has rendered me essential assistance, during the 
progress of the work, and by whose kindness I had 
ready access to the extensive cabinet of the College. 

A full list of localities could not have been introdu- 
ced, without so much enlarging the volume as materi- 
ally to derange the original plan. It was thought, also, 
that Dr. Robinson's Catalogue of American localities, 
in a good degree, rendered such a list unnecessary. 

Hartford, January 1st, 1826. 



CONTENTS 

of the Introduction. 

Introduction, Page 13 

Definition, • 13 

Characters of Minerals, .14 

External Characters, 14 

Colors, ••••*••% * 15 

Metallic Colors, . ...... 15 

Non- Metallic Colors, . • . .. . * • 15 

Lustre, ... 18 

Play of Colors, ........ 19 

Transparency, . .. . . . . .. 20 

Form, . .21 

Primitive Form, . . .. • . . . 21 

Mechanical Division, . 23 

Cleavage, . 23 

Structure, . 25 

Fracture, . . ...... 28 

Frangibility, 29 

Shape of the Fragments; ...... 29 

Surface, 29 

Touch, 30 

Coldness, 30 

Order, • • . . • . . . 30 

Taste, 30 

Adhesion to the Tongue, ...... 30 

Soil, or Stain, 31 

Streak, 31 

Hardness, 31* 

Tenacity, 32 

Sectility, . . 32 



VI CONTENTS. 

Electricity, 33 

Magnetism, •...•... .33 

Specific Gravity, 34 

Phosphorescence, • ' . 36 

Double Refraction, 37 

Crystallization, . • .39 

Fundamental Forms, 40 

Description of Crystals, 41 

Truncation, 42 

Bevelment, . 42 

Imperfect Crystallization, . • • . . 43 

Grouping of Crystals, 44 

Twin Crystals, . • ..... 44 

Magnitude of Crystals, 44 

Angles of Crystallization, 45 

Goniometer, . 46 

Chemical Characters, 48 

Blowpipe, 48 

Action of Acids, 50 

Explanation of Terms, 52 



PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS. 

Obs. The pupil in Mineralogy, will find his progress greatly fa- 
cilitated, by acquiring, in the first place, such a knowledge of Crys- 
tallography as to be able to understand and explain the following 
figures. For this purpose let him take any soft substance, as a pieoe 
of pine wood, and with a knife, form the solid figures as he proceeds. 
In this way he will at once obtain more correct ideas than could be 
conveyed by the most labored descriptions. 

The Regular Tetrahedron. This figure is bounded 
by four oblique planes or faces, has four points, or 
solid angles, and six edges. 



The same with the summit truncated* or cut off. 



The same with all the corners, or solid angles trun- 
cated. 



The same with the edges truncated. 




The same with the edges bevelled.* 



The Cube has six equal, square faces, eight corners, 
or solid angles, and twelve edges, c the edges ; 
e the solid angles. 



• For the explanation of these terms, see Introduction, page xm. 



VIII 



PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS. 



The Regular Square Table. It has the same num- 
^ ber of solid angles and edges with the cube. If the 
^ .^^ cu ^ e ^ e divided in the middle, two square tables 
titeMmmJr would be formed. 



J 




^4 Regular Quadrangular Prism. This has the same num- 
ber of faces, angles, and corners, with the cube. If two, or 
three cubes be laid, one on the other, this figure would be 
formed.* 



The Cube, with the corners truncated. 



10 




The same, more deeply truncated. 




u 



The same, with the edges truncated. 



ts 




The same, with the corners and edges truncated. 





The Cube, with the edges bevelled, forming two planes 
and three edges, instead of one edge. 



The Regular Octohedron. This figure is contained 
under eight triangular planes, or faces, six solid angles, 
and twelve edges. 



*See page xl. 



PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS. IX 

^r ^^ The Octohedron, with a sh6rt prism interposed be- 
^ y tween the pyramids— a the prism, bb the pyramids. 



The Elongated Octohedron. This differs from the 
regular octohedron, in beiug extended more in one 
dire ction than in the others. 



The Elongated Octohedron, with the summits trun- 
cated. 



£0 The Rhomb. This figure differs from the cube, in 

having its contiguous faces inclined to each other 
under various angles, instead of being at right angles. 






19 



19 

The Rhomboidal Octohedron. This is a combina- 
tion of the regular octohedron, and the rhomb, form- 
ing an irregular solid of eight sides. 




A figure bounded by twenty-four sides. The garnet 
sometimes is found under this form. 




The Dodecahedron, with the triangular faces— d the 
angles of incidence, /the summit. 



PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS. 




The same, with a short prism interposed, on which the 
a two pyraaaids stand — a the prism. 



^ f ?. 1 If Hexahedral, or 
Six-sided Prism, terminated by 
a six-sided pyramid. 

24. A Pyramid. 

25. An Irregular Pyramid, 
standing on a short prism. 

26. The same, but still more 
irregular. Crystals of Quartz 
are found in these shapes. 





Fig. 27. An Irregular Dodecahedron. 
28. The same, but more irregular. 



A Made, or Hemitrope crystal, formed by the junction of 
two halves, one of which is inverted. 



so 



* 



Two crystals crossing each other. Staurotide occurs ia 
this form. 



By obtaining, and examining closely the solids represented by the 
above cuts, the Student will not only gain a general knowledge of 
crystalline forms, but will also understand the right application of the 
terms by which they are designated. Thus, the difference between 
the Tetrahedron, and the TetrahedraJ, or Four-sided Prism, is ob- 



PRELIMINARY EXPLANATIONS. XI 

rious. The Tetrahedron has four sides only, while the Tetrahedral 
Prism has four sides, more or less extended, surrounding its axis, 
besides its terminations, which may consist of from one to four, or 
more faces at each extremity. This figure is also called the Quad- 
rangular Prism. 

The Hexahedron, or Cube, has six equal faces, while the Hezahe- 
dral, or Six-sided Prism, has six sides surrounding its axis, besides 
its terminations. 

The Octohedron is bounded by eight faces,, while the Ociohedral 
Prism has eight contiguous planes, besides its terminations. 



EXPLANATIONS. 



Ext: Char. 
Chtrri. ChHr. 
Dirt. Char. 
Obs. . 
Local. 
H. . 
J. . 
C. . 
A. 

Bt. . 
M. . 
P. . 
N. H. . 
Ver.otVt. . 
Mass. 
R. I. . 
Con. or Ct. 
N. Y. 
M J. 
Penn. 
Del. . 
Md. . 

d. c. r 

Vir. or Va. 
N. C. . 
S. (J. 
Geo. 
Ken. . 
Ten. 
Mich. . 


stands for 

• • 




• 



External Characters 

Chemical Characters 

Distinctive Character! 

Observation 

Localities 

Hauy 

Jameson 

Cleveland 

Aikin 

Brongniart 

Mohs 

Philips 

New- Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New- York 

New-Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

North-Carolina 

South-Carolina 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Michigan 



INTRODUCTION. 



DEFINITIONS. 



§ 1. Mineralogy, is that science by which we gain a 
systematic knowledge of the mineral kingdom. 

Remark. The object of Mineralogy is to obtain such an acquaint- 
ance with individual specimens, as to be able to know their names, 
composition, and place, in a systematic arrangement. 

§ 2. Mineralogy, in its widest sense, includes a 
knowledge ot all the inorganic substances of the earth. 

Remark The study of Fossils, by which is understood the organic 
remains of animals, fi3h, and wood, found in the earth, is more prop* 
erly a subject of geology. Individual specimens of this kind, which 
most frequently occur, are however sometimes described in works 
on mineralogy. 

§ 3. Minerals may be divided into Simple, and Com- 
pound or Aggregated. 

Obs. 1. Simple minerals, are strictly such, as are composed of one 
kind of matter only, as native gold, native copper, silex, &c. but by 
common consent, this term is made to include all such minerals as are 
homogenous, in their qualities and aspect, though composed of seve- 
ral chemical constituents, as carbonate of lime, octahedral iron, fel- 
spar, sulphuret of lead, &c. 

2. Compound minerals, are such, as are composed of several simple 
ones closely connected, as granite, consisting of the simple minerals, 
quartz, felspar, and mica. These individuals are generally obvious 
to the eye, and their study belongs strictly to the science of geology, 
under the name of rocks, or aggregates. 

§4. Geology, is a science, which has for its object, 
the investigation of the structure of the earth, and the 
relative position, of the materials of which it is formed. 

Obs. 1. The different objects of the two sciences are obvious. — 
Mineralogy investigates, and determines the nature, and classification 
of fragments, or cabinet specimens, while geology investigates the 
constitution, and structure, of the crust of the globe itself. 

2. Mineralogy, is therefore absolutely necessary for the study of ge- 
ology ; nor can mineralogy become a profitable, or interesting pur- 
suit, without including so much of geology, as relates to the situation, 
locality, and nature of the minerals, from among which each cabinet 
specimen has been taken. 
C 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

2. CHARACTERS OF MINERALS. 

§ 5. The characters of minerals are determined by a 
close inspection of their external, and obvious proper- 
ties, as color, form lustre, hardness, &c and by chem- 
ical analysis, by which their composition is ascertained. 

Obs. In describing minerals, it is convenient to divide their char- 
acters into external, and chemical. Under the first, all such proper- 
ties, as can be observed, by the sight, touch, fracture, &c. are arran- 
ged ; and under the second, such chemical characters as can be ob- 
served most easily, as fusibility, or infusibility and solubility in acids. 

3. EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 

§ 6- The external characters of minerals are nume- 
rous, and require great precision in the language of 
their descriptions. 

Obs. Mineralogy is indebted to the celebrated Werner, for the 
descriptive language employed in the designation of the external, or 
physical characters of minerals. ' 

§ 7. The following list of external characters is sup- 
posed to embrace all those of importance belonging to 
the mineral kingdom, viz. 

1. Color. 10. Touch. 

2. Lustre. 11. Odor. 

3. Transparency. 12. Coldness. 
4 Form. 13. Taste. 

5. Fracture. 14. Adhesion to the Tongue. 

6. Structure. 15. Soil. 

7. Frangibility. 16. Hardness. 

8. Shape of the Fragments. 17. Sound. 

9. Surface. 18. Tenacity. 

19. Streak and Powder, 

20. Flexibility and Elasticity. 
2i. Shape of Fragments. 

- 22. Electricity. 

23. Magnetism* 

24. Specific gravity. 

25. Phosphorescence. 

26. Double Refraction. 

Obs. 1. Some of these characters are general, and belong to every 
mineral, as color, structure, form and weight. Others as phosphores- 
cence, electricity, and double refraction, are particular, and belong 
only to a few individual species. 

% The beginner will find much difficulty in the application of these 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

several characters to the specimen before him, and will no doabt find 
it much more easy to satisfy himself what a mineral is not, than what 
it is. This, however, is an acquisition of knowledge, for every decis- 
ion, that a specimen does not agree with a given description, is a step 
towards ascertaining what it is. Perseverance, and the habit of 
close inspection, with a few simple tests, will however, soon enable 
the pupil to distinguish the common specimens, a knowledge of which, 
will greatly assist him in distinguishing the more rare and curious. 

4. COLORS.* 

§ 7. Colors, have been divided into metallic, and non- 
metallic. 

Obs. Werner assumed eight fundamental, or principal colors, as 
the ground of that great variety of shades, which are observed in min- 
erals. These are, white, grey, black, blue, green, yellow, red, and 
brown. 

5. METALLIC COLORS. 

§8. The metallic colors, are, 1. Copper-red ; 2. 
Bronze-yellow ; 3. Brass-yellow ; 4. Gold-yellow ; 5. 
Silver-white ; 6. Tin- white ; 7. Lead-grey ; 8. Steel- 
grey, and 9, Iron-black. 

1. Copper-red. The color of metallic copper. Ex. Octohedral 
copper. Native copper. 

2. Bronze-yellow. The color of bronze, darker than that of brass. 
Ex. Some varieties of Iron pyrites. 

3. Brass-yellow. Ex. Copper pyrites. Brass. 

4. Gold-yellow. The color of pure gold. 

Obs. This color is sometimes pale, approaching to silver-white. 

5. Silver-white. The color of pure silver. Ex. Native silver. Ar- 
senical pyrites. 

6. Tin-white. The color of pure tin. Ex. Fluid mercury. Native 
antimony. 

7. Lead-grey. The color of metallic lead. Ex. Molybdena, Ga- 
lena. 

Obs. This color has several shades, as blackish lead-grey, and 
whitish lead-grey. 

8. Steel-grey. The color of broken steel. Ex.Native platina. Steel 
grained galena. 

9. Iron-black. The color of black oxide of iron. Ex. Octohedral 
.iron ore. Magnetic iron. 

6. NON-METALLIC COLORS. 

§ 9. In the description of minerals, the distinction, 
non-metallic, is not made. The distinction of metallic col- 

* This description of colors, U, in part, from Mobs' Mineralogy. 



XVI INTROWCTlOir. 

ore, is however important, in descriptive language, and 
the division becomes necessary here, on that account. 

A. Whiu. 
1. Snmthwk&t. Pure white. Ex. Carrara marble. Gypsum. 
9. Reddish-white. White, with a Wash of red. 

3. Yellowish-white. Ex. Several varieties of Carbonate of lime, and 
Quartz. 

4. Greyish-white. Ex. Several varieties of marble, and amorphous 
quartz. 

5. Greenish-white. Ex. Foliated talc. Nephrite. Prehnite. 

6. Milk-white. The color of skim-mi!k, somewhat inclining to blue. 
Ex. Common opal. Common quartz. 

B. Grey. 

1. Bluish-grey. Grey, with a tinge of blue, commonly not very dis- 
tinct; dull. Ex. Limestone. Felspar. Hornstone. 

2. Pearlrgrey. A mixture of grey, with blue, and a tinge of red, 
very distinct in the pearl. Ex. Muriate of silver. Sulphate of ba- 
rytes. 

3. Smoke+grey. Grey, mixed with brown. Ex. Flint. Smoky 
quartz. 

4. Greenish-grey. Ex. Cat's-eye. Talc. Asbestus. 

5. Yellowish-grey. Ex. Common, in compact limestone, and gyp- 
Sum. 

6. Ash-grey. A mixture of white and black, the purest grey color. 
Ex. Zoishe. Leucite. 

C. Black. 

1. Velvet-black. The purest bkek color. Ex. Schorl. Jet. Obsi- 
dian. 

2. Chreyish-black. Black, mixed with grey, without tints of brown, 
green, or blue. Ex. Basalt. Variety of Magnetic iron. Some varie- 
ties of Marble. 

3. Greenish-black. Black, with a tinge of green. Ex. Hornblende. 
Hypersthene. Augite. 

4. Brownish-black. Black, mixed with brown. Ex. Bituminous 
mineral coal. Black oxide of manganese. 

5. Bluish-black. This is a rare color. Ex. Dark indicolite. Black 
cobalt. 

D. Blue. 

1. Prussian-blue, or Berlin-blue. Next to ultra-marine, the purest 
blue color. Ex. Sapphire. Cyanite, and the blue variety of Rock-salt. 

2. Blackish-blue. Blue, mixed with black. Ex. Dark azure mala- 
chite. Phosphate of iron. 

3. Azure-blue. Bright blue, with a tinge of red. Ex. Lapis lazuli. 

4. Violet-blue. Blue, mixed with red. Ex. Amethyst. Purple fluor* 
spar. 

5. Lavender-blue. Blue, mixed with a little red, and much grey, 
Ex. Lithomarge. Porcelain Jasper. 



INTRODUCTION. XVU 

0. Pluwb-bUu. Blue, mixed with a little brown. Ex. Fluor-spar. 

7. Smalt-blue. Pale clear blue. 

8. Indigo-blue. Blue, mixed with black, and a tinge of green. Ex. 
Indicolite. 

9. Sky-blue. Pale blue, with a little green, the color of clear sky. 
Ex. Octahedral Arseniate of Copper. Fluor-spar. 

E. Green. 

1. Emerald-green. The purest green color. Ex. Beautifully dis- 
tinct, in the finest colored Emerald. Green carbonate of copper. 

2. Verdigris-green. Green, with a shade of blue. Ex. Amazon 
stone, or green felspar. 

3. Mountain-green. Green, with considerable portion of blue. 
Ex. Beryl. 

4. Leek-green. Green, with a little brown. Ex. Prase. 

5. Apple-green. Light green, with a little yellow. Ex. Chryso- 
prase. Vesuvian. Chrysoberyl. 

6. Pistachio-green. Green, mixed with yellow and brown. Ex. 
Crysolite. Epidote. 

7. Blackish-green. Ex. Serpentine. Hypersthene. 

8. Olive-green. Pale green, with brown and yellow. Ex. Olivine. 
Some varieties of Pitchstone. 

F. Yellow. 

1. Lemmon-yeUow. The purest yellow color. Ex. Orpiment. 

2. Sulphur-yellow. Yellow, with a tinge of green. Ex. Native sul- 
phur. 

3. Straw-yellow. Light yellow, with a little grey. Ex. Pycnite. 
Amber. 

4. Honey-yellow. Yellow, with a little red and brown. Ex. Hob* 
eystone. 

5. Oere-yellow. Yellow, with brown. Ex. Yellow quartz. 

6. Wine-yellow. Yellow, with a little red and grey. Ex. Topaz. 

7. Orange-yellow. Yellow, with a portion of red. Ex. Molybdate 
of lead. 

G. Red. 

1. Carmine-red. The purest red color. Ex. Ruby. Octahedral 
copper. 

2. Aurora-red. Red, with much yellow, like the tints given the 
clouds by the setting sun. Ex. Realger. 

3. Hyacinth-red. Red, with yellow, and a little brown. Ex. Hya- 
cinth. Garnet. 

4. Brick-red. Red, with brown and grey. Ex. Stilbite. 

5. Scarlet-red. Bright red, with a tint of yellow. Ex. Cinnabar. 
Ruby silver. 

6. Blood-red. Red, with a little black. Ex. Pyrope. 

7. Flesh-red. Pale red, with tints of yellow and grey. Ex. Car- 
ttelian. 



XVIII INTRODUCTION. 

8. Cochineal-red. Red, with a little Mae and grey. Ex. Spinelle. 
Dodecahedral garnet. 

9. Rose-red Pale red, with a light tint of yellow and grey. Ex. 
Rose quartz. Carbonate of manganese. 

10. Crimson-red. Carmine-red, with a tint of blue. Ex. The finest 
color of the Ruby. Attentate of cobalt 

11. Brownish-red. Red, with much brown. Ex. Red hematite. 
Jasper. 

H. Brown. 

1. Chesnuf-brown. The color of ripe chesnuts. The purest browa 
color. Ex. Egyptian jasper. Brown haematite. 

2. Yellowish-brown. Brown, with much yellow. Ex. Common 
jasper. 

3. Reddish-brown. Brown, mixed with much red. Ex. Jasper. 
Zircon. 

4. Clove-brown. Brown, with a little blue, and red. Ex. Horn- 
stone. 

5. Hair-brown. Brown, with a little yellow, and grey. Ex. Brown 
oxide of iron. 

6. Wood-brown. Color, of old exposed wood. Ex. Ligniform as- 
bestos. 

7. Liver-brown. Greenish brown. Ex. Common jasper. 

8. Blackish brown. Ex. Brown coal. Bituminous wood. 

7. LUSTRE. 

§ 10. Lustre is a character of more importance, than 
color because in the same species, it is more uniform. 

Obs. The vitreous lustre of quartz, to a practised eye, is generally 
a pretty decisive character of the mineral, under all its variety of 
colors. 

§ 1 1. In the description of minerals, reference is made 
to the kind, and to the intensity of lustre. 

The kinds of lustre are, 

1. Metallic. 2. Adamantine. 3. Resinous. 4. Vitreous. 
5. Pearly. 

1. Metallic lustre. It has the aspect of a metal. Ex. Sulphuret of 
copper. Galena. Silver, Brass, &c 

2. Imperfect, or Semi-metallic lustre. Ex. Titanium. Hematite. 
Blende. 

3. Pseudo-metallic lustre. This is applied to several minerals, which 
give a degree of metallic lustre, only when the reflection, is in a cer- 
tain direction. Ex. Bronzite. Mica. 

4. Adamantine lustre. It is difficult to describe, but is readily dis- 
tinguished in those minerals, where it is present Ex. Diamond. Co- 
rundum. Carbonate of lead. 

5. Resinous lustre. It resembles the lustre of fractured resin! or 
a substance smeared with oil. Ex. Pitchstone. Vesuvian. 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

6. Vitreous lustre. It is the lustre of fractured glass. Ex. Quartz- 
Beryl. Topaz. 

7. Pearly lustre. It is changeable, and some minerals possess it, 
in a certain direction only. Ex. Cyanite Actynolite. Argentine. 

8. Silky lustre. It resembles the lustre of satin. Ex. Satin-spar. 
Amianthus. 

§ 12. The degrees, or intensity, of lustre are, 1. 
Splendent. 2. Shining. 3. Glistening. 4. Glimmering. 
5. Dull. 

1. Splendent lustre. This is intended to convey an idea of the high- 
est polish, which minerals possess, in the native state. Ex. Galena. 
Specular oxide of iron. Rock crystal. Volcanic Hornblende. 

% Shining. It is a degree less than splendent. Ex. Mica. Sul- 
phate of Barytes. Blende. 

3. Glistening. It does not reflect sufficiently to define an image. 
Ex. Felspar. Fractured Quartz. Carbonate of Lime. 

4. Glimmering. Somewhat less than the above. Ex. Flint. Horn- 
stone. Asbestus. 

5. Dull. The entire absence of lustre. Ex. Chalk. Ochre, Marl. 

8. PLAY OP COLORS. 

§11: Several minerals display very extraordinary 
phenomena, in respect to color. These peculiarities 
are Play, or Change of Colors, Opalescence, Iridescence and 
Tarnish. 

1. Play, of Colors. This property consists in the transmis- 
sion of differently colored rays of light, as the mineral is turned in dif- 
ferent directions. 

This curious and beautiful property appears to depend on the 
structure of the mineral, and is possessed only by a few species.-r- 
Ex Precious Opal This beautiful stone presents, as it is turned in 
various directions towards the light, intense and playful changes of 
color, which proceed from the interior, presenting as it is turned, 
most of the colors of the rainbow. 

Labradorite. When this is cut in a convex eliptical form, it pre- 
sents a still more remarkable play of colors, consisting in some spe- 
cimens, of most of the prismatic rays, several of which are seen at the 
same instant. These colors appear to proceed from just within the 
polished surface, but not from the axis of the gem, as is the case with 
the opal. 

2. Opalescence^ or Chatoyment. This property is analagous to the 
above, but is not confined to the reflection of brilliant colors. It 
means more particularly a changeful play of light from the interior. 

# Ex. CaVs-eye. This beautiful little stone illustrates the meaning of 
this property in perfection. It reflects, as it is turned towards the 
light, milky white, greenish, and brownish colors, in succession. The 
Diamond, some varieties of Corundum, and opal, also Moonstone, 



INTRODUCTION. XX 

which is a variety of Adularia, and that variety of sapphire called As- 
teria, possess more, or less the same qualities. This property is 
highly valued by the lapidaries, and often greatly enhances the prices 
of particular specimens. 

Obs. In the Cat's-eye, this changeful play of light, is supposed to 
proceed from minute fibres of amianthus which run through the stone. 
In opal and labradorite, no adequate explanation of this phenomenon 
has yet been given. 

3. Iridescence. This property consists in the actual separation of 
the rays of light into the prismatic colors, and depends on the princi- 
ple of the common glass prism, or perhaps, on that of Newton's color- 
ed rings, when two plates of glass are pressed together. It pre-sup- 
poses separations, or fissures, in the interior of the mineral, and is 
often entirely accidental. Ex. Rock-crystal, often displays these 
colors in great beauty. In some specimens, it appears to arise from 
the natural structure of the mineral, in others it is evidently owing to 
fissures caused by a blow from the hammer. 

3. Tarnish. This is an alteration of the color of the mineral, on the 
surface merely, and probably arises from different degrees of oxida- 
tion. It mostly belongs to metallic minerals, or such as contain a 
portion of metal in their composition,or investing their surfaces. Some- 
times the color is uniform, as in carbonate of iron : in other instances 
it is of different shades, in the same specimen, presenting a vivid and 
very beautiful display of all the colors of the rainbow. It is then 
called iriscd, or iridescent, from iris, the rainbow. Ex. Specular ox- 
ide of iron. Anthracite or coal. Copper Pyrites, and many other sub- 
stances. 

Obs. Pieces of ancient window glass, on the exposed side, and 
pieces of common glass, which have lain a few years in the" dirt, ex- 
posed to therrain, have the same appearance. Some specimens of 
this kind have a thin crust, of yellowish decomposed glass, over the 
colors, which is easily removed. This substance forms a kind of jelly 
in sulphuric acid. Probably the alteration is owing to the loss of a 
part of the potash, which the glass contains. 

9. TRANSPARENCY. 

§ 12. This is an important property, in the descrip- 
tive part of Mineralogy ; for although, in some mine* 
rals, it is an uncertain character, in others it is quite dis- 
tinctive. It has several degrees, depending on the 
quantity of light which is transmitted through the min- 
eral. 

1. Transparent. When objects can be distinctly seen Jhrough the 
specimen. Ex. Sihenite. Iceland spar. Rock crystal. * 

2. Semi-transparent. When objects can be seen through the min- 
eral, however indistinctly. Ex. Adularia. Sulphate of Strontian. 

3. Translucent. When the light passes through it, but not in suffi- 
cient quantity to permit objects to be seen. Ex. Chalcedony. Horn- 
stone. Alabaster. Felspar. 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

4. Translucent on the edges. When by holding the thin edge of 
the mineral, between the eye and the light, some rays are transmit- 
ted. Ex. Flint. Heliotrope. Obsidian. Blende 

5. Opake. When no light at all is transmitted. Ex. Hornblende. 
Jasper. The ores of Iron, Sulphuret of Lead, and Copper. Coal. Lig- 
nite. 

Obs. Some minerals generally described as opake, transmit a small 
quantity of colored light, as specular oxide of iron, which between the 
eye, and a strong light, appears blood red, and gold in thin leaves, ap- 
pears green, in the same position. 

10. FORM. 

§ 1 3. This is a very important character, and may 
be divided into three kinds or varieties, viz. regular, im- 
itative, and amorphous. 

The regular forms, all arise from crystallization, and are of some 
determinate geometrical figure, being bounded by planes, or faces, 
which meet, forming the edges, or angles of the crystals. 

Of the regular forms, two kinds are distinguished, viz. the primi- 
tive, and the secondary, or external. 

The primitive form, is the nucleus, or centre of the crystal, and is 
obtained by mechanical division, or cleavage. It often differs from 
the actual, or external form of the crystal, as presented to the eye. 
In many cases, however, the primitive and external forms, are the 
same. 

The secondary, or external form, is that, under which the crystal 
appears, when entire. In some instances, however, crystals exhibit 
the primitive form, in the natural state. 

Imitative forms. These are the result of confused, or disturbed 
crystallization, or are merely concretions. 

Amorphous, or Indeterminate form. When the mineral is neither 
regular, nor imitative, it is called amorphous. 

11. PRIMITIVE FORM. 

§ 14. Ithas long been known that some minerals, when 
broken, presented smooth shining faces in certain di- 
rections, and that by particular management, they 
might be cleaved, or separated into plates, or slices, 
leaving solids of definite, geometrical shapes. By pur- 
suing this method, it has been ascertained, that almost 
every crystallized substance, will yield to cleavage in 
one direction or another, and that by continuing this 
oyJteration, solids of regular, and certain shapes, are ob- 
tained. The solid so obtained, is the primitive crys- 
tal. 

§ 15. The figure of the primitive crystal, belonging 
to the same species, is invariably the same. 

D 



XXII 



INTRODUCTION. 



Obs. Some species, however, yield several varieties of form ; such 
is the case with fluor-spar, which affords the regular octohedron, the 
tetrahedron, and the acute rhomboid. Of these, the octohedron has 
been selected as the primitive. 

§ 16. The individual species of crystals, do not each 
possess a primitive form, peculiar to themselves. 

On the contrary, it is found that the same primitive, 
is common to many different species, possessing vari- 
ous external forms, and being composed of entirely dif- 
ferent chemical consituents. 

Obs. The primitive form of fluor-spar, red oxide of copper, oxide of 
tin, and oxide of iron, is the octohedron. 

& 17. Notwithstanding the immense variety of exter- 
nal forms, under which crystallized bodies appear, the 
number of primitive forms, so far as is yet known, 
amount only to six. 
The primitive forms, are as follows : 

Fig. 1. The parallelepiped. — This form offers a 
variety of modifications. It includes the cube, the 
four-sided prism, and the rhomb. When its angles 
; in every direction, are the same, and the size of its 
planes are alike, it is a cube. When it is elongated, 
or extended in length, it is the four-sided prism, and 
when its angles are oblique, it becomes a rhomb. The four-sided 
prism may be right, or oblique, a square, or a rhomb. The rhomb 
may be acute, or obtuse, as its angles differ from 90°. 

Fig. 2. The octohedron. — This figure, being com- 
posed of two similar, four-sided pyramids, joined base 
to base, is subject to various modifications. Thus the 
two pyramids, may be depressed, or elongated. The 
base may be square, or oblique ; or the faces of the 
pyramids, may be scalene, or isosceles triangles. 

Fig. 3. The regular tetrahedron. — The faces of this 
figure, are always similar to each other, the solid being 
contained under four equilateral triangles. It is not, 
therefore, subject to any variety of form. 



Fig. 4. The regular hexahedral prism. — This figure, 
is contained under eight planes, viz. six lateral ones, 
surrounding the crystal, aftd two terminal ones, by whfth 
each end is boujgled. It is variable, in the proportions 
between the ifcfght of the prism, and the extent of the 
terminal planes. \ 

-V 






INTRODUCTION. XXIII 

Fig. 5. The dodecahedron, with rhombic faces. This 
fi gore is contained under twelve equal, and similar 
rhombic faces, and is, therefore, not subject to varia- 
tions. 



Fig. 6. The dodecahedron, with triangular faces. — 
This solid, is bounded by twelve triangular planes. It 
may be considered, as two six-sided pyramids, joined 
base to base, and is variable in the proportions of its 
height and breadth. 

12. MECHANICAL DIVISION, OR CLEAVAGE. 

§ 17. To obtain the primitive form, it is of course, 
necessary to cleave, or mechanically divide the crys- 
tal. Many crystals, it will be found, are composed of 
layers or slices, lying over, or on each other, with na- 
tural joints between them. It is between these natur- 
al joints, that mechanical division is effected. 

Obs 1 . These natural joints, are very obvious in some minerals, 
as in felspar, galena, and fluor. In others, as quartz, they are not 
perceptible. By close examination, however, the direction of these 
joists can be ascertained in most minerals. 

2. In some instances, it is necessary to take the advantage of a 
strong light, by the reflection of which, the face of a natural joint may 
be found, and the direction of the layers ascertained. It is general- 
ly neressary, when the joints are obscure, to fracture the mineral, and 
then by close inspection, the shining faces of some of the layers will 
be found, and consequently the direction in which cleavage is to be 
attempted. 

§ 18. The mode of effecting cleavage, depends on 
the nature of the substance, on which the operation m 
to be performed. 

Obs. Galena and blende, may be held in the hand, smA drnflmf ty 
a sharp knife, carefully introduced between the natural J***** ftmr 
spar, and many varieties of carbonate of lime, reamire t* b* hmi im * 
table, and are easily separated by a slight Mow «* 4m luwaV ***> 
ide of tin, and some other substances, are be* <k***4 v? «* y**** 
sure of pincers, along the natural joiats* 

§ 19. When a mineral can be elea*e4 <*Ay *** 4*<*s 
tioife, producing a particular form- tfeai* M#m * U*- 
primary crystal. 

Obs. 1. As an example, cshmwm *y* mwj fee**** TW *H> 
stance, when all itssides iiraeat %*mx ***** *»+*> ***** ** » 
bMBb9m*p*xu*uikemmvmdjs^ 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



obtuse rhomboid. In some specimens, where the natural connec- 
tion is not strong, striking with a hammer, answers all the purposes 
of cleavage, and it will be found on close inspection, that the smallest 
particles which the eye can distinguish, are still rhombs, of precisely 
the same shape, with the Jarger masses. 

2. In the present instance, therefore, the primary and secondary 
forms are the same, or rather the mineral always appear:- under the 
primary form. 

§ 20. Although in the above instance, the primary 
and secondary forms are the same, yet in many, if not 
in a majority of the species, they differ widely, and in- 
deed, often appear to have not the least connection 
\yith each other. 





v-—X J 








H 






/ 


V 




>/ 


\ 






Obs. 1. The common secondary form of fluor-spar, is the cube. 
The primary form, is the octohedron. To ascertain this fact, and 
to illustrate the practical part of our subject, take a square crystal of 
fluor, and with a knife, cleave off each corner, or solid angle. Be- 
fore we begin this operation, it may be remarked, that the cube is a 
solid, having six equal sides, and eight solid angles, or corners. By 
cleaving off each corner, we obtain a new figure, consisting of 14 fa- 
ces, (fig.l.) viz. eight new triangular planes instead of the corners, and 
a part of the six original planes of the cube. If we continue the oper- 
ation, and take off slice after slice, we shall find that every trace of 
the original cube will disappear, and that we shall obtain eight plane 
faces, instead of the eight corners of the cube, thus forming the prim-; 
itive octohedron, in the middle of fig. 2. This operation may be vey- 
ry readily illustrated, with a piece of soft wood, or a potatoe, and a 
sharp knife 

2. After having obtained the octohedron, by cleaving our crystal 
of fluor, if the same operation be continued, we shall lessen the size of 
the crystal, but in no wise alter its form, hence this is considered the 
primitive form of fluor. 

§ 21, Having ascertained how the cube may be con- 
verted into the octohedron by cleavage, let us now 
suppose that the cube is the primitive form, and the 
octohedron one of its secondary modifications, as is 
the case with sulphuret of lead. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV 



Obs. 1. The octahedron, has eight triangular faces, and six solid 
angles, or corners. 

2. If each corner of this figure be truncated or cleaved off, we 
shall obtain a figure bounded by 14 faces, as in the former instance, 
but the new faces will be squares instead of triangles, thus making a 
figure which approaches the cube, as the triangular faces of the cleav- 
ed cube, approached the octohedron. 





3. Fig. 1. The octohedron with its cleaved angles, as shown by 
the dotted lines. 

4. By pursuing the cleavage, it is obvious by fig. 2, that we shall ulti- 
mately obtain the cube, which is enclosed in that figure, and that 
nothing is wanting for this purpose, but the further truncation of the 
projecting angles, by which the cube is surrounded. 

5. This operation may be readily employed on an octohedral crys- 
tal of galena, and a brilliant cube obtained, whose form cannot be al- 
tered by further cleavage. This, therefore, is the primary form of 
galena. 

6. These easy examples, are sufficient to give the young mineral- 
ogist an idea of what is understood, by primitive, and secondary forms, 
and also of mechanical division, or cleavage. 

13. STRUCTURE. 

§ 22. Structure is the consequence, of the particular 
arrangement of the particles, composing the mineral. 

Obs. 1. The figures of all crystalline substances, must be deter- 
mined by shapes of the integrant particles, of which they are com- 
posed, and the arrangement they take in respect to each other. In 
the secondary forms, we observe, that the shape of the crystal is con- 
stantly changing, as it is cleaved in different directions. 

2. It is certain, therefore, that nature observes some definite, and 
invariable laws in their formation, for every crystal of the same sub- 
stance, no matter where it is from, will be found 10 yield to cleavage 
in the same directions, and ultimately to produce exactly the same 
result. Now this result would be unaccountable, on any other sup- 
position, except that the particles are of the same shape, and that dur- 
ing the process of crystallization, they should take the same arrange- 
ment in respect to eaoh other. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

§ 13. The slices, or layers, which are removed by 
the process of cleavage, are called by Hauy, the lamina 
of superposition. These laminae, it is supposed, are com- 
posed of an infinite number of integrant particles, so 
arranged, as to produce the particular forms, under 
which crystals appear. 

Obs, It is not understood that the forms of the integrant particles, 
can be ascertained by any, or all of our senses. They may be con- 
sidered as infinitely small, when compared with the most minute ob- 
ject of which we have cognizance. By the cleavage of primitive 
forms, together with certain geometrical calculations, it has, howev- 
er, been reduced to some degree of certainty, that the forms of the 
integrant particles, are only five. 

These are the four-sided prism; the cube ; the tetrahedron; the 
rhomb ; and the triangular prism, 

§ 24. If the forms of the integrant particles, are only 
five, then a great number of crystals must possess the 
same integrant forms, though externally, their shapes 
are widely different. 

Obs. 1. To account for the immense variety of external forms, 
when the forms of the integrant particles are so few, let us remember 
what an immense number of different geometrical figures could be 
produced, by changing the position of only a thousand cubical, or tri- 
angular blocks of wood. 

2. By this illustration, it is true, that the" pyramidal terminations, 
the rhombs, &c. would not present smooth faces, because the angles 
of our wooden blocks might project ; but had we the power of see- 
ing and feeling the integrant particles, of which crystals are compos- 
ed, it is not probable that a single mineral with which we are ac- 
quanted, would appear smooth. 

§ 25. The obvious structure of a mineral, as shown 
by its fracture, or cleavage, is a character of consider- 
able importance, in descriptive mineralogy. 

Obs, 1. It has been stated, (22) that the structure of a mineral 
depended on the shape, and arrangement of the particles, of which it 
is formed. What we mean by obvious structure, is such as result in 
the arrangement of these particles, as to produce characters which 
we can perceive by the sight or touch. For example, in some min- 
erals, this arrangement is such as to produce j£6m, in others lamina, 
in others grains, &c. In each of these cases, where this arrange- 
ment is constant, it becomes a known characteristic of the mineral! 
and is employed in describing it. 

§ 26. The natural joints of a crystal, and consequently 
the direction in which it can be mechanically divided, 
are dependent on its structure. 



INTRODUCTION. XXVII 

Obs. Some 'minerals possess natural joints, in only one direction! 
others in two, and others in three directions. 

§ 27. The following kinds, or varieties of structure, are 
noticed in the descriptions of minerals. 

Obs. 1. Fibrdus structure. This structure evidently arises from 
the presence of small elongated crystals. The fracture presents a 
surface, composed of fibres, or threads, running in various directions. 
Sometimes, as in bysolite and amianthus, these threads are so fine, 
as scarcely to be individually distinguished ; in other cases, as in 
actynolite, they are a line or more broad, and gradually pass into the 
foliated structure. Sometimes, the fibres are so closely arranged, as 
to make the mineral appear compact, as in satin-spar and tremolite. 

§ 28. In descriptive language, several distinctions 
are made, in respect to the relative directions in which 
the fibres are arranged. 

Parallel, when they run straight, as in Tremolite. Diverging, 
when they shoot off in different directions, as in fibrous Hornblende. 

Stellated, or Radiated, when they diverge from a common point in 
all directions, as in Wavellite, Brown Hamatite. 

Promiscuous, when they cross each other in all directions, as in 
compact plumose Antimony. Fasciculated, when collected into bun- 
dles as in Arroganite. 

2. Foliated structure. This structure exists in such minerals as 
present smooth shining faces when cleaved, or fractured. They are 
composed of layers or leaves closely incumbent on each other, as in 
Mica, Talc, Orpiment. 

Laminated or Lamellar, when the layers are not so thin, and easi- 
ly separable as in the foliated, but still present plane polished surfa- 
ces, as in Felspar, Galena, Cyanite. 

Where the faces exposed by cleavage are extensive, it is called 
broad foliated. The state of the surface is also noticed, as whether 
the folia are straight and smooth, curved, undulated, or indeterminate. 

The degrees of perfection in this structure, are perfectly foliated, 
when the broad shining folia are easily separable, as in Seleniteand 
Mica. 

Imperfectly foliated, when the surface is undulating, or rough, as 
in Argentine, Native Antimony. 

3. Bladed structure. This may be considered intermediate be- 
tween fibrous and foliated. It appears to be the result of imperfect, 
or compressed crystallization. The crystals are commonly long and 
narrow, resembling the blade of a knife, as in one variety of Tremo- 
lite. 

4. Slaty structure. This is nearly allied to the laminated ; but the 
layers are thicker and more extensive, and want the shining lustre of 
the foliated structure. This structure exists in depositions, rather 
than in crystals. The surfaces may be undulated, curved, or straight, 
as in clay-slate, roof slate, and some varieties of indurated clay. 

5. Granular structure. This arises from the aggregation of small 



XXVIII INTRODUCTION. 

particles into grains, which are again united into masses. The frac- 
ture of this structure, presents a surface which is uneven and rough 
to the touch, as in Coccolite, Sandstone. 

6 Compact structure. When the grains are so fine as not readily to 
be distinguished toy the eye, it is compact, as in Jasper, Cornelian. 

14. FRACTURE. 

§ 28. By fracture is understood, the forcible sepa- 
ration of a mineral into parts, without attention to its 
structure, or natural joints. 

Obs. Every mineral can be fractured, whether it is cleavable or 
not. Cleavage separates the specimen at the natural joints, fracture 
forces it asunder in any direction. 

§ 29. The faces produced by breaking a mineral, 
are called faces of fracture, ana it is found that their 
faces differ greatly in respect to direction, aspect and 
smoothness, in the different species, hence for descrip- 
tive purposes, fracture is divided into varieties, or 
kinds. 

1. Conchoidal fracture. When it appears as though the face of the 
mineral was scooped out, resembling the inside of a shell. The out- 
er edges of this fracture, and sometimes the whole concavity are wa- 
ved, being surrounded with small risings and depressions, from the 
point where the specimen is struck to the diameter. The fracture 
is said to be flat, when the concavity is shallow ; deep when the de- 
pression is great in comparison with its extent. It is also perfect, im- 
perfect, large or small. Flint, Cornelian, and Semi-Opal, are good 
examples of conchoidal fracture. 

2 Splintery fracture. When the pieces struck off are straight, 
thin, and nearly flat, in the form of scales, the fracture is called splin- 
tery. Sometimes the scales, or wedge-shaped pieces, adhere by the 
thicker ends, to the specimen, and allow light to pass through them, 
so that we can decide whether it is coarse, or fine splintery. None 
but compact minerals have this fracture, as Quartz. Flint. Jade. 
Hornstone. 

3. Even fracture. This is the kind of fracture that shews the few- 
est inequalities, the faces being more or less plane and smooth. It 
passes into flat, conchoidal, and splintery. Ex. Compact Galena. 
Flint. 

4. Uneven fracture. The faces of this kind, display angular eleva- 
tions and depressions ; their size depending on the coarseness or fine- 
ness, of the grain of the mineral. Hence the distinctions, coarse 
grained uneven, as in Granite, and fine grained uneven, as in Sand- 
stone. 

5. Earthy fracture. This is applied to such minerals as shew 
many small deviations, and depressions, without the angular form. 
It occurs in opake, dull minerals only, as Indurated Clay, Chalk, Spc. 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX. 

6. Hackly fracture. This consists of small inequalities which are 
sharp and rough to the touch. It is peculiar to the metals, as Native 
Copper , Native Iron. 

15. FRANGIBILITY. 

§ 30. By this term is meant the resistance which 
minerals offer to fracture, or the forcible separation of 
their particles. It has no relation to hardness, or clea- 
vage. 

Obs. The distinction will be understood by an example. Quartz, 
is much harder than hornblende, or jade, and yet a blow that would 
shiver quartz to atoms, would hardly effect either of the others. 

The degrees of frangibility, or toughness, are, very tough as in Na- 
tive Copper, Jade ; tough, as in Serpentine, Hornstont ; moderately 
tough, as in Flint , Jusper ; brittle, as in Opal, Fluor Spar ; very 
brittle,**} in Galena, Tremolite. 

16. SHAPE OF THE FRAGMENTS. 

§ 31. If we take specimens of several species of min- 
erals, and give each such a blow with a hammer, as to 
break, or separate it into parts, it will be found that the 
fragments differ greatly in respect to shape. Hence 
the shape of the fragments, is sometimes noticed in de- 
scribing minerals. 

Obs. In minerals which are easily separated at their natural joints, 
a blow with the hammer, has all the effects of cleavage, and the min- 
eral breaks into regular forms. Thus, Common Salt separates into 
cubes. Rhombic Spar, into rhombs, and Asbestus and Bituminous 
wood, into splinters, &c. But where the mineral has no natural 
joints, or is not easily separable in any particular direction, the frag- 
ments are irregular in their shapes, and their edges only are noticed. 
Thus, some are sharp edged, as Flint, and Obsidium ; or blunt edged, 
as in Soap stone, and Gypsum. 

17. SURFACE. 

§ 32. This character refers to the external surface 
of the mineral, or the surface of what are called dis- 
tinct concretions, and not to the faces brought to view by 
fracture. 

Of this character, several varieties are mentioned, viz. smooth, as 
in Heamatite, Stalactite ; streaked longitudinally, as in Schorl; 
or transversely, as in Quartz ; drusy, when the surface is covered 
with minute crystals, as in Stalactical Quartz. 



XXX INTRODUCTION* 

18. TOUCH. 

§ 33. There is much difference in respect to the feel- 
ing of minerals, even in their rough state, and in cer- 
tain instances, this is an important character. 

Obs. The varieties of this character, are as follow. Unctuous as 
Talc, Soapstone ; smooth, as Mica, Selinite , meagre, or dry, as 
Chalk ; rough, as CoccoUte ; harsh, as Tremolite. 

19 COLDNESS. 

34. Different minerals, with smooth faces, when 
exposed to the same temperature, convey different de- 
grees of coldness to the touch. 

Obs. This difference, obviously depends on the various powers 
which substances possess of conducting caloric. Thus a metal feels 
cold because it conducts caloric from the hand, while a piece of wood, 
having no such power, conveys no such sensation- Compactness, or 
specific gravity, seems to have more or lees, the same effect among 
minerals. Jasper, and agate, are evidently colder than limestone, 
and gypsum. The gems, as topaz, amethyst, ruby, &c. can be in- 
stantly distinguished from their imitations in colored glass, by then- 
greater coldness, when touched to the lip, or tongue. Quartz, can 
be distinguished from paste, in the same way. 

20. ODOR. 

§ 35. This character applies only to a few species, 
as most minerals have no smell at all. When, howev- 
er, it does exist, it is generally a decisive character. 

Obs. When a mineral is heated, and emits the aUiaceoas, or gar- 
lic odor, it is a decisive indication of arsenic. The odors observed 
in minerals, are, fetid, as in Swinestone ; bituminous as in Shale, 
when it is struck ; argillaceous, as in Moistened Clay, Chlorite, Clay- 
Slate ; sulphureous, as in the Sulphurets, when under the blowpipe. 

21. TASTE 

§ 36. This character is very limited, as it applies 
only to such minerals as are soluble in water. 

Obs. The taste may be saline as in Nitre ; astringent as in Alum, 
Green, and Blue Vitriol; urinous, as in Salamoniac. 

22. ADHESION TO THE TONGUE. 

§ 37. This character exists in dry porous minerals, 
which have a disposition to imbibe moisture. 

Obs. In most instances these are argillaceous substances, as Litho- 
marge, Cimoline, Pipe Clay, Sometimes, also, substances in a de- 
composing state, adhere, as Cacholong, Hydrophane, 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

23. SOIL OR STAIN. 

§ 38. Some minerals, when handled, soil the fingers, 
and when rubbed on paper, leave a trace. 

Obs. In a few instances, the trace differs in color, from the appar- 
ent color of the mineral, and in this way, may be a distinctive char- 
acter, as in Sulphur et of Molybdena. 

24. STREAK. 

§ 39. By this character* is meant the streak or pow- 
der, which is left on the softer minerals after being 
scratched with a sharp point, or with a knife. It is ap- 
plied cliefly to the softer minerals and ores. 

Obs. In some minerals, the streak is similar in color to the mineral, 
as in Chalk, whitt Marble. In others it is dissimilar, as in dark Specu- 
lar Oxide of Iron, the streak or powder is red ; in brown Roof slate, it 
is white. In most instances, the streak is paler than the mineral. 

25. HARDNESS. 

§ 40, This is an important character, and therefore, is 
rery generally used in descriptions. It is that pro- 

f>erty in the mineral, by which it resists impressions, 
t therefore, must be in proportion to the force with 
which the integrant particles cohere. It differs en- 
tirely from frangibility. which regards a separation of 
the grosser particles. Thus, a piece of quartz which 
is broken with a slight blow from the hammer, will 
scratch hornblende, which is broken with great diffi- 
culty. The hornblende, therefore, has the greatest 
tenacity, while the quartz has the greatest hardness. 

Obs. 1 . It is only by comparison, that the degrees of hardness can 
be ascertained. The common mode, therefore, is to take a few, well 
known substances, as standards of comparison, and Quartz and Glass, 
are most frequently employed for this purpose. Thus Quartz, 
Agate, Flint, Chalcedony, and the other minerals about the hardness 
quartz, scratch glass. Corundum, sapphire, ruby, hyacinth, and 
other minerals, scratch quartz ; it being understood that such sub- 
stances as scratch quartz, are not to be compared with glass. 

2. Minerals which do not scratch glass generally yield to the knife, 
as Marble, Fluor, Galena, and others. It is, however, requisite to dis- 
tinguish whether they are scratched with ease, or with difficulty. 
Thus Felspar, which is about as hard as glass, yields to the knife with 
difficulty, while Marble yields with ease. 

3. A still lower degree of hardness, than those compared with the 
knife, are such as yield to the nail. For this purpose, the thumb nail 
is used. Gypsum, Talc, and most of the Clays, yield to the nail. 



XXXII IHTRODUCTIOW. 

4. Giving sparks with steel, is another test of hardness. This, 
however, is perhaps a less certain mode than either of those mention- 
ed above. The common flint, though less hard than many other bo- 
dies, is said to make by far the best gun flints, and to give more co- 
pious scintilationsthan even sapphiie. 

' 5. The file is also used as a test of hardness, and in polished spe- 
cimens, where we wish to distinguish real stones from imitations, it 
is the best instrument For this purpose, it should be of the finest 
kind. All imitations are easily marked with it, while stones no har- 
der than quartz, require force to make the least impression. 

26. TENACITY. 

§ 4 1. This property belongs to the native, malleable, 
or ductile metals, and in consequence of it, we are en- 
abled to hammer them into plates, and draw them into 
wire. 

Obs. Native Gold, Silver and Copper, are examples. 
27. sectility. 

§ 42. A substance is called seetile, when it can be cut 
without flying in pieces. 

Gypsum, Talc, Clay, are examples. 

28. ELECTRICITY. 

§43. Several minerals produce electrical phenome- 
na ; some of them by friction, others by pressure, and 
others by heat. Some are electric of themselves ; oth- 
ers are conductors of electricity. These phenomena, 
may be usefully applied as characters of minerals. 

Obs. 1. There are two kinds of elictricity, viz. positive and nega- 
tive, called also vitreous and resinous. When two substances possess 
the same kind of electricity, on being brought together, they repel 
each other. If one is positive, and the other negative, they attract 
each other. 

2. A considerable number of minerals, become electric by rube 
bing them on the dry hand, or on a piece of silk, woollen cloth, or 
fur A small number become electric by being heated. These are 
called pyro-electric. A curious property, observed in some pyro«elec- 
tric crystals, is, that they acquire the positive electricity at oue end, 
and the negative at the other, at the same time. In most cases, such 
crystals terminate in a different number of faces at each end, and it 
is also a remarkable fact, that the end having the greatest number of 
faces, is positive. If the terminations arealike, the crystal seldom 
acquires electricity at all. The substance which best displays these 
properties, is Tourmaline, 

3. In most instances, stones and salts, with smooth surfaces, ao 
quire positive electricity by friction. Examples are found in Quartz, 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIll 

Mica, Sapphire, Barytes, 4fc. If they hare rough surfaces, they ac- 
quire negative electricity, by the same process. 

4. For observing the electricity of minerals, the simple electrome- 
ter represented by the figure, is recommended by the Abbe Hauy, and 
is thus described by Prof. Cleveland. 




" In this figure, a. b. is a needle of copper, terminated at each ex- 
tremity, by a small ball, and moving very easily on a pivot in the cen- 
tre. At c. the instrument has a metallic base. If a mineral, which 
has been excited, either by friction or heat, be presented near to one 
of the balls, the needle turns, whether it be positive or negative ; and 
the force of the electricity way be estimated by the distance at which 
the needle begins to move. To determine the kind of electricity a 
mineral possesses, the needle must previously be electrified, either 
positively or negatively ; which may be done in the following man- 
ner. Let the instrument be insulated by placing it on rf, a plate of 
glass or resin. Having excited a tube of glass, or a stick of sealing 
wax, place one finger on the metallic base c. of the electrometer, and 
then bring the excited glass or sealing wax e. within a small distance 
of one of the balls of the needle. When the needle is sufficiently 
electrified, first withdraw the finger, and then remove the glass, or 
sealing wax. If now an excited mineral be presented to the needle, 
they will repel, or attract each other according as they possess the 
same, or opposite kinds of electricity. But as the electricity of the 
needle is known, that of the mineral may be determined." — Cleve- 
land's Mineralogy. 

5. In respect to the production of electrical phenomena by pres- 
sure, M. Hauy states, that if a thin rhombic plate of carbonate of lime, 
be insulated, and pressed upon its two broader surfaces, it acquires 
positive electricity, which sometimes continues for several days. It 
appears that this property is possessed only by transparent crystalliz- 
ed substances, which can be cleaved into thin laminae, as Iceland 
Spar, Mica, &c. 

29. MAGNETISM. 

§ 44. The magnetic property belongs to the metals, ^ 
iron, and nicketfofAy. As a descriptive character, OcisC 
it is confined here to iron only, and is of great use in 
distinguishing the ores of this metal, from others. 

Obs. 1 . The magnetic property is weakened, and in many in- 
stances entirely destroyed, by a natural combination of oxygen, sul- 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

phur, or arsenic with the iron. Thus several of the Oxides, the 
Siilphuret, and the Arseniate of Iron ^re not magnetic, unless previ- 
ously heated so strongly as to deprive them of a part of their oxygen, 
sulphur, or arsenic. 

2 In examining the magnetism of minerals, the magnetic needle 
should turn with great delicacy, and its power be only just sufficient 
to give it polarity, otherwise it will not be effected by minerals of low 
attractive powers. 

3. Minerals suspected to contain iron, which are not magnetic, 
must always be subjected to the blowpipe, before the fact can be as- 
certained. If they are oxides, a little oil, or tallow, on the charcoal 
with them, will assist to extract the oxygen. 

4. Any person, by bending a common knitting needle, so that it 
may be suspended on the point of a sewing needle, and touching the 
end of the first with a magnet, can construct an apparatus sufficient 
for trying the magnetism of minerals. 

30. SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 

§ 45. Specific gravity, is the weight of one body, com- 
pared with that of another body, of equal bulk. The 
mode of ascertaining the specific gravity of a substance, 
depends on the form in which it occurs. If it is a solid, 
heavier than water, it is first weighed in that fluid, and 
then in the air, and the ratio of difference, is the spe- 
cific gravity. If it is a fluid, a certain quantity of water 
is weighed ; and then exactly the same quantity of the 
fluid, whose specific gravity we wish to ascertain, is 
weighed, and the ratio of difference, is its specific gra- 
vity. 

Obs. 1. In the first place, the student must understand that the 
specific gravity of a body is its weight, when compared with the 
weight of water, of an equal bulk. Thus, when we say that the dia- 
mond has a sp. gr. of 4, we mean that it is 4 times as heavy as a 
quanity of water, of the same bulk with the diamond. 

2. Water, therefore, is the unit, or standard of comparison, and 
has in this respect, a sp. gr. of 1, 100, or 1000, the decimals being 
added as far as the case requires. A cubic foot of distilled water, 
weighs 1000 avoirdupois ounces, if then a cubic foot of silver weighs 
9000 ounces, the sp. gr. of silver is 9, that of water being 1. 

§ 46 If a body is suspended in water, and weighed, 
its weight will be diminished, by exactly the weight of 
a quantity of water equal to its bulk. 

Obs. The reason of this is obvious, for if the body was not, bulk, 
for bulk, heavier than the water, it would not displace the fluid, so as 
to sink ; but if it does sink, its decrease of weight must be just equal to 
the quantity of water it displaces. Archemides made use of this prin- 
ciple, to discover that Hiero's gold crown, was alloyed with silver. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

§ 47. It is on the above principle, that Nichahons 
Portable Balance, for taking specific gravities is con- 
structed. 



Obs. 1. The construction of this instrument, will be understood by 
reference to the figure. The body, is a hollow cylinder of tinned 
iron, or varnished copper, terminated at each extremity, a 6 by a cone. 
From the vertex of the upper cone, rises the small stem of brass or 
copper, a, c, bearing on its upper extremity, the small tin cup, d. 
This cup slips on, and may be removed, when the instrument is not 
in use, or for carriage. From the point of the lower cone, is suspen- 
ded the tin cup e, at the bottom of which is attached the cone of lead 
g t which is so heavy, as to sink the whole instrument, nearly to the 
upper cone. 

2. Before the balance is used, it must be placed in a vessel of water, 
and the upper cup loaded with weights, until it sinks so far as that a 
mark near a, on the stem, coincides exactly with the surface of the 
water. The weights so added, are called the balance weights, and 
their amount may be marked on the cup, as a given quantity for future 
use ; suppose this is 900 grains. 

3. Every thing being thus prepared, the specific gravity of a min- 
eral is ascertained as follows. Place the mineral in the upper cup, 
and add weights until the mark on the stem coincides with the wa- 
ter's surface. Suppose this to be 400 grains. Subtract this from the 
whole balance weight, which will leave 500 grains for the weight of 
the mineral in the air. Then remove the mineral to the lower cup, 
and it will be found that the stem will rise above the mark, because it 
weighs less in water, than in air; weights must therefore be added in 
the upper cup, until the mark on the stem, is again brought to the 
surface of the water. Suppose this is 100 grains, which will be ex- 
actly the weight of water displaced by the mineral. We then haie 
500 grains, for the absolute weight of the mineral, and 100, for the 
absolute weight of the water ; then say, as 100, the weight of the wa- 
ter displaced, is to 500, the weight of the mineral, so is 1000, the 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 

standard weight of water, to the specific, gravity of the mineral— 
100 : 500 : : 1000=5 sp. gravity. 

3. If the mineral is lighter than water, it must be tied in the lower 
cup, with a hair, or fine thread. The mineral solids of this kind, are 
however, very few. Amber, and Asphaltum, are both heavier than 
water. 

§ 48. If the substance, whose specific gravity is to 
be taken, is a fluid, another method is used. 

Obs. Take a small bottle, with a thin neck, and weigh it accurate- 
ly ; then put into the bottle, just 1000 grains of pure water, and mark 
with a file on the neck, the exact level of the water. The bottle thai 
prepared, will serve to take the specific gravity of any fluid ; for hav- 
ing ascertained the eiact quantity of water by the mark on the neck, 
which it takes to weigh 1000 grains, the weight of the same measure 
of any other fluid, is by comparison, its specific gravity. Thus, sup- 
pose, on filling the vial with sulphuric acid up to the mark, that its 
weight should be 1800 grains, instead of 1000, then, the sp. gr. of sul- 
phuric acid, would be 1.8; water being one'. If filled with alcohol, 
it might weigh 700 grains, then the sp. gr. of alcohol, would be 700, 
water being 1000. 

31. PHOSPHORESCENCE. 

§ 49. Phosphorescence, is the emission of light, 
without apparent heat, or, of an extraordinary quantity 
of light, by the aid of heat 

Obs. Four kinds of phosphorescence may be mentioned, viz. 

1. When the emission of light, unattended by heat, is constant, as 
from Putrifyina Fish, and Decaying Wood. 

2. When it depends on percussion, or friction ; as when two pie- 
ces of Quartz are struck together, or a piece of Blende or Dolomite is 
scratched with a sharp point. 

3. Where the light is thrown off at a degree of heat, below that of 
redness, as in Fluor, Spar, Chlorophane, Argentine, and many others. 

4. Where there is a glowing emission of light, when the substance 
is heated to redness, as in many varieties of the Carbonate of Lime. 

Obs. 2. Phosphorescence, although a curious, and often a very inter- 
esting property, is of no great use as a descriptive character, because 
it is not constant, even in those minerals, where it is most frequently 
found. Even some varieties of Fluor, are said not to phosphoresce. 
3. The best way to shew this property, in Fluor, Chlorophane, &pc. 
is to heat a shovel red hot, and carry it into the dark immediately. 
As the shovel looses its red heat, sprinkle on the mineral, in powder, 
or small grains. 

32. DOUBLE REFRACTION. 

§ 50. It is known to almost every one, that when the 
rays of light pass from one medium into another, t)f a 
different density, that they are refracted, or bent out of 



INTRODUCTION, XXXVil 

ft straight line. In the instance under consideration, the 
rays of light are not only refracted in the ordinary man- 
ner, but are divided into two distinct parts, in their 
passage through the medium, so as to present double 
the usual number of images to the eye. 

Obs. 1. This extraordinary phenomenon was first discovered by 
Erasmus Bartholinus* who, having looked through a transparent 
piece of Rhombic Carbonate of Lime, from Iceland, was greatly sur- 
prised, to observe that it doubled every object. 

2. The ready philosophy of Bartholinus, accounted for this phe- 
nomenon, by supposing that the cold of northern climates, so far from 
weakening, concentrated rajs of light, and gave them such additional 
energy, as to produce two images, instead of one. m Thus grounding 
his explanation, on the presumption, that minerals possessing this 
property, belonged to cold climates only. 

3. Whether this explanation satisfied any one, except the author, 
is not known ; it was however soon found, that climate had no effect 
on the refractive powers of rhombic spar, but that the images were 
doubled, from whatever country it came. 

§ 51. The cause of double refraction, has excited the 
attention of philosophers arid naturalists, ever since its 
discovery. Huygejis, and Newton, each made a labo- 
rious series of experiments on it, without arriving to any 
satisfactory results, and Hauy, has more recently writ- 
ten twenty pages on the 6ame subject. These facts 
shew the difficulty of explaining this phenomenon, and 
that its cause is not to be demonstrated by any simple 
process. 

Obs. 1 . To observe double refraction in Iceland spar, draw a line 
with ink, on paper, and look at it, through any two parallel faces of 
the crystal. If the crystal be turned, so that its longer diagonal, or 
acute angles correspond with the line, the greatest refraction will be 
produced, and the two images will be most distant from each other. 
If a second piece of spar be laid on the first, so that their positions 
shall correspond in every respect, the refraction will be increased, or 
doubled, if both crystals are of the same thickness. If now the upper 
crystal be made to revolve on the lower one, so as to bring the obtuse 
augles of the first, with the acute angles of the other, three lines will 
be observed, instead of two ; and if the revolution be continued, so 
as to completely reverse the angles, and the oblique planes of the 
crystals, the effect will be, entirely to neutralize the doubly refractive 
powers of both, and only a single image will be seen. 

2. If a crystal be placed so as to make its obtuse angles correspond 

♦ Bartholinus published an account of his experiments on the Iceland crys- 
tals, and dedicated bis book to Frederick of Prussia. 



XXXVlil INTRODUCTION. 

with the line, only one image will be observed. The axis of doable 
refraction, therefore, is though the shorter diagonal of the crystal. 

Many other curious phenomena may be observed with this sub- 
stance, and particularly, by using a circle, instead of a line. 

3. It will be remarked that in the rhomb spar, the doable refrac- 
tion is always through two parallel faces, for notwithstanding the ob- 
liquity of contiguous faces, the two opposite planes are always paral- 
lel with each other. 

4. In making trials on this curious subject, the experimenter, must 
take care not to deceive himself, by viewing the object through con- 
tiguous, inclined faces ; in which case, the images would be in pro- 
portion to the number of faces. For instance, if a crystal of quartz 
be placed over a dot, or line, at a certain distance from its pyramidal 
termination, and the object be viewed perpendicularly through two 
parallel sides, as is done with Iceland spar, only one image will be 
seen ; but if the crystal be moved, so that the dot is brought within 
the refracting sphere of its lateral, and terminal planes, six images 
will be seen, viz. one through each of the three upper lateral planes, 
and as many through the terminal planes. 

This is ordinary refraction, and is common to all transparent sub- 
stances, when cut and polished with inclined contiguous planes. 

§ 52. Besides Iceland spar, there is one other sub- 
stance which has the property of double refraction, 
through opposite parallel planes. This is sulphur. 

Obs. 1. If a small, perfect crystal of native sulphur, be shaped 
with a file, or by other means, into the form of a table, or cube, and 1 
polished,* it will be found to possess this property, in the same man* 
Her that the Iceland spar does, and nearly in as high a degree. 

2. If one side of the crystal, be taken off, much more than another, 
that is, if it be divided through its axis, and an object viewed through 
the one half, it will be found doubly refractive, through certain paral- 
lel faces, but not through others. 

3. If the side of a large crystal be employed for this purpose, no 
doubly refractive effect will be produced, at least the writer lias not 
been able to observe any. 

4. But if a crystal be shaped into the form of a cube, by reducing 
its several diameters equally, so as to approach an imaginary point at 
its centre, it will then present the phenomenon of double refraction, 
through any, or all of its parallel pi awes. 

5. These different phenomena, probably depend on the presence, 
or absence of the primitive form, or a part of it, in the piece of sol* 
phur artificially shaped. In the Iceland spar, no such difference is 
produced, because the actual form of the piece employed, and its 
primitive, are the same. 

6. Carbonate of Lime and Sulphur, are perhaps the only two substan- 
ces which are doubly refractive, through two parallel faces. A con- 
siderable number of other minerals possess this property, but in a less 
degree, and through faces, not parallel to each other. Quartz, Zircon, 

* This may easily be done, with prepared cbalk, or whiting on a cotton rag. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

Topaz, and Sulphate of Strontian, are doubly refractive, when the 
object is viewed through certain inclined planes ; but in the Topaz, 
and Strontian, it is necessary to form an artificial face, in addition to 
the natural ones, in order to observe this property. 

§ 53. In quartz, double refraction may be observed by 
careful attention, through two natural faces. 

Obs. 1 . Take a transparent crystal between the thumb and finger, 
and holding it vertically between the eye and the window, place a 
thin object, as a pin, horizontally, across the lateral plane nearest 
the window, then view the pin through the plane of the pyramid, 
which corresponds with the lateral plane, opposite to the one across 
which the pin is placed Now by watching the pin carefully, and 
making the crystal revolve on it backwards and forwards, as on an 
axis, a second image will finally be seen, rising from the first, or ap- 
proaching it from towards the apex of the crystal, attended with a 
kind of iridescence. 

2. In making this experiment, we must avoid seeing the pin through 
the contiguous lateral plane, as well as through that of the pyramid, 
in which case, two perfect images would be observed, but the refrac- 
tion would be ordinary, and common to all transparent bodies. 

3. Quartz, has been selected as an example in this instance, be- 
cause it is a common mineral, and does not require cutting in order 
to observe its doubly refractive property. 

4. To observe it in Sulphate of Strontian, make an artificial plane, 
by cutting the crystal transversely through its axis, and perpendicular 
to its lateral planes. Having nicely polished this new face, hold the 
crystal in a horizontal position, between the eye and the light, and 
look at the pin, held across the new face, through one of the terminal 
planes of the crystal. By turning the crystal backwards and forwards 
slowly, and carefully, the double image can be discovered. 

5. These examples are, perhaps, sufficient for the purposes of this 
work ; but a great proportion of crystallized transparent minerals 
possess this property, when the object is viewed through certain fa- 
ces, probably depending on the presence, shape, or position of the 
primitive form. 

33. CRYSTALLIZATION. 

§ 54. Every mineral, whose external surface is bound- 
ed, by a determinate number of planes, which meet and 
form determinate angles, is called a crystal. - 

Obs. 1. For the purpose of describing crystals, it is necessary that 
definite terms should be employed, and that their application should 
be accurately understood. In an other place (§ 14) we have seen, 
what is understood by primitive forms. In the present instance it is 
intended to give such an explanation of the terms employed in de- 
scribing crystals, as that their meaning and application may be under- 
stood. 

2. These terms are intended to apply to the actual, or external 
forms only, 



XL INTRODUCTION. 

34. FUNDAMENTAL FORMS. 

§ 55. By the fundamental or predominant forms of crys- 
tals, is meant the simplest forms under which they arc 
found, or the geomotrical figures which they most ap- 
poximate. 

Obs. 1. Take, for instance, and form a cube of wood with a knife. 
It is now a simple form, with six faces, eight solid angles, and twelve 
edges. Now cut off each of the corners, or solid angles, and we shall 
have a figure bounded by fourteen faces ; but still the fundamental 
form would be the cube, because a part of all the original six sides of 
that figure remain, and it still approaches nearer the form of a cube, 
than any other geometrical figure, with which the mind is familiar. 
The cube therefore would be its fundamental form. 

2. Now, it is by no means supposed, that nature works as we do — 
and first makes the cube, and then truncates its angles ; but the same 
idea of the figure is conveyed to the mind, as though this were actu- 
ally done, and an idea of it, can in this way be conveyed to others, 
which answers every object in view. 

3. The advantage of this method, it will be seen, is, that by pre- 
supposing a figure, whose name conveys a definite shape to the mind, 
we have something with which to compare the general shape of the 
crystal. Thus, should an attempt be made to describe a figure, by 
saying it had fourteen sides, a part of which were triangular, a part 
square, with a certain number of edges, angles, &c. the description 
would not only be exceedingly prolix, but could never be well under- 
stood. But by describing it as a cube, in the first place, the mind of 
every one comprehends what figure is meant, and then by striking off 
the solid angles, we at once gain an idea of the form which we wish 
to describe, and which nature actually produces. It is to the cele- 
brated Werner, that we are indebted for this method of describing 
crystals. 

§ 56. The fundamental forms admitted by Werner, 
are seven, viz. the Prism, Hexahedron, Pyramid, Dodeca- 
hedron, Icosahedron, Table, and Lens. 

1. Prism. This has any number of sides, 
or lateral faces, from three to twelve, or 
more. The prism is usually long, and ter- 
minated by a pyramid, as in Quartz, Jig, 1. 
where a is the prism, and b the pyramid. Or 
it may be very short, as in^. 2. where c 
is the prism, interposed between the two py- 
mids, d and/. Crystals of Quartz, often 
occur of this figure. 
% Hexahedron. This is a six-sided figure, having six planes, and 
eight solid angles. It includes the cube, and rhomb, and also- the 
double three-si4ed. pyramid. It is not uncommon. Carbonate of 
Lime, often takes all these forms. 
3. Pyramid. This, like the prism, has an indeterminate number 




INTRODUCTION. XLI 

* 

of sides, but they converge, and terminate in a point. The pyramid, 
is often set on a prism ; but sometimes two pyramids are joined to- 
gether, base to base. In fig. 2, a very short prism intervenes between 
the two pyramids. 

4. Dodecahedron. This figure has twelve faces, either rhombic, or 
pentagonal ; and twenty solid angles. Good examples are found in 
Garnet, and Iron Pyrites. 

5. lcasohedron. This is a solid, contained under twenty triangu- 
lar planes, and twelve solid angles ; so that each solid angle is formed 
by the meeting of five planes. 

6. Table. This is a very short prism. It has two very broad faces, 
when compared with the others. Thus, in fig. 2, if the two pyra- 
mids were deeply truncated, so as to leave the short intervening 
prism, the remaining figure would be a six-sided table. Sulphate of 
Barytes, and Mica, are examples. 

7. Lens. This figure has two principal curved faces, as in Lenti- 
cular Oxide of Iron. 

33. DESCRIPTION OP CRYSTALS. 

§ 57. By the inspection of crystals as they are form- 
ed by nature, it will be found, that the above described 
fundamental forms, exist under a vast variety and num- 
ber, of modifications. It therefore becomes necessary, 
that the terms employed to designate the different 
parts of these solids, with their modifications should be 
explained, and illustrated. 

1. Lateral Planes, are the faces, sides, or planes, of prismatic 
crystals, as a, fig. 1. 

2. Terminal Planes, are the faces, or planes, which form the ex- 
tremities of prismatic crystals. They are sometimes called the bases 
of the prism, as b, fig. 1. 

Lateral Edges, are formed by the junction of two lateral planes, or 
sides of the prism. 

4. Terminal Edges, are formed by the meeting of lateral and ter- 
minaal planes. 

5. A Pyramid, is formed, when the lateral faces, and edges meet 
at a point, as d, fig. 2. 

Obs. 1. If now the pupil will for a moment leave his book, and ob- 
tain a piece of soil wood, and a penknife, he can get a better illustra- 
tion of the above terms, than could be given by diagrams. 

2. Form the wood into a square piece, say, two inches long, and 
half an inch in diameter ; then, at one end, form a pyramid, the faces 
of which, shall correspond with each side of the square ; also cut off 
the other end of the wood, at right angles with its sides. 

3. We now have a four-sided prism terminated by a four-sided py- 
ramid, the faces of whfch, are set on the lateral faces of the prism. 
The laterals planes, are the long and broad sides of the prism, — the 
lateral edges, are the four corners, formed by the meeting of these 
planes, — the terminal plane, is the square base at the end, opposite the 
pyramid, — the terminal edges, are the four edges, formed by the meet- 



XLII INTRODUCTION. 

ing of the terminal, and lateral planet; and the pyramid, is formed, 
by the meeting of the four lateral edges, and planes, at a point. 

§ 58. Truncation. By this term is meant, that certain 
edges, or angles of the fundamental form, are cut off; 
and though, as has been observed, this is not so, yet 
the appearance of the crystal, and the idea we wish to 
convey, is the same as though this had actually been 
the case. 

Obs. 1. Truncation, is applied to the edges and solid angles of 
crystals. It may be so deep, as entirely to change their forms, or so 
slight, as only to be observed on close inspection. 

2. If we take our four-sided prism, and shave off two of its lateral 
edges, so as to make two narrow lateral planes, opposite to each other, 
we shall then have an irregular six-sided prism, with four broad, and 
two narrow lateral planes. These two edges are now truncated, or 
replaced by planes, and we have six lateral edges, two of which are 
right angled, and four obtuse. 

3. If we truncate the two remaining lateral edges, we shall have 
an eight-sided prism, with equal angles, and equal lateral planes. 

§ 59. Bevelment. This, like truncation, is applied to 
the edges and angles of the crystal.- It consists of a 
double truncation on the same edge, or angle ; the ef- 
fect of which is to produce two small planes, and three 
obtuse angles, in place of one edge, or angle. 

Obs. Suppose we have a prism of three equal sides, and three 
equal acute angles, if we bevel one of the angles, we produce two new 
faces instead of the angle, and by continuing the bevelment on all the 
angles, we change the figure into a prism, of nine sides, because ait 
new sides would be formed, and three would remain as a part of the 
fundamental prism. Common Schorl, is an example of this kind of 
bevelment. 

§ 60. It has already been remarked, (§ 58) that the 
changes produced on crystalline forms, by truncation, 
differ according to its degree, or depth. It has also 
been noticed, (§2 1 and 22,) that by cleavage, one form 
may be converted into another, entirely different. Now 
the passage of one form into another, may be consider- 
ted in another light, viz. that it is the effect of trunca- 
tion. 

Obs. 1. Suppose we form of cork or wood, two figures, one a regu- 
lar octohedron, and the other a cube, each of an inch in diameter. 
The cube has eigbt corners, or solid angles. Suppose with a knife, 
we take off each of these solid angles slightly, it is still a cube with 
truncated angles. But suppose this operation be continued, until 



INTRODUCTION. XL III 

every vestage of the original cube disappears, it will then be found 
that we have formed a regular octohedron. 

2. The octohedron, has six solid angles. Suppose we begin with 
the octohedron, and take equal segments, in succession from each of 
these angles, the two opposite faces so formed being parallel, until itt 
original faces disappear, the result will be a perfect cube. (See §20 
&21) 

§61. The same operation, will produce modifica- 
tions of the fundamental form, in exact imitation of nat- 
ural forms, in a great variety of other cases. 

Obs. 1. Thus if segments be taken from the twelve edges of the 
octohedron, so as to produce twelve new faces, the dodecahedron with 
twelve rhombic planes, will be the result. If a cube be deeply trun- 
cated on all its edges, a pentagonal dodecahedron will be produced. 
A four-sided prism truncated on all its lateral edges, becomes an oe- 
tohedral prism, &c. 

2. Some minerals, as Fluorspar, and Iron Pyrites, occur in the 
form of the cube, octohedron, and dodecahedron; and crystals are 
sometimes found, truncated as above described, illustrating their pas- 
sage from one fundamental form into another. 

36. IMPERFECT CRYSTALLIZATION. 

4 62. The process of regular crystallization, obvious- 
ly requires, that the substance to be crystallized, should 
be dissolved in some fluid, and that its particles should 
be permitted to move freely among themselves, so that 
each one should take its place, agreeably to the laws of 
attraction. In any other condition, the result of the 
process is imperfect and confused. 

Obs. From the result of the crystalline process, in the great labora- 
tory of nature, it is evident that some disturbing force was felt at the 
time of formation, nearly throughout the mineral kingdom. In many 
of the species, therefore, though evidently the result of crystalliza- 
tion, few perfect crystals are to be found. In many instances, one 
end of the crystal only is perfect ; in others, where the perfect funda- 
mental form is the octohedron, or cube, the, actual form in most cases, 
is indistinct, the crystals interfering with each other, so as to form 
confused laminated masses. 

§63. Under the head of imperfect crystallization, 
may also be considered such forms, as deviate from re- 
gular solids, in consequence of the want of angles, or 
in consequence of an undue extension in length, &c. 

Obs. Some of these forms are best described by comparing them 
with well known objects, as 

1. Cylindrical, when a long prism is without angles, and round in 
its form, as Pinite. 



XLIV INTRODUCTION. 

2. Dentiform. Tooth-like, when it is in the form of a cone, the 
base of which is attached, and the apex is like a canine tooth, as 
Wood Tin. Native Silver. Hog's Tooth-spar. 

3. Acicular, like a needle, when the crystal is long, and narrow, 
straight, and minute, as in Titanium. Hornblende. 

4. Reticulated^ net-like, when acicular crystals cross each other, 
so as to resemble net-work, as Native Silver. 

5. Capillary, hair-like, when the crystals are extremely minute, 
and entangled like a wisp of hair, as Chromate of Iron. Brown Hae- 
matite. 

6. Lenticular, having two principal convex surfaces, as Lenticular 
Iron Ore. 

§ 64. Grouping of Crystals. When several crystals 
are attached to each other, side by side, with distinct 
summits, they are said to be grouped, as Quartz. Hjg*s 
Tooth-spar. 

Obs. A geode, is an assemblage of crystals, fixed to a common 
basis, the form being concave, or hollow. Cavities, studded with 
crystals, form geodes. 

§ 65. Twin, or Hemitrope Crystals. These crystals 
appear, as though the two halves of each, had been so 
applied together, as to invert the one half; or that the 
one half had moved through half a circle, while the 
other half stood still. These crystals are also called, 
macled. Instances are seen in Felspar, Oxide of Tin. 

Obs. In some minerals, the crystals appear to penetrate each other 
in different directions. In the regular crystals of Gypsum, it is not 
uncommon to see small crystals growing out of, or penetrating the 
lateral planes, and angles of the larger. Large crystals of Arrago- 
nite, frequently to appearance, send forth smaller ones in every direc- 
tion, j 

§ 66. Magnitude of Crystals. The size of crystals va- 
ry from two feet in length, to mere points, the forms of 
which can only be ascertained by the microscope. 
Werner, therefore, in his descriptive language, defines 
a number of terms, significant of their magnitude, as 
very large, from six inches to two feet in length ; large, 
from six inches to two inches ; small, from half an inch 
to the eighth an inch, &c. But the scope allowed to 
these terms, is too great for any useful purpose, and the 
medium size in inches, will therefore, convey more de- 
finite ideas. 



INTRODUCTION. XLV 

87. ANCLES OF CRYSTALLIZATION. 

§ 67. It is a curious fact, that crystals of the same 
form, and of the same substance, give a constant ad* 
measurement of their angles. 

Obs. 1. It is very easy to conceive, that where the form of the crys- 
tal is an exact cube, for instance, that every crystal of this form should 
give the same angular quantity. If, therefore, an hundred crystals of 
cubical iron pyrites, or of common salt be measured, it would be 
found that wherever two planes met, it would be under an angle of 
90 degrees. But the regularity with which nature works in the for- 
mation of crystals, will appear surprising, when it is known, that what- 
ever the regular form may be, the corresponding angles in any num- 
ber of crystals of the same variety, will always be found the same. As 
an instance, take a crystal of common quartz, and ascertain the an- 
gle, which one face of the pyramid gives with its corresponding late- 
ral plane. It will be found to be 141° 40'. Now apply this angle to 
the other sides, and pyramidal faces of the same, or of any other 
crystal of quartz, from whatever part of the world it may come, and it 
will be found that these planes meet under the same angle. 

2. Measure the mutual inclination of any two opposite pyramidal 
faces of a crystal of quartz. It will be found under an angle of 75° 
62 ', and this mutual inclination will be found the same, of whatever 
fltxe the crystal may be, or from whatever part of the world it may 
come. 

§ 68 The angles under which the planes of crystals, 
differing in composition, meet, has been considered as 
one of the surest means of distinguishing them, when 
their general form is the same. 

Obs. Several minerals, of entirely different chemical characters, 
may so resemble each other, both in color and figure, as that the eye 
can distinguish no difference. This is said somttimes to be the case 
with specimens of Carbonate of Iron, Bitter-sjhir, and Carbonate of 
Lime. But the angles under which the planes of each meet, are said 
to be the means of distinguishing them at once. Thus if the planes of 
one of them meet at the angles of 105° 5 , and 74° 55 , it is Carbonate of 
Lime ; if the second measures 106° 15', and 73° 45 , it is Bitter-spar ; 
the third measuring 107° and 73°, is Carbonate of Iron. 

§ 69. Notwithstanding the exact symmetrical forms 
which nature has impressed on the crystals of the same 
variety, the difficulty of obtaining the same results, inr 
taking their angles, will probably prevent this mode of 
distinction from being certain, or extensively adopted. 

Obs. 1. This mode of distinction presupposes that we possess a 

perfect crystal of the substance, and that it is so situated that its an* 

gl<*s can be taken. Now in some of the species, though clearly the 

result of crystallization, a perfect crystal is rarely to be found, an4 

G 



XLVI INTRODUCTION. 

consequently can onljf be in possession of a few individuals. In suck 
cases, other means must therefore, of necessity be generally adopted, 
to distinguish the species. 

2. In-such of the species as commonly occur in the form of perfect 
crystals, it is not an easy thing for an ordinary mineralogist to meas- 
ure their angles with such accuracy, as to determine their composi- 
tion, where this depends on minutes and seconds. 

3. The best authorities differ so much in this respect, as to show 
that with the most skilful management, the Goniometer in different 
hands is not to be depended on, even to degrees, and much less to the 
hundreth parts of degrees. 

4. Hauy, for instance, makes the planes of Rhombic Carbonate of 
Lime, to meet alternately under angles of 104° 29' and 75° 31 . PAtf- 
lips makes the same planes meet at angles of 105 5 and 74° 55'. 
Hauy, the primitive rhomboid of Quartz, 94° 4' and 85° 56 . Phillips 
J94° 15 and 85° 45'. Hauy, the primitive rhomboid of Specular Iron 
87° and 93°. Phillips 86 10 and 93° 50 . I might proceed to fill 
page after page, with such differences ; indeed these authors very 
rarely agree exactly in the quantity of any angle, and Mohs often dis- 
agrees with both. 

5. In the above example, (§ 68) where it is proposed to distinguish 
Rhomb Spar, Bitter Spar, and Carbonate of Iron, by means of the 
Goniometer, as well as in every other instance, where there is but 
little difference in the quantity of the angle, this must, it is thought 
be acknowledged, at best, but a very fallacious mode of distinction. 

6. These considerations have induced the author of the following 
treatise to omit the Geometrical Characters in the descriptions, as be- 
ing, at least td the learner, both uncertain and perplexing. These 
characters have therefore been thrown together in the tabular form. 

38. GONIOMETER. 

§ 70. The Goniometer, or angle measurer, is an in- 
strument invented by M. Carangeau, for the purpose of 
taking the angles of crystals. It has lately been called 
the Common Goniometer, to distinguish it from a more re- 
cent invention of Dr. Wol las ton's, which is called the 
Reflective Goniometer. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XLVII 




Obs. 1. The Common Goniometer, consists oft brass, or silver sem- 
icircle, N, D, M, graduated into 180 degrees, each degree being mark- 
ed on the instrument, by a short line extending from the outer rim, to 
the circle, which is about the 20th of an inch within it : A, B, F, G, 
are two steel or brass arms, connected at m, with a thumb screw, so 
that they can be screwed tighter together when occasion requires. 
This screw goes into a small steel nut, on the under side of the arms, 
which enters the bar, connecting the two ends of the semicircle, and 
is the pivot on which the arms turn. In eaoh arm there is a slit 
through which the pivot passes, so that they can be drawn back, the 
effect of which is to move the centre of motion near the ends of the 
arms, r, n, is a short pin passing through a slit, and on which it can 
be moved backwards and forwards. 

2 Ti e arm A, as it now stands cuts the semicircle at 90 degrees ; 
if then an exact cube were presented to the portion of the arms below 
the bar, it would just fit them, as the planes of a cube always meet at 
an angle of 90 degrees. But if the angle should be greater, or less 
than 90°, it is obvious that its quantity can be ascertained by moving 
the bar backwards or forwards on the semicircle, where the degrees 
are marked. 

3 The most convenient mode of using this Goniometer, is to take 
off the arms, and for a small crystal draw them back, so as to bring 
the centre of motion, near the points B and F, and for larger ones, let 
them remain as in the figure. Then tighten the screw, so that the 
arms need not move, and loose the true angle. After having applied 
them to the crystal, put the under one carefully in its place, as in the 
figure, and the right side of the other arm will give the angle re- 
quired. 



XLVIII INTRODUCTION. 

4. " It must be obvious that the use of this instrument depends on 
its precise adjustment to the planes of the crystal to be measured. In 
doing this, it will be found of advantage that the common pocket 
lens should be supported at a convenient height above the table, so 
that both elbows may rest upon it, while taking the angle ; the glass 
being a little above the height of the wrist, when the hands are ele- 
vated. For this purpose, a card rolled up and stuck by one end into 
the nozle of a candlestick, and the handle of the glass placed in the 
hollow of the card will be found useful ; for the glass will be nearly 
on a level with the eye. If then the crystal be placed behind it in 
the focus, the adaptation of the goniometer, will be observed with ad- 
vantage ; and unless the light be excluded from between the instrument 
and the try >stal, the adaptation will not be complete. If this cannot be 
accomplished, it may be concluded that the crystal, how perfect so- 
ever its planes may appear, is not sufficiently regular to be relied on, 
if perfect accuracy is desirable." — Phillips. 

5. The reflective Goniometer, is considered a more accurate in- 
strument than the one above described. It determines the quantity 
of the angle by the rays of light, reflected from the polished faces of 
the crystal, and therefore will only answer for such minerals as pos- 
sess reflecting surfaces. The machinery and its use, is much more 
complex than in the common Goniometer. 

39. chemical characters: 

Remark. Having enumerated such of the characters of minerals, 
as can be ascertained by the senses, without destroying their struc- 
ture, and which are properly called, external, ox physical ; we now 
come to another set of characters, which are called chemical, because 
heat and acids are the agents by which they are ascertained. 

§71. By chemical characters, it is not understood 
that all such, as could be developed by chemical 
agents will be enumerated, or that the process of analy- 
sis will be described. On the contrary, a few simple 
experiments, chiefly with the blowpipe and acids are all 
that will be found necessary, to ascertain the most ob- 
vious chemical characters of minerals. 

§ 72. Blowpipe. This is a simple instrument, consist* 
ing of a slightly conical tube of brass, 8, or 12 inches 
long, curved at the small end, and terminating in an or- 
ifice of the size of a pin. Sometimes they are made in 
several parts, so that they can be taken in pieces, for 
tHe convenience of carriage. This instrument is used 
by taking the large end in the mouth, placing the small 
end in the flame of a candle, and directing the flame 
by gently blowing on the mineral, which is placed on 
a charcoal support. 



INTRODUCTION. XLIX 

Ohs. The following observations for the use of the blowpipe are 
from Aikin. 

1. " Few persons are able at first to produce a continued stream of 
air through the blowpipe, and the attempt often occasions a great 
deal of fatigue ; I shall make no apology therefore, for treating this 
natter somewhat in detail. The tirst thing to be done is to acquire 
the habit of breathing easily and without fatigue, through the nostrils 
alone ; then to do the same while the mouth is filled and the cheeks 
inflated with air, the tongue being at the same time slightly raised to 
the roof of the mouth, in order to obstruct the communication between 
the mouth and throat. When this has been acquired, the blowpipe 
may be put into the mouth and the confined air expelled through the 
pipe by means of the muscles of the cheeks : as Boon as the air is 
nearly exhausted, the respiration from the lungs instead of being made 
through the nostrils, is to be forced into the cavity of the mouth ; the 
communication is then instantly to be shut again by the tongue, and 
the remainder of the respiration is to be expelled through the nostrils. 
The second and all subsequent supplies 01 air to the blowpipe, are to 
be introduced in the same manner as the first : thus with a little prac- 
tice, the power may be obtained of keeping up a continued blast, for 
a quarter of an hour, or longer, without inconvenience. 

2. " Much depends on the size of the external aperture of the blow- 
pipe. If so large that the mouth requires frequent replenishing, the 
flame will be wavering, and the operator will soon be out of breath: 
if on the other hand the aperture be too small, the muscles of the 
cheeks must be strongly contracted, in order to produce a sufficient 
current, and pain, and great fatigue of the part, will soon be the con- 
sequence. An aperture about the size of the smallest pin-hole, will 
generally be found the most convenient, though for particular purpo- 
ses, one somewhat larger, or a little smaller may be required. 

3. " The fuel for this little reverberatory furnace (as the blowpipe 
apparatus may without impropriety be denominated) is oil, tallow, or 
wax, kept in combustion by means of a wick : the oil is the worst, 
the tallow is better, and the wax is the best, not only as being the 
cleanest, and free from any offensive smell, but also as affording the 
greatest heat. The management of the wick, too, is a matter of some 
nicety : it should neither be too high, nor snuffed too low, and should 
be a little bent at its summit from the blast of the pipe. All casual 
currents and drafts of wind, ought to be carefully avoided, as render- 
ing the flame unsteady, and very materially impairing its strength. 

4. " The above conditions being complied with, the flame while act- 
ed on by the pipe, will evidently consist of two parts, an outer and 
inner : the latter will be of a light blue color, converging to a point at 
the distance of about an inch from the nozle, the outer will be of a 
yellowish white color, and will converge less perfectly. The most 
intense heat, is just at the point of the inner blue flame. 

5. " The supports of the various substances while undergoing the 
action of the blowpipe, come next to be considered. Of supports, 
there are two kinds, Combustible, and Incombustible. The combus- 
tible supports, (used chiefly for metallic ores,) is Charcoal. The 



L INTRODUCTION. 

closest grained, and soundest pieces are to be selected for this pur- 
pose, and even the best often split, and become rifty after being used 
for a short time. [If pieces of birch, or maple coal, burned in a coal 
pit, be selected, they will not be liable to this accident.] 

6. " The incombustible supports, are Metal, Glass, and Earth; in 
-the use of all which, one general caution may be given : to make 

them as little bulky as possible. The support, [charcoal excepted,] 
always abstracts more or less, of the heat, and in many cases, espe- 
cially where metallic spoons are employed, entirely prevents the flame 
from producing its due effect. The best metallic support is Platina, 
because it is infusible, and transmits heat to a less distance, and more 
slowly than other metals A pair of slender forceps of brass, point- 
ed with platina, is the best possible support for non-metallic minerals, 
that are not very fusible : for the fusible earthy minerals, and for the 
infusible ones when fluxes are used, leaf platina will be found the 
most convenient ; it may be folded like paper, into any desirable 
form, and the result of the experiment may be obtained, simply by un- 
folding the leaf in which it was wrapped up. [Where a flux is used 
that does not spread, I have always found the solid birch, or maple 
charcoal, the very best support. When potash is used, which spreads 
on charcoal, the platina foil may be employed.] With regard to the 
magnitude of the specimens required for examination, no very pre- 
cise directions can be given : the most fusible, such as some of the 
metallic ores, (galena), may be as large as a small pea, while the 
most refractory of the earthy minerals, should scarcely exceed the 
bulk of a pin's head." 

7. On first application of the heat, the outer flame only should be 
thrown on the mineral, as some will decrepitate, or split in pieces, 
with a stronger heat. The changes also, which some minerals un- 
dergo by heat, are best observed when their temperature is raised 
slowly. 

8. In the metallic ores, fluxes are used, and it is often the case, 
that the best test of the pressure of certain metals, is the color which 
they give the flux. 

9r One of the most common as well as convenient fluxes, is glass 
of borax, or borax deprived of its water of crystallization, by previous- 
ly heating it. This will neither spread on the charcoal, nor sink into 
it, but always takes the form of a round globule. For this purpose, 
the borax, as well as the mineral, ought to be in the state of powder, 
and made into a little ball with a drop of water. When it is desired 
to reduce the mineral to its metallic state, charcoal is the proper sup- 
port : but where we wish to obtain a colored glass, platina leaf is the 
best ; a good piece of charcoal will, however, answer for both. . Some- 
times nitrous borax, is employed as a flux. It is made by dissolving 
borax in hot water, and adding nitrous acid, to neutralize the excess 
of alkali. 

40. ACTION OP ACIDS. 

73. Although complete analysis, be not the object in 
subjecting minerals to the action of acids, jet we may 



INTRODUCTION. LI 

thereby obtain characteristic information in regard to 
many minerals, especially the acidiferous, and some of 
the alkalino-earthy minerals. 

Obs. " In this process, it will often suffice, that a small fragment of 
the mineral, or portion of it reduced to powder, should be placed in a 
concave receiver, a watch glass, for instance, and that it should be 
covered with diluted acid ; for this purpose, the muriatic is common- 
ly used, but the nitric, or sulphuric is sometimes employed. When 
the effervescence ensues, it is important to notice the rapidity of ef- 
fervescence ; in some minerals, it is great and rapid, in others, slow, 
and not very apparent ; sometimes the solution is complete ; some- 
times a residue is left, and occasionally, as in some of the alkalino- 
earthy substances, the solution becomes gelatinous. In most cases, 
4he process is carried on at the common temperature, in others, by 
the application of a gentle heat. 

Hence, it will be concluded that in more than a few instances, the 
consequences of the action of acids, form an important feature among 
the characters of minerals."— -PAtfftps. 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &c. 

Commonly used in Afineralogical Descriptions. 



Aciculccr. Long, slender, and straight prisms, or crystals, are term* 
ed acicular, from the latin, acicula, a little needle. 

Acute rhomboid. See Rhomboid. 

Acute octohedron. See Octohedron. 

Aggregated. A mineral rock is said to be aggregated, when the 
several component parts only adhere together, and may be sep- 
arated by mechanical means : the felspar, quartz, and mica, con- 
stituting granite, may be separated mechanically. Granite is 
an aggregated rock. 

Alliaceous. The odour given out by arsenical minerals, when expo- 
sed to the blow-pipe or struck by the hammer, resembles that of 
garlic, in latin, allium ; whence alliaceous. 

Alloy. A natural combination of two or more metals in the metal- 
lic state. 

Amalgam. A natural combination of two metals, of which mercury 
is one. 

Amorphous. Without form ; of undefinable shape ; from the Greek, 
(amorphos) having that signification. Amorphous minerals are 
sometimes described as being of indeterminate, or indefinite 
forms. 

Anhydrous, from the Greek, (anudros), signifying without water ; 
anhydrous gypsum is without water. 

Arborescent. From the Latin, arboresco, to grow like a tree ; see 
Dendritic. 

Arseniate. A term applied to a mineral consisting of the arsenic 
acid united with a base, as of copper in the arseniate of copper. 

Base. A term denoting the substance to which an acid is united ; 
in the arseniate of copper, the copper is the base. 

Bevelled, see p. xlii. 

Borate. A mineral in which the boracic acid is combined with a 
base, as of magnesia, in the borate of magnesia. 

Botryoidal. From the Greek, (botruodes) signifying, hung with clus- 
ters of grapes or berries. So a mineral presenting an aggrega- 
tion of large sections of numerous small globes, is termed bo- 
tryoidal ; but when the globes are larger, and the portions are 
less, and separate, the appearance is expressed by the term ma- 
millated. These forms may be observed in certain ores of co- 
balt, copper, and manganese, and often in chalcedony. 

Bladed. This term relates chiefly to the structure of such minerals 
as, on being broken, present long flat portions longitudinally ag- 



- EXPLANATIONS OP TERMS, &C. LIII 

gregated, and somewhat resembling the blade of a knife; this 
appearance may in general be considered as the effect of in- 
terrupted crystillization. 
Brittle. This character of mineral bodies does not depend upon 
their hardness ; those of which the particles cohere in the high- 
est degree, and are immoveable one among another, are the 
most brittle. The diamond, quartz, sulphate of barytes and sul- 
phur, vary greatly as to hardness ; they are all brittle, the first 
only in particular directions. 

Canaliculated ; presenting deep channels on the surface, resulting 
either from interrupted crystallization, or the aggregation of nu- 
merous crystals. 
Capillary, is derived from the Latin, capillus, a hair, and is chiefly 
used to express the long, tortuous, hair-like appearances, to be 
observed in native gold, and silver, and some other minerals. 
Crystals are sometimes termed capillary, when long and slender ; 
but when straight, they are more properly designated by the 
term acicular. 
Carbon, see p. cclxxxi. 
Carbonate. A mineral in which the carbonic acid is combined with 

a base, as of lime, in the carbonate of lime. 
Cavernous. A mineral in which there are considerable hollows or 

cavities, 13 said to be cavernous. 
Cellular. This term was used by Werner in the description of such 
minerals as exhibit cells formed by the crossing and intersecting 
of the laminae or lamellae of which they are constituted : com- 
monly, any mineral presenting numerous small cells or cavities, 
is termed cellular : see vesicular. 
Chatoyant, has been adopted from the French, who use it to express 
the changeable light resembling that to be observed in the eye 
of a cat, to be seen in certain minerals ; as in the Cat's-eve. 
Chromate ; a mineral in which the chromic acid is united with a 

base, as of lead, in the chromate of lead. 
Cleavage. This term is most commonly used in relation to the frac- 
ture of those minerals which, having natural joints, possess a 
regular structure, and may be cleaved into more or less geomet- 
rical fragments ; as, into varieties of the parallelepiped, the 
rhomboid, &c. 
Coherent. In minerals that are brittle, the particles are strongly co- 
herent; in such as are friable, they are slightly coherent. 
Columnar distinct concretions ; a term used to express the great and 
small columns in which certain basalts and iron ores are found : 
but Werner included under this term all the columnar appear- 
ances in every mineral consisting of numerous aggregated crys- 
tals, which readily divide into long and narrow portions of irreg- 
ular form, owing to interrupted crystillization — such as the ame- 
thyst, pyrites, fluor spar, quartz, &c. 
Combustion. During the burning of a combustible, in common ca- 
ses, oxygen unites with it, or with some of its ingredients : and. 
H 



L1V EXPLANATIONS OF TERMS, &C. 

the product of the combustion is either an oxide, an acid, or 
an alkali. 

Compact. A mineral is compact when no particular or distinct parts 
are discernible ; a compact mineral cannot be cleaved or divid- 
ed into regular or parallel portions. The term compact is too 
often confounded with the term massive. 

Concentric lamellar. This may be said to relate to structure, being 
used in the description of such minerals, as, being of a spherical 
form, or of any portion of a sphere, ha?e received successive 
coatings of depositions. If an onion be cut in two, it exhibits 
the concentric lamellar in perfection. 

Conchoidal, relates only to fracture ; and is doubtless derived from 
the Latin, conchoides, signifying like the shell of a fish. Frag- 
ments of many of the brittle minerals exhibit this appearance, 
and occasionally in great perfection, as quartz and sulphur : the 
fracture of compact minerals is frequently more or less perfectly 
conchoidal. 

Concretion, generally signifies a small and distinct mass. 

Coralloidal, resembling branches of coral. 

Cuneiform, wedge-shaped ; cuneus, in Latin, signifies a wedge. 

Cuneiform octohedron. See octohedron. 

Decomposed. This term, when used strictly in a mineralogical sense, 
imports the consequence of the chemical action which takes 
place naturally in some minerals. Certain ores of iron, &c. in 
which sulphur predominates in an unusual degree, decompose 
by exposure t> air. 

Decrepitate. A mineral is said to decrepitate on exposure to heat, 
when it flies with a crackling noise similar to that made by salt 
when thrown into the fire. 

Dent ride ; derived from the Greek, (dentritis) signifying like the 
growth of a tree. The terms arborescent and dentritic are used 
synonimously : they are alike applied to the tree-like appear- 
ance in which native silver and native copper are sometimes 
found ; to the delineations seen on the surfaces of certain miner- 
als ; and to the appearance in the mocha-stone, &c. 

Dentiform or Dentated; in the shape of teeth ; dens being the La- 
tin for a tooth, 

Disseminated. When a mineral, whether crystallized or otherwise, 
is found here and there imbedded in a mass of another substance* 
it is said to be disseminted in the mass. Crystals of quartz 
sometimes occur, disseminated in Carrara marble, &c. 

Disintegrated. This term is generally used to express the falling 
to pieces of any mineral, without any perceptible chemical 
action. 

Diverging or divergent. When the structure is fibrous, and the fi- 
bres are mot parallel, they usually diverge in part, but not whol- 
ly, around a common centre ; as in certain zeolites, and haema- 
titic iron ores. The crystals of some substances assume a di- 
verging position. 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &C. LY 

Drusy, has been adopted from the German term drusen, for which 
we have no English word. i'he surface of a mineral is said to 
be drusy when composed of very small prominent crystals near- 
ly equal to each other ; it is often seen in iron pyrites. 

Efflorescence. An efflorescence is the consequence of chemical 
action ; it is usually applied to such minerals as are found in 
extremely minute fibres on old walls, &c. &c. 

Elastic. A mineral which, after being bent, springs back to its orig- 
inal form, is elastic. Mica is elastic; talc, which greatly re- 
sembles mica, is only flexible. 

Earthy. This term relates to fracture, and to texture. Chalk and 
certain of the ores of iron and lead are notable instances of the 
earthy fracture or texture. 

Fasciculated. When a number of minute fibres or acicular crystals 
occur in small aggregations or bundles, they are said to be fas- 
ciculated ; a term doubtless derived from the Latin, fasciculus a 
little bundle. This appearance often occurs in green carbonate, 
and arseniate of copper. 

Fibrous. This term relates both to form and structure. Certain 
minerals, as amianthus, amiauthiform arseniate of copper, a vari- 
ety of gypsum, &c. occur in distinct fibres. Asbestus, gypsum, 
red haematitic iron ore, &c are found massive, and of a paral- 
lel fibrous structure ; some varieties of red haematite and oth- 
er minerals are of a radiating fibrous structure, when the fibres 
diverge from a common centre. 

Filament. A mineral is said to occur in filaments, when it is found 
in slender, thread-like or hair-like portions. It is therefore 
nearly synonimous with the term capillary. 

Filliform, is used in the same sense as the preceding ; but Werner 
confined its use to express the appearance of certain metals 
which occur in the form of wire, as native silver and native cop- 
per. Filum in Latin, signifies thread ; filum metalli, wire. 

Fistuliform. Minerals occurring in round hollow columns, are term- 
ed fistulirbrm ; fistula, in Latin, signifies a pipe. Stalactites 
and iron pyrites occur fistuliform. 

Flexible. Talc is flexible ; it readily bends, but does not return to 
its original form. Mica is both flexible and elastic. 

Fluate. This term designates a mineral in which the fluoric acid is 
combined with a base, as with lime, in the fluate of lime. 

Foliated. This term, which doubtless is derived from the Latin foli- 
atus, having, or consisting of leaves, is used by Werner to ex- 
press the structure of all minerals that may be divided or cleav- 
ed regularly, and are therefore by him said to consist of folia or 
leaves. The structure of such minerals is more commonly and 
better expressed by the term lamellar ; and they are said to con- 
sist of laminae. 

Fracture, is a term now chiefly employed in designating the appear* 
ance of minerals which have no regular structure, when they are 
broken ; such minerals present an earthy, even, uneven, or a 
oonchoidal fracture, &c. 



LVI EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &C. 

Frangible. The term frangibility has relation to the susceptibility of 
minerals to separate into fragments by force : this quality in min- 
erals is not dependent on their hardness ; the structure of some 
and the brittleness of others, renders them easily frangible; 
while others, which from their softness, and the ease with which 
their particles or molecules yield or slide over one another, are 
with much more difficulty frangible ; such minerals possess the 
character of toughness. Quartz is easily broken, asbestus is 
tough. 

Friable. A mineral whose portions or particles slightly cohere, and 
which is therefore easily crumbled or broken down, is said to be 
friable, or in a friable state. 

Fungiform. Certain substances,, as for instance calcareous stalac- 
tites, are occasionally met with having a termination similar to 
the head of a fungus ; whence they are said to be fungiform. 

Gangue, Gangart. We have these terms from the Germans ; the 
gaigue of a mineral, is the substance, in, or upon which, a min- 
eral is found : it is sometimes termed the matrix. Silver, oc- 
t curring in, or upon carbonate of lime, is said to have carbonate 

of lime for its gangue matrix. 

Geode. This also we derive from the Germans. A geode is a hol- 
low ball ; at Oberstein, in Saxony, are found hollow balls of agate 
lined with crystals of quartz or amethyst, which are termed 
geodes. 

Glume is also a German wood, meaning shining ; thus, the followers 
of that school use the terms glance-coal, copper-glance, &c. 

Globular distinct concretion is used to designate ttie form of any min- 
eral which occurs in little round or roundish masses ; the pea- 
stone and roe-stone are examples of it. 

Granular. The structure of a mineral is said to be granular, when 
it appears to consist of small grains or concretions, which some- 
times can, sometimes cannot, be discerned without the help of a 
glass ; we have therefore the fine granular, and the coarse gran- 
ular structure. 

Greasy is used in relation to lustre ; fat quartz has a greasy lustre. * 

Hackly. This term relates to a fracture which is peculiar to the 
malleable metals ; which, when fractured, present sharp protrud- 
ing points. 

Hamatite is derived from a Greek word, signifying blood-red ; it 
was first applied by mineralogists to the variety of iron ore which 
now is called the Ked Haematite ; but has since been extended 
to other iron ores of the same structure, but differing in color. 
We have also brown haematites, and black haematites. 

Hepatic. A term derived from the Latin, hepar, the liver; it is ap- 
plied either to color or form. We have hepatic pyrites, hepatic 
quicksilver ; hepatite, &c. 

Hydrate is derived from the Greek, (udor) water ; and is applied to 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &C. LVH 

certain of those minerals (as the hydiate of magnesia) of which 
water forms an ingredient in very large proportion. 

Imbedded. A mineral found in a mass of another substance, is said 
to be imbedded in it. Crystallized Quartz occurs imbedded in 
Carrara marble. It also occurs partly imbedded in other sub- 
stances, as in fluor. 

Indeterminate. Indefinite. These terms are used synonymously with 
Amorphous in describing minerals which have no particular, or 
definable form. Crystals of which the form cannot be accurate- 
ly ascertained, are said to be of indeterminate forms. 

lncrusting : any substance covered by a ^mineral, is sometimes said 
to be incrusted by it : thus the various articles which are placed 
for a certain length of time in certain springs or wells in Der- 
byshiie, &c. and which are by some supposed to be converted 
into petrifactions, are only incrusted with calcareous, or argilla- 
ceous matter. 

Interlacing. Interlaced. When fibres or crystals of a mineral are 
found intermingling with each other in various directions, they 
are said to be interlacing or interlaced. 

Investing. A mineral coating, or covering another, is sometimes de- 
scribed as investing it. 

Iridescent. This term relates only to the color with which the sur- 
faces of some minerals are naturally tarnished : as yellow copper 
ore, iron pyrites, galena, sulphuret of antimony, &c. 

Jrised. A mineral is described as irised which exhibit? the pris- 
matic colors either externally, or internally : the latter is gener- 
ally the consequence of some injury sustained by the mineral. 

Lamella. If a mineral be found in very minute, thin plates, it is saicl 
to occur in lamellae. 

Lamellar ; this term relates to structure : when a mineral can be 
fractured or cleaved into regular and parallel plates its structure 
-is said to be lamellar ; and the portions thus obtained are termed 
laminae or lamellae ; these terms have been adopted from the 
Latin, in which they were almost synonimously used to express 
th inflates of any substance. 

Lamellar distinct concretions. This term is sometimes used to ex- 
press the form of certain minerals (as the oxide of uranium) con- 
sisting of separate tabular crystals. 

LameUiform. A minearl consisting of lamellae, is said to be lamelli- 
form. 

Lamina. See Lamellar. 

Lenticular is employed to express the form of certain crystals which 
are nearly flat, and convex above and beneath ; and which con- 
sequently resemble a common lens. 

Malleability. Some of the metals suffer extension when beaten with 
a hammer ; and are therefore termed malleable metals. Native 
,gold and native silver are very malleable metals. 



LVIII EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &C. 

MamiUated. See Botryoidal. 

Massive. This term is sometimes used in describing a substance of 
indeterminate form, whatever may be its internal structure ; but 
is more commonly applied to those minerals which possess 
regular internal structure, without any particular external form. 

Matrix. See Gangue. ' 

Meagre. This term relates to the touch or feel of a mineral. It be- 
longs chiefly to some of those minerals which are of an earthy 
texture. Chalk is remarkably meagre to the touch. 

Mechanical division, see p. 23. 

Molybdate ; a mineral in which the molybdic acid is combined with a 
base, as with oxide of lead in the molybdate of lead. 

Muriate ; a mineral in which the muriatic acid is combined with a 
base, as with soda, in the muriate of soda. 

Natural joints. Such minerals as can be broken into regular forms, 
as the cube, rhomboid, &c. can be cleaved into those forms, only 
in the direction of, or along, their natural joints; In some min- 
erals, however, the natural joints are perceptible by the assist- 
ance of a strong light. 

Nacreous relates to lustre ; and is employed to express the lustre of 
some minerals (as of pearl spar) which greatly resembles that of 
pearl. Nacre de Perle, in French, signifies Mother of Pearl. 

Nitrate. A mineral in which the nitric, acid is combined with a base, 
as with potash, in the nitrate of potash. 

Nodular. A mineral which presents irregularly globular elevations, 
is termed Nodular. Flint is found in nodular masses. 

Oblique prism, see Prism. 

Obtuse octohedron, see Octohedron. 

Obtuse rhomboid, see Rhomboid. 

Octohedron. Octohedrons are of several kinds. An octohedron is 
sometimes described as two four-sided pyramids, base to base. 
In the regular octohedron, the three sides of each plane are of 
the same length. In the obtuse octohedron, the base is longer 
than the two sides. In the acute octohedron, the base is shorter 
than the two sides. In some obtuse and acute octohedrons, the 
base is square, in others, rectangular, but not square. In the 
rhomboidal octohedron, the common base is a rhomb or rhombic ; 
and the three sides of each plane are of different lengths. In 
the cuneiform octohedron, the common base of the pyramids is 
not square, and the planes are not all equal, but resemble each " 
other two and two, on opposite sides of the pyramid. 

Opake. Those minerals are opake which do not transmit a percep- 
tible ray of light even through the thinnest and smallest pieces. 

Oxide. This term is used mineralogically to designate metallic min- 
erals, in which the metal is combined with any proportion of ox- 
ygen, which is less than suffices to convert it into an acid. Iron 
is found in different states of oxidation. Every metal which is 
found united with an acid, is, when so combined, in the state of 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &C . Lift 

an oxide : but when united with sulphur, the metals are not in 
the state of oxides, but in the metallic state. 

Parallelopiped, see p. 22. S 

Pass into. One mineral is said to pass into another, when both are 
found so blended in the same specimen, that it is impossible to 
decide where the one terminates, and the other begins. Flint 
is found passing into chalcedony. 

Pectinated. If a mineral exhibit short filaments, crystals, or branch- 
es which are nearly parallel and equidistant, it is pectinated : 
pecten, in Latin, signifies a comb 

Peroxide, when a metal has the largest quantity of oxygen. 

Porous. A mineral is said to be porous, when it is traversed in dif- 
ferent directions with communicating holes which pass through 
the substance. 

Primary crystal, see p. 22. 

Protoxide, when a metal has the smallest quantity of oxygen. 

Phosphate. A mineral in which the phosphoric acid is combined 
with a base, as with lime, in the phosphate of lime. 

Prism. Prisms have four or more sides surrounding the axis : they 
are sometimes terminated by a single plane, and when this plane 
is at right angles to the axis, we have a right prism ; but if the 
terminating plane be not at right angles to the axis, we have an 
oblique prism. If the sides of a quadrangular prism, are at right 
angles with each other, we have a rectangular prism, and if the 
sides be of equal width, a square prism, and its height is either 
greater or less than that of the cube. 

Pseudomorphous. Minerals exhibiting impressions of the forms pe- 
culiar to the crystals of other substances are said to be pseudo- 
morphous. Quartz exhibiting crystals in the form of the cube ; 
calamine, such as are peculiar to carbonate of lime, &c. are 
termed pseudomorphous : From two Greek words, signifying 
false form, or figure. 

Pulverulent. When the particles of a mineral are very minute and 
cohere very slightly, or not at all, it is said to be pulverulent ; or 
in the pulverulent state. 

Radiated ; radiatus, in Latin, signifies beset Vith rays ; when the 
crystals of a mineral are so disposed as to diverge from a centre, 
they are said to be radiated. * 

Ramose ; ramus, in Latin, signifies the branch of a tree; a mineral 
having that appearance is described as being ramose. 

Rectangular prism, see Prism. 

Refractory. The term is used both chemically and mechanical- 
ly in relation to minerals. It is sometimes applied to those 
which strongly resist the application of heat ; and occasionally 
to some whose toughness enables them to resist repeated blows. 

Reniform. Kidney-shaped ; ren, in Latin, signifies kidney. 

Replacement, see p. 33. 

Retiform, Reticulated. Minerals occurring in parallel fibres, crossed 
at right angles by other fibres which also are parallel, exhibit 



LX EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &C. 

squares, like the meshes of a net. Retis, in Latin, signifies a 
net. We have reticulated native silver, native copper, red ox- 
ide of copper, &c. And it may be remarked that such minerals 
as occur reticulated, generally assume the cube, as one of their 
crystalline forms. 

Rhomboidal octohedron, see Octohedron. 

Right Prism, see Prism. 

Rhomboid. Rhomboids are of two kinds ; obtuse and acute. In 
each there are two points that may be termed the apices. The 
planes of the obtuse rhomboid meet at each apex, under one ob- 
tuse and two acute angles : while three planes of the acute 
rhomboid, meet at the apex under acute angles. 

Schistose structure. Minerals which split only in one direction, and 
present fragments which are parallel, but of unequal thickness, 
which also are not smooth and even, and are without lustre, are 
said to possess a schistose structure. Schist in the German sig- 
nifies slate. 

Scopiform. If a number of minute crystals or fibres be closely ag- 
gregated into a little bundle, with the appearance of diverging 
slightly from a common centre,. they are said to be scopiform. 
Scopa in Latin, signifies a broom or besom. 

Secondary Crystals, or forms. Such crystals as do not exhibit any 
portion of the primary planes are termed secondary crystals. 
Thus, in fluor, the cube is a secondary crystal. 

Sectile. The term sectile is derived from the Latin, seco, to cut. 
Those minerals are termeU sectile which are midway between 
the brittle and the malleable. A slice or portion cut from a sec- 
tile mineral, is fragile, and the new surface on the mass is smooth 
and shining. Plumbago and the soapstone are both sectile. 

Semi-transparent. A mineral is said to be semi-transparent when an 
object is not distinctly seen through it. 

Slaty structure. This term is synonymous with Schistose structure, 
which see. 

Solid angle, see p. 

Specific Gravity, see p. 35. 

Specular Minerals are those which present a smooth and brilliant sur- 
face which refleofs light ; those which present only one. such 
surface, which Is not crystalline, are commonly termed specular : 
but among crystallized minerals we have specular iron, from the 
brilliancy of its planes. Speculum, in Latin, signifies a looking- 
glass. 

Specular and Splintery Fracture belong to imperfectly crystalline 
minerals. The fractures do not greatly differ : they are both 
irregular ; the spicular is shorter and more pointed thap the 
splintery. 

Square Prism, see Prism. 

Stalactitiform. (Stalagma) in the Greek, signifies a drop, an icicle. 
Stalactitiform minerals greatly resemble icicles in shape. 

Stalagmite. A stalagmite is the deposition afforded by the water 
dropping from a stalactite, as on the floor of a cavern. 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &€« LXf 

Stellated. When the crystals or fibres of a mineral diverge all round 
a common centre, it is said to be stellated : Stella, in Latin, sig- 
nifies a star. 

Strict Striated. The slight channels occasionally observable on the 
planes of crystallized minerals are termed striae, and the crys- 
tals on which they are seen are said to be striated. The striae 
are commonly parallel, and generally indicate the direction in 
which crystals may be cleaved. Stria, in Latin, signifies a groove, 
or channel. 

Structure. This term relates to the internal characters of minerals. 
Such as can be cleaved into regular forms, presenting smooth, 
brilliant, and parallel surfaces, are said to have a crystalline 
structure ; but when the surfaces are neither smooth nor paral- 
lel, and when, on the contrary they are rough and curved, or 
undulating, the structure is said to be imperfectly crystalline ; 
under which term also may be comprehended all fibrous miner- 
als whether massive or not. All such as have no determinate 
structure, as those minerals which are granular, splintery, &c. 
may be included under the term indefinite or promiscuous struc- 
ture. See page xxv. 

Sulphate. A mineral in which the sulphuric acid is combined with 
a base, as with lime, in the sulphate of lime. 

Sulphur. See p 280. 

Sulphur ct. A metallic mineral in which the metal is combined with 
sulphur. In these minerals the metal is not in the state of an 
oxide, but in the metallic state. 

Supernatant. Such minerals as are lighter than water, and conse- 
quently swim upon it, are said to be supernatant. Supernato, in 
Latin, signifies to swim or float upon. 

Tabular. When this term is used in relation to structure it is near- 
ly allied to the schistose or slaty. Talc, mica, and roofing slate, 
are described by the German Schools possessing a tabular 
structure. This term is used more generally to express the ex- 
ternal form of such crystals as are nearly flat : these are termed 
tabular crystals ; from the Latin, tabula, a table board. 

Terminal plane, see p. xli. 

Toughness relates to internal texture. Those minerals which are 
bruised, or suffer depression, by repeated blows in the attempt 
to fracture them, are esteemed to be tough. 

Translucent. A mineral through which an object cannot be seen, 
but which transmits some light, is termed translucent. Rock 
salt, sometimes quartz, flint, and fluor, &c. are translucent : ma- 
ny minerals are translucent on the edges, as common marble, &c. 

Transparent. Those minerals are transparent through which an 
object may be ciearly seen. 

Truncated, See p. xlii. 

Tubercular. A mineral whose unevenness of surface arises from 
small and somewhat round elevations, is said to be tubercular. 
Flint is sometimes tubercular. 

H 



LXII EXPLANATION OF TERMS, &C. 

Tuberous : exhibiting somewhat circular knobs, or elevations. 
Tubular, see Fistuliform. 

Vesicular. A mineral is said to be vesicular, when it has small and 
somewhat round cavities, both internally and externally. Lava, 
pumice, limestone, basalt, &c are sometimes vesicular : from 
the Latin, vesicula, a little bladder. 

Vitreous ; from the Latin vitreus, glassy ; minerals having the lustre 
of glass, are said to possess the vitreous lustre. 

Unctuous. The term relates to the touch. Pipe-clay is somewhat 
unctuous : Fullers 9 earth is unctuous ; plumbago and soap-stone 
are very unctuous. — Phillip's Mineralogy. 



A TABLE, 

Exhibiting the angular aameasurememts ofcrystmhhp Ike 
GonuMueter a a cc o r ding to Phillips. 



ActynoUte. fchombic Prism, 124* 30', and 55* 3T, 
Adularia. In one direction, lour of 90*; in i 

nately of .VJ 25 , and 120* 35 ; and in a 

IjofffT 15', and 112* 45. These are obtained villi 

difficulty. 
Albite. In one direction, ahernately 93* 30", and 86*33/ ; 

er 119 2ff, and 69 30 : and in another direction, US' and 65'. 
AnMygonite. Rhombic Prism, 106' 10*, and 73 59 

(See carbonate of Zinc) 
Amethyst. Primitive Rhomboid, 94* 15', and 85* 45 

(See Quartz.) 
Analdme. Primitive Cube, 90*, and 90*, in all direct imm 
Andahuite. Rhombic Prism, 88" 40, and 91* 20 
AnthophyUite. Rhombic Prism, 125 , and 55', alternately. 
Arfwtdsonitt. Rhombic prism, 123* 55, on one *f the 

planes. (Hornblende, 124* 30 .) 
Arragonite. Rhombic prism, 116* 5, and 63*55', 
ArtemaU of Capper. Rbomboidai, lir 30, mad 

nately. 
Arsemate of Copper. Obiinne pT—nlir, 124*, mad ST, afta* 

nately. 
ArsemOeof Copper. Rnrht prismHir, 11T 5, and 60 ir. 
Arsemiateof Copper. MartiaL Primitive Asm* 13T an4f)0~ 
Arsenic, Snlphnret of Rhombic prism, lateral piinrs, 74 VS 9 and 

105' 45 , alternately. 
iirsemVnl //w. Lateral planes, 111* 1ST, and*? 43, ahcrn«rir 
Angite. Primitive rhomb, 87* 5', and 92* 55, ih> mini), (fee spec- 
ular Iron, and Boarnonite.) 



Baryfes, Solphate of Primary prism, from fcaetnvml savim*, ftt* 

42, and 79 18 , alternately. 
Bum***, Snlphnretof Alter cleavage ai*att«*mi 

dications of cleavage, paraiH tn 130 and £0* 
Bitter S^ Pnmime rhomb, 100 15, and 7? 45 iW 

specimens, 107 20 , and 72 4* , aher*me*y (fae< 

Spar, and Cyanite ) 
Borate of Lime. Prinntrve rhnmh, 10T 40 ami TOT «T, 




BoraUofSoim. Trummioe rkmnh, 46 M and « 30 , +****&- 
BomrmomUe. Pihnrlirf OQ^andtO^ar aramst afOO 1$ f m4m%w, 



ahernately. (flee gprrmar laan, Amgjmt, ami a****** 4f 
Lime) 
JBrnnzne. ClenfatjeamaJUtntealnnnn 



UCIV TABLE OF ANGLES. 

Calcareous Spar. Primary, Obtuse rhomboid of 105° 5', and 74° 55', 

alternately. It is readily obtained. (See Bitter-Spar.) 
Carbonate of Zinc Cleavage parallel to planes of 106 30', and 73° 

30 , alternately. 
Carbonate of Iron. Cleavage, parallel to the planes of 107°, and 73°. 
Carbonate of Lead. Primary, right rhombic prism of 117°, and 63°. 
Carbonate of Magnesia, and Iron Primitive 107° 30, and 72 30^, 

(See Bitter-Spar.) 
Carbonate of Strontian. Primitive, right rhombic prism of 117° 32', 

and 62 28 , alternately. (See Carbonate of Lead.) 
Celestine. Primitive, right rhombic prism, of 104 , and 76°. (See 

Calcareous Spar.) 
Chabasie. Obtuse rhomboid, 94° 46', and 86° 14, alternately. 
Chromate of Iron. Octohedron, two adjacent planes, give an angle, 

of 109 28'. (See Arseniate of Iron. ) 
Chromate of Lead. Oblique prism, of 93° 30', and 86° 30'. (See 

Chabasie.) 
Chrysolite. Primitive, a cube. 
C nnibnr. Acute rhomboid, of 71° 48', and 108° 12'. 
Cobalt, Arsenical. Primary, a cube. 
Copper, Sulphuret of. Double six-sided pyramid, the incidence of an 

upper, on the adjacent plane of the lower pyramid, being about 

147° 30'. 
Copper, Muriate of. Primitive, a right rhombic prism, of 100°, and 80*. 
Copper, Phosphate of. Right rhombic prism 110°, and 70°. 
Corundum. Primary, rhomboid, of 86 4 , and 93 r 56'. 
Cyanite. Primary, a doubly oblique prism, of 106° 15', and 73° 45', of 

the terminal plane on the prism, in one direction, 100° 50*, and 

79° 10 , and in another, 93° 15 , and 86° 45 , alternately. (See 

Chabasie, Sillimanite, Clevelandite, and Bitter-Spar.) 

Diopside. Primary, oblique rhombic prism, of 87° 5', and 92° 55' al- 
ternately, 

Egeran. Angles of cleavage, 90°. 

Epidote. Primary, right oblique angled prism of 1 15° 30*, and 64° 30'. 

(See Arragonite ) 
Eudyalite. Lateral planes, 120°. Summit, with the lateral planes,90°. 

Felspar. See Adularia. 

F'hmlite. Rinrht prism, with rhombic bases, of 100° and 80°. 

Fettenstein. Cleaves parallel to all the planes, and diagonals of a right 

rhombic prism, of 1 12 , and 68°. 
Fucite. Cleaves parallel to the lateral planes of a rhombic prism, of 

87°, and 93°. 
Galena. Primary, the cube. 
Gphhnite. Primary, the cube. 
Glauberite. Primary, rhombic prism, lateral planes, 83° 20', and 96*40'* 

Terminal, and lateral planes, 104° 15 , and 75 1 45', alternately. 

Hedenbergite. Cleavage, parallel to the sides of a rhombic prism, of 
124° 34T and 55° 30 , alternately. 



TABLE OP ANGLES. IXV 

Hornblende. Cleavage, parallel to the sides, of 124° 3V, and 66° W, 

alternately. (See Actynolite, and Arfwedsonite ) 
Humitt. Right rhombic prism, of 120 , and 60 alternately. 
Hypersthene. Rhombic prism, sides, 87°, and 93', alternately. 

Jdocrase. Right prism with square bases, of 90° and 90°. 

Indianite. Cleaves into prisms of 95° 15 and 84 45 alternately, (see 

Glauberite, Quartz, and Tabular spar ) 
Iron, Arsenical. Cleaves parallel to 111° 12 and 68° 48' alternately. 
Iron Pyrites. Primary a cube, to all the parallel planes of which it 

cleaves. 
Iron Pyrites, White. Primary, a right rhombic prism of 106° and 

73". Cleavage parallel to all its planes, (see Cyanite and Car* 

Donate of Iron.) 
Iron, Specular Oxide of. Primitive acute rhomboid of 86° 10* and 93° 

50 . (See Augite, Boumonite and Sillimanite.) 
Iron, Carbonate of. Cleavage parallel to all the planes of an obtuse 

rhomboid of 107° and 73 . f see Iron pyrites, Sillimanite and Cy- 
anite.^ 

Jenite. Primary, a rhomboid of 1 11° 30' and 68° 30\ ("see Arsenite of 
copper \) 

KiUinite. Cleavage parallel to the planes of a rhombic prism of 135* 
and 45°. 

Latrobite. Cleavage in three directions parallel to all the planes of a 
doubly oblique prism, viz. in one direction 98 30 and 81° 30', in 
another 91 and 89 , and in the third 93 30 and 86° 30'. (see 
Specular Iron, and Hypersthene.J 

Laumonite. Oblique rhombic prism, inclination of lateral planes 113° 
30 ; inclination of terminal, with the lateral planes 86 15. 

Lead, Sulphato-carbonate of. Primary, oblique prism of 120° 45' and 
59 15. 

Lead, Sulphato-tri -carbonate of. Primary, an acute rhomboid of 72* 
30 and 107° 30 . (see Carbonate of Iron.; 

Lead, Cupreous sulphato-carbonate of. Primary, a right rhombic 
prism of 95° and $5°. 

Lead, Sulphate of. Primary, a right rhombic prism of 103° 42' and 
76 18'. 

Lead, Molybdate of. Cleavage parallel to an octohedron with a square 
base ; angle of two opposite terminal planes 49° 45 ; of the up- 
per and lower terminal planes 130 15'. 

Ligurite. Oblique rhombic prism of 140° and 40' alternately. 

Manganese, Grey oxide of. Cleaves parallel to the planes of a rhom- 
bic prism of 100° and 80° 
Mica. Primary, oblique rhombic prism of 120° and 60°. 
Muriate of Soda. Primary a cube. 



LXV1 TABLE OF ANGLES. 

Orpiment. Primary, a right rhombic prism of IW trad 80°. 

Pargasite. Cleavage parallel to the lateral planes of a rhombic prism 
of 124" 30 and 55° 30 being the same with Actinolite and Horn* 
blende. 

Poly halite. Cleavage, parallel to all the planes of the cube, affording 
brilliant faces of 90 in every direction. 

Prehnite. Primary 100° and 80°. 

Pyroxene. seeAugite. 

Quartz. Primary rhomboid 94° 15' and 85° 45'. 

Realgar. Cleaves parallel to all the planes of an oblique rhombic 
prism, whose lateral planes are 74" 15 and 105 45 alternately. 
Rhomb Spar. See Bitter spar. 
Ruby, Oriental, Primary, acute rhomboid of 93° 56 and 86° 4'. 

Sahlite. Primary rhomb 92° 55' and 87° 5' ; the same as Augite. 

Sapphire. The same as Ruby. 

Selenite. Primary, a right oblique angled prism, of which the bases 

are oblique angled parallelograms of 1 13 8 and 66 52 . 
Silver. Flexible Sulphuret of. Oblique angled prism of 125* and 55° 

alternately, on the lateral planes. 
Silver, Red. Primary, obtuse rhomboid, of 108° W and 71° 30'. 
Sphene Primary, an oblique rhombic prism, lateral angles 133 Sff 

and 46° 30 , alternately. 
Spinellane. Primary, the rhombic dodecahedron, of 90° and 120°. 
Spodumene. Cleavage parallel to the planes and shorter diagonal of a 

rhombic prism of 100 and 80° ; the same as Prehnite. 
Staurotide. Primary, a right rhombic prism of 129 20 and 50° 40*. 
Sulphate o/Strontian, see Celestine 
Sulphuret of Antimony. Primary, right rhombic prism of 88° 30' and 

91° 3(K alternately. 

Tabular Spar. Cleaves into prisms of 95°20 / and 84° 40' alternately. 
(See Cupreous sulphuret of Lead, Indianite, and Quartz.) 

Thomsonite. Cleaves parallel to the lateral planes of 90°. 

Tin, Oxide of. Primary, an obtuse octahedron with a square base, the 
angle over the apex being 112° 10 and a plane of one pyramid, on 
the adjoining plane of the other 67' 50 . 

Tungstate of Lime. The angle formed by the meeting of a plane of 
the upper, with the adjoining plane of the lower pyramid 128 40'. 

Topaz. Primary, a right rhombic prism of 124 22 and 55 38 alter- 
nately. 

Tourmaline. Primary, an obtuse rhomboid of 133 30' and 46° 10' al- 
ternately. 

WaveUite. Cleavage parallel to both sides of a prism of 122° 15' and 
57 45 . 

Yenite, see Jenite. 



TABLE OF ANGLES- LXVI1 

Zinc, Red oxide of. Cleaves parallel to the planes of a six-sided prism, 
each lateral plane on the adjoining one being 120° and the ter- 
minal on the lateral plane 90". 

Zinc, Silicioos oxide of Primary, a right rhombic prism of 102 2tt 
and 77 v 30 alternately. 

Zinc, Carbonate of. Cleavage parallel to all the planes of a rhomboid 
of about 106° 30' and 73* 3a. (See AmWygonite, Bitter spar 
and Carbonate of Iron.) 

Zircon. Primary, an obtuse octohedron of 95° W and 84 20. (see 
Glanberke, Indianite, Quartz, 6lc) 

Zoisite , Cleave* parallel to the sides of a rhombic prism of 120* and GO*. 



TABULAR ARRANGEMENT. 

The following Table shews, at one view, the order in which the 
Minerals are arranged for description. The numbers on the right, 
refer to the pages where the mineral is described. 

The Species begin with Roman capitals ; the Sub-species, are 
in Italics ; and the varieties are in small type. 

Ci<ASS J. 
EARTHY MINERALS. 

This Class includes such minerals as are composed of one or more 
earths. Some of them, contain, also, small portions of one, or more, 
metallic oxides, which are mostly considered as accidental ingredi- 
ents. 



Species 1. 













page 




QUARTZ. 


page 




2 chrysoprase 


17 


si. 


Common Quartz 1 


Species 8. 


Carnelian 


a 


. 1. 


Crystallized 


it 


9. 


Agate 


18 




1 araturine 


3 


10. 


Jasper. 


19 




2 prase 


" 




1 common 


cc 




3 milky 


4 




2 ribbon 


20 




4 rose 


cc 




3 Egyptian 


ft 




5 amethyst 


cr 




4 porcelain 


te 




6 citrine 


5 




5 ruin 


cc 




7 brown 


cc 


11. 


Hornstone 


21 




8 ferruginous 

9 irised 


cc 

6 


12. 


Silicious Sinter 


a 




10 radiated 


cc 




1 opaline 


cc 




11 stalactical 


cc 




2 pearl 


* 




12 pseudomorphous " 

13 fetid 7 


13 


3 Vlichaelite 

Karpholite 


cc 

tt 




14 spongiform 


cc 


14 


Jefferson ite 


23 


2. 


15 granular 

16 smoky 

Hyalite 


cc 
cc 

8 


15 

16 


Jenite 
Garnet 


24 


2. 


Cats-eye 


tt 




1 precious 

2 common 


cc 

25 


3. 


Opal 


9 




3 pyrope 


26 




1 precious 

2 fire 


cc 




4 pycnite 


cc 




10 




5 grossular 


cc 




3 common 


cc 




6 aplome 


27 




4 semi 


cc 




7 manganesian 


cc 




5 wood 


11 




8 melanite 


cc 




6 ferruginous 


cc 




9 allochroite 


28 




7 hydrophane 


cc 




10 colophonite 


cc 




8 menilite 


12 




11 topazolite 


cc 


4. 


Flint 


tt 




12 succinite 


29 


5. 


Chalcedony 


13 


17 


Cinnamon Stone 


tt 




1 Common Chalce- 




1 romanzovite 


cc 




dony 


te 


18 


Vesuvian 


tt 




2 onyx 


14 




1 egeran 


30 




3 cacholong 


15 


19 


Gehlenite 


31 




4 sard 


te 


20 


Prehnite 


tt 


6. 


Sardonyx 


tt 




1 Kaupholite 


32 


7. 


Heliaotrope 


\ 6 . 


21 


Stilbite 


tt 




1 plasma 


17 j 


22 


Heulandite 


33 



LXX 



TABULAR ARRANGEMENT. 



2jargoon 
Species 67 Euclase 
68 Beryl 



page. I past. 

85 Species 69 Emerald 67 

70 QMonolite 88 

86 



CLASS II. 
ACIDIFEROUS EARTHY MINERALS. 

This Class includes such minerals as consist of an earth combined 
with an arid; some of them contain small portions of metal, as iron, 
manganese, and perhaps chrome. 



Subsp. 



Genus 1. LIME. 
Species 1 Carbonate of Lime 89 

1 calcareous spar " 

2 argentine 90 

3 satin spar " 

4 agaric mineral 91 

5 aphrite 92 

1 Stalactical Carbo- 
nate of Lime " 

1 stalactite " 

2 stalagmite " 

2 Granular Lime- 
stone 93 

3 Common Limestone 95 

1 fetid carbonate of 
lime 98 

2 bituminous lime- 
stone " 

3 argillo-ferruglnous 
limestone " 

4 Concret'd Carbo- 
nate of Lime 99 

1 Oolite « 

2 peastone " 

5 Chalk 100 

6 Marie 
lseparia " 
2 bituminous 101 

7 Madreporite " 

8 Calcareous Tufa " 

2 Arragonite 102 

3 Magnesian Carbo- 
nate of Lime 103 

1 dolomite " 

2 bitter spar 104 
Smeimite " 
4gurhofian " 
5 magnesian lime- 
stone 105 

€ ierro-magnesian " 



page- 
Species 4 Silicious Carbonate 

of Lime 106 

1 tabular spar " 

2 Chelmsfordite 107 

5 Phosphate of Lime " 

1 apatite " 

2 asparagus stone 108 

3 massire phosphate 
of 109 

4 silicious phosphate 

of « 

6 FluateofLime " 

1 nodular 110 

2 compact 111 

3 cblorophane " 

7 Sulphate of Lime 112 

1 crystallized " 

2 fibrous * 

3 granular 113 

4 compact " 

5 earthy 114 

6 snowy " 

7 plaster of Paris " 

8 Anhydrous Gyp- 

sum 115 

1 miiriacite " 

2 granular 116 

3 fibrous " 

4 compact " 

5 silicious '* 

9 Nitrate of Lime 117 

10 Silicious Borate 

of Lime " 

Ibotryolite u 

1 1 ArseniateofLime 1 18 
Genus 2 ALUMINE. 

1 Sub sulphate of Al- 

umine " 

1 silicious 119 

2 Sub-phosphate of 

Alumine " 



TABULA* ARKANGEtttiCT. 



urn 



Genus 3. MAGNESIA? 856 
Species 1 Carboiwtfe of Mag- 
nesia 120 

1 crystallized " 

2 compact " 

3 earthy 121 

4 pulverulent " 

2 Sulphate of Mag- 

nesia " 

3 Borate of Magnesia " 
Genus 4. BARYTES. 

1 Carbonate of Ba- 

rytes 122 

2 Sulphate of Ba- 

rytes 123 

1 lamellar 124 



pa*e. 

2 columnar 124 

3 fibroua 

4 radiated 12§ 

5 granular ** 

6 compact <c 

7 earthy «* 

Subsp. 9 Fetid Sulphate of 
Barytes " 

Genus 5 STRONTIAN. 
Species 1 Carbonate of Stron- 

tian 126 

2 Barytic Carbonate 

of Strontiau 12T 

3 Sulphate of Stron- 

tian 

1 fibrous 128 

2 foliated " 



CLASS III. 
ACIDTFEROtJS ALKALINE MINERALS. 

This Class intludes such minerals as consist chiefly of an alkali, unit' 
ed with an acid. Some oj the species contain Jortign matter, ren- 
dering them very impure. 



Genus 1. POTASH. 

page 
Species 1 Nitrate of Potash 130 
Genus 2 SODA. 

1 Carbonate of Soda 131 

2 Sulphate of Soda 132 

3 Nitt ate of Soda 

4 Borate of Soda " 



peg:©. 
Species 5 Muriate of Soda 133 
Genus 3. AMMONIA. 

1 Sulphate of Ammo- 

nia 135 

2 Muriate of Ammo- 

nia a 



class ir. 

ACIDIFEROUS A LK A LINO-EARTHY 
MlNfciiALfe. 

The minerals arranged under this Class, contain an alkali, and u» 
earth acidified by the sulphuric, or fluoric acids, forming bait* of 
various characters. 



an 



page. 
Species 1 Sulphate of Alu- 

mine and i otash 137 

2 Alum-Stone 138 

3 Alkaline Filiate of 

Lime " 



page. 
Species 4 Amblygonite 139 

6 Ann. Sulph. Soda 

and Lime " 

6 Folyhallitt " 



Ezxn 



TABULAR ARRANGEMENT. 



class r. 

ALKALINO-EARTHV MINERALS. 

The minerals belonging to this Class, consist of earths, in various 
proportions ; including, generally, in their composition, one or more 
of the alkalies. 





paee 




page. 


Species 1 Mica 

1 laminated 


141 

142 


5 white 

6 rubellite 


158 

cc 


2 Leucite 


(< 


Species 15 Sodalite 


159 


3 Andalusite 


143 


16 Spinellane 


(i 


4 Bucholzite 


(i 


17 Lythrbdes 


tt 


5 Ichthyophthalmite " 


Id Killinite 


160 


1 albin 


144 


19 Eudyalite 


cc 


6 Nacrite 


a 


20 Sommite 


1* 


7 Hauyne 


tt 


21 Analcime 


161 


8 Obsidian 


145 


1 sarcolite 


cc 


1 pearstone 


146 


22 Clinkstone 


162 


9 Gieseckite 


u 


23 Pitchstone 


tt 


10 Felspar 


(( 


24 Lava 


163 


1 common 


147 


25 Pumice 


> *« 


2 adnlaria 


148 

149 
« 

M 


26 Basalt 


164 


3 gassy 

4 Labrador 

5 green 

6 compact 

7 fetid 


1 columnar 

2 globular 


tt 
185 


150 


27 Jade 


166 


cc 


1 axe-stone 


cc 


8 anorthite 


151 


2 c aussurite 


167 


11 Talc 


tt 


28 Chabaise 


tt 


1 indurated 


152 


1 messoline 


168 


12 Steatite 


tt 


29 Gabronite 


.«' 


1 potstone 


153 


30 Lepidolite 


tt 


2 agalmatolite 


cc 


1 crystallized 


169 


13 Chlorite 


154 


31 Petalite 


tt 


1 crystallized 

2 common 


tt 
tt 


32 Spodumene 


170 


3 slate 


tt 


33 Meionite 


cc 


4 green earth 


cc 


34 Achmite 


171 


14 Tourmaline 


156 


35 Clevelandite 


tt 


1 black 


cc 


1 albite 


172 


2 green 

3 yellow 

4 mdicolite 


157 

cc 


36 Sillimanite 


tt 


158 







CLASS VI. 

NATIVE METALS AND METALIFEROUS 
MINERALS. 

This Class includes the native metals, together with the ores, or me* 
tals combined with other substances, as oxygen, sulphur, or acids. 

Genus 2. GOLD. 



Genus 1 PLATINA. 
Species 1 Native Platina 



page. 
174 



Species 1 Native Gold 



pace. 
174 



TABULAR ARRANGEMENT. 



LMIII 



paee 

1 argentiform 176 

Genus 3. MERCURY. 

ecies 1 Native Mercury 177 

2 Native Amalgam ' 

3 Sulphuret of Mer- 

cury ' 

1 hepatic cinnabar 178 

2 fibrous " 

4 Muriate of Mercu- 

ry 179 

Genus 4 SILVER. 

1 Native Silver " 

1 auriflrous 180 

2 AntimoniaJ SiVer " 

3 Arsenico-Antimo- 

nial Silver 181 

4 Bismuthic Silver " 

5 Sulphuret of Silver 182 

1 black " 

2flexibe « 

8 brittle « 

6 Sulphuretted Anti- 

monial Silver 183 

7 Sulphuret of Silver 

and Copper 184 

8 Eucairite " 

9 Carbonate of Si! vrr " 

10 Muriate of Silver 185 

11 Argillaceous Mu- 

riate of Silver " 
Genus 5. COPPER. 

1 Native Copper 186 

2 Sulphuret of Cop- 

per 187 

1 pseudo-morphous " 

2 variegated " 

3 black copper 188 

3 Ferruginous Sul- 

phuret of Copper " 
1 purple copper " 

4 Grey Copper 189 

1 arsenical 190 

2 antimonial " 

5 Tennantite " 

1 white copper « 

6 Red Oxtie of Cop- 

per 191 

1 capillary 192 

2 massive « 

3 foliated « 

4 ferruginous " 

7 Blue Carbonate of 

Copper " 



page. 
Species 8 Green Carbonate 

of Copper 193 

1 fibrosis malachite " 

2 compact mala- 

chite 194 

9 Chrysocolla 

10 Dioptase 195 

11 Muriate of Copper " 

12 Sulphate of Cop- 

per 196 

13 Phosphate of Cop- 

per 

14 Hydrous Phos- 

phate of Copper 197 

15 Arseniate of Cop- 

per " 

1 octohedral " 

2 rhomboidal 198 
8 oblique prismatic 199 

4 right prismatic M 

5 fibrous " 

16 Martial ArBeniate 

of Copper 200 

Genus 6. LEAD 

1 Native Lead 201 

2 Sulphuret of Lead " 

1 granular 282 

2 compact ; «• 
8 specular " 
4 antimonial 298 

3 Native Red Oxide 

of Lead, 204 

1 aluminous " 

4 Carbonate of Lead " 

1 acicular 206 

2 earthy " 

5 Sulphate of Lead 206 

1 sulphato-carbonate '* 

2 cupreous-sulphato- 
carbonate 207 

8 snlphato-tri-carbo- 

nate " 

4 cupreous sulphate n 

6 Mario-Carbonate of 

Lead " 

7 Phosphate of Lead 208 

1 arseniated 209 

2 blue lead " 

6 Arseniate of Lead " 

1 reniform 210 

9 Molybdate of Lead " 

10 Chromate of Lead 21 1 

1 cupreons 812 



LXXIV 



TABULAR ARRANGEMENT. 



Genus 7. BISMUTH. 



page. 
212 



*■* 



Species 1 Native Bismuth 

2 Sulphuret of Bis- 

muth 213 

1 cupreous '« 

2 plumbo-cupreouf '* 

3 Oxide of Bismuth 214 
.. y ; Genus 8 NICKEL. 

: 1 Native Nickel " 

2 Arsenical Nickel 215 

3 Arsenate of Nickel " 

4 Pimelite " 
Genus 9. COBALT 

1 Arsenical Cobalt 216 

1 grey 217 

2 Sulphuret of Cobalt 

and Copper 218 

3 Earthy Cobalt 

4 Arseniate of Co- 

balt 

5 Sulphate of Cobalt 219 
Genus 10. IRON. 

1 Native Iron " 

x 1 meteoric 220 

2 Arsenical Iron 221 

, -. 1 argentiferous " 

3 Sulphuret of Iron " 

1 radiated 222 
, 2 hepatic 223 

4 Magnetic Sulphuret 

oflron " 

5 Magnetic Oxide of 

Iron 224 

1-earthy 225 

2 sandy " 

6 Specular Oxide of 

Iron 226 

1 micaceous oxide 227 

7 Brown Oxide of 

Iron " 

1 fibrous " 

2 compact 228 

3 scaly " 

4 ochery 229 

5 umber " 

SRed Oxide oflron " 

1 fibrous " 

2 compact 280 

3 scaly « 

4 ochery «« 

9 Argillaceous Oxide 
of Iron 231 

1 co uranar •« 

2 pisiform " 



pa*e. 
8 lenticular 2S2 

4 nodular " 

5 jaspery 233 

6 compact " 

7 fibrous « 

Species 10 Bog Iron -Ore, " 

1 friable « 

2 compact 234 

11 Frankhnite " 

12 HydrousOxide oflron " 

1 Cronstedite « 

13 Hydrous Sulphuric 

Oxide oflron 235 

14 Native Muriate of 

Iron 

15 Carbonate of Iron 236 

16 Phosphate of Iron " 

1 earthy 237 

17 Sulphate of Iron 238 

18 Chromate oflron " 

19 Arseniate of Iron 239 

20 Oxalate of Iron 240 
Genus II. URANIUM. 

1 Black Oxide of Urani- 

um " 

2 Green Oxide of Ura- 

nium 241 

1 earthy 242 

Genus 12. TIN. 

1 Oxide of I in 242 

1 fibrous 244 

2 toad's eye wood tin " 

3 columbiferous " 

2 Sulphuret of Tin and 

Copper .'• 

Genus 13. ZINC. 

1 Sulphuret of Zinc 245 

1 phosphorescent 246 

2 fibrous 247 

3 mammillated " 

4 cadmiferous " 

5 black " 

2 Red Oxide of Zinc 248 

3 Silicious Oxide of Zinc " 

4 Carbonate of Zinc 249 

1 crystallized " 

2 compact 250 

3 pseudo-morphous " 

4 earthy »« 

5 cupreous «« 

5 Sulphate of Zinc 251 
Genus 14. MANGANESE 
1 Black Oxide of Man- 
ganese 252 



TABULAR ARRANGEMENT. 



Lxxr 



pfl?P. 

1 radiated and fibrous 262 

2 compact 233 
8 earthy « 
4 silvery «« 

Species 2 Silicious Oxide of 

Manganese 254 

3 Carbonate of Manga- 

nese " 

1 allagite 255 

2 rhodonite " 

3 horn mangan " 

4 Sulphuret of Manga- 

nese " 

5 Phosphate of Manga- 

nese 256 

6 Cupreous Manganese " 
Genus 15 MOLYBDENA 

1 Sulphuret of Molybde- 

na 257 

2 Oxide of Molybdena " 
Genus 16 ANTIMONY. 

1 Native Antimony 253 

2 Sulphuret of Antimo- 

ny 259 

1 radiated " 

2 plumose " 
8 compact " 

4 nickeiiierous 260 

3 Sulphuretted Oxide of 

Antimony " 

4 Oxide of Antimony 261 
Genus 17. CHROME. 

1 Oxide of Chrome " 

Genus 18 ARSENIC. 

1 Native Arsenic 262 

2 Oxide of Arsenic 263 

3 Sulphuret of Arsenic " 

1 red 

2 yellow 264 
Genus 19. COLUMBIUM. 
1 Ferruginous Oxide of 

Columbium 265 



page. 
Species 2 Ittrious Oxide of Co- 
iumbium 265 

1 black 1:66 

2 yellow « c 

Genus 20. CERIUM. 

1 Silicious Oxide of Ce- 

rium 267 

2 Allanite " 

1 Orthife « 

3 Ittrio Calcareous Ox- 

ide of Cerium 268 

4 Fluate of Cerium 268 

1 neutral fluate " 

2 «i !>fluate " 

3 fluate of ittria and 

cerium 260 

Genus 21 TITANIUM. 

1 Oxide of Titanium " 

1 red « 

2 octohedral 271 

2 Ferruginous Oxide of 

Titanium •' 

1 nigrine 272 

2 menaccanite «' 

3 isrene «« 

3 Silico-Calcareous Ox- 

ide of Titanium 273 

4 Crichtonite 274 
Genus 22. TELLURIUM. 
1 Native Tellurium 275 

1 auro-argentiferous " 

2 auro-plumbiferous " 

Genus 23. TUNGSTEN. 

1 Oxide of Tungsten 276 

2 Tungstate of Iron " 

3 Calcareous Oxide of 

Tungsten 277 

Genus 24. PALLADIUM. 
1 Native Palladium 278 
Genus 25. IRIDIUM 279 
Genus -^6. CADMIUM " 
Genus 27. SELENIUM" 



" CLASS VII. 
COMBUSTIBLE MINERALS. 

The substances belonging to this Class, combine with oxygen, under 
ordinary, tircumstances not requiring with an exception or two, a 
high temper ature,or the aid of pure oxygen, to effect their combustion. 

p«e*. I P»*p. 

280 I Species 2 Volcanic Sulphur 2& 



Species 1 Native Sulphur 



fcXXVI 



TABULAR ARRANGEMENT. 



Species 3 Diamond 

4 Miner.. I Charcoal 

5 C:.rburet of Iron 

6 Anthracite 

1 slaty 

2 maxsive 

3 columnar 

7 Mineral Oil 

1 nitptha 

2 petro eum 

8 Bitumen 

1 earthy 

2 elastic 
8 compact 

9 Mineral Coal 



page. 

281 


1 Mack coal 


pare. 
291 


285 


2 can&el coal 


292 


10 Lignite 


21>3 




1 brfttlft 


294 


286 


2 fibroM 


« 


287 


8 earthy 


296 


« 


11 Jet 


295 


c< 

288 
« 


12 Dy sod ile 


296 


13 Amber 


IC 


289 


14 Hatchetine 


297 


290 


15 Mellite 


tt 


u 


16 Retinasphlt 


298 


290 


17 Fossil Copal 


M 


291 







CLASS I. 
EARTHY MINERALS. 

This Class includes such minerals as are composed of one or more 
earths. Some of them also contain small portions of one or more 
metallic oxides, which however are not considered as essential ingre- 
dients. 

QUARTZ. 

Pure quartz, as it exists in transparent rock-crystal, is composed 
of silex or silicious earth, with two or three per cent of water. 

Silex is perfectly white, without either taste or smell. It feels 
harsh ; is insoluble in any of the mineral acids ; infusible alone, but 
melts and forms glass with potash. It is a compound body, and ac- 
cording to Berzelius, is composed of about 50 per cent of oxygen, 
united to an equal proportion of its base, called silicium. 

fyecies 1.— COMMON QUARTZ. 

Quartz Hyalin, H. Common Quartz, C. Crystallized Quartz, P. 

Rhomboidal Quartz, J. Rhombohedral Quartz, M. 

External Characters. — Colors, white, yellowish, red, 
bluish, brown, and greenish, or green, or transparent 
and colorless ; occurs massive ; in concretions, with a 
diverging and circular structure ; in confused crystal- 
line masses, of which the structure is not visible : also 
in crystals ; form, the six-sided prism, terminated by 
six-sided pyramids : also the dodecahedron, or double 
six-sided pyramid. Both forms subject to a great va- 
riety of modifications ; scratches glass ; sp. gr. 2.63. 

Chemical Characters. — Infusible. Two pieces rubbed together give 
a peculiar smell, like that of the electric fluid ; insoluble in the acids, 
except the fluoric. 

Composition. — Silex, nearly pure. — Berzelius. 

Sub-species 1.— CRYSTALLIZED QUARTZ. 

Quartz Hyalin, H. Crystallized Quartz, P. Rhomboidal Quartz, J. 
Common Quartz, C. Rhombohedral Quartz, M. 

General characters, as in the species. Common 
1 



COMMON QUARTZ. 



form of the crystals, six-sided prisms, terminated by 
six-sided pyramids. Primitive form, the rhomboid. 



/& 





Fig. 1. The six-sided prism, terminated by six-sided pyramids. 

Fig. 2. The dodecahedron, or two six-sided pyramids, joined base 
to base, without the intervention of the prism. 

Fig. 3. The two pyramids separated from each other by the in- 
tervention of a very short six-sided prism. 

Observation 1. In figure 1, the terminating pyramids may be con- 
sidered as separated several inches from each other, by the interven- 
ing prism, or as a prism several inches long, terminated by pyramids. 

In figure 3. the pyramids are merely separated by the short prism 
interposed between their bases. This form however is still consid- 
ered a prism, terminated by pyramids. 

In figure 2, the prism entirely disappears, and the two terminal 
pyramids join base to base. It now assumes a figure of twelve sides, 
each end beginning and terminating a six-sided pyramid. 

2. These crystals are subject to a variety of modifications, by trun- 
cation, or the replacement of their edges, or solid angles, by plane 
faces of various sizes and shapes. 

3. Crystallized quartz, not only occurs in single distinct crystals; 
but is often found implanted in groups, the pyramids of which only 
appear distinct. It also occurs lining the cavities of other minerals, 
or incrusting their surfaces in small, but frequently in very perfect 
crystals, the pyramidal terminations having a high polish, and the 
specimen appearing as if it was studded with gems. 

Quartz occurs in primitive, transitive, and secondary rocks. 
Localities. — Madagascar, Dauphiny, the Alps, Cornwall, &c. 
Observation 1. — The finest crystals come from Madagascar and the 
Alps. 

2. Specimens sometimes contain water, air, or bitumen enclosed 
These are rare. 

3. Crystals often enclose clay, titanite, hornblende, asbestus, iron 
ore, native silver, &c. 

4. According to Pinkerton, nature produces regular rock crystals 
in the vast caverns of the Alps, of such enormous size, that they 
weigh several tons each. 

,U. S. The localities of rock crystal are very numerous in this 
country", s A few, only where fine specimens are found can be 
given 

Lake George, N. Y. The crystals are perfectly transparent and 
sometimes 5 inches long. — SiUiman. Frederic County, Md. The 



COMMON QUARTZ. 3 

crystals are scattered on the surfaceof the ground, and are perfectly 
transparent. — Hoyden. Grafton, Ver. Remarkably pore and trans- 
lucent — HaU. Newbury District, 8. C. ; Abington and Plainfield. 
Mass. 

Uses. — It is much used, when cut and polished, as an inferior gem. 
The ancients made engravings upon it, but it is considered too soft 
for this purpose. The transparent variety is polished for spectacles, 
and has the advantage of not being easily scratched. 

Obs. 1. — Crystals may be colored by plunging them while hot into 
a vegetable, or metallic solution which possesses color, but they are 
very apt to crack by the process. 

2. — Quartz when set, may be distinguished from glass, or paste, 
by touching it with a fine file, which will cut the glass, but will not 
scratch the quartz. 

The varieties of this species are numerous, and are distinguished 
chiefy by their colors. 

Variety 1. — avantumne. 

Quartz hyalin avanturine, H. Avanturine, P. Avanturine 
Quartz, C. 

External Characters. — Colors, brown, yellow, grey, 
bluish, greenish, or white ; variegated by brilliant 
points or spangles, of a golden or silver color. 

Observation, — These spangles are small plates of mica, of various 
colors, interspersed through the mass. It is employed in jewelry, 
and some specimens are exceedingly beautiful. It is sometimes imi- 
tated by art, apparently, by sprinkling recent brass filings into melted 
glass. 

Localities. — Cape de Gatte, Spain. This is of the finest kind. 
Scotland, England, France, &c. 

Uses. — It is much esteemed in jewelry. 

Variety 2. — prase, green quartz, 
Quartz hyalin vert-obscur, H. Prasem, A. Prase, P. C. 
External Characters. — Color, dark green ; occurs in 
crystals, and crystalline masses ; lustre resinous, or vi- 
treous ; translucent. 

Observation 1. It is seldom crystallized, but is commonly found 
in pebbles, or masses among other minerals. 

2. It seems to be common quartz colored with actynolite, or per* 
haps epidote. Sometimes the fibres of the actynolite are distinct. 

localities. Saxony in a metallic bed. Scotland with actynolite. 
Moravia, England, &c. 

U. 8. On Lake Superior. Near Baltimore, and on the west side of 
Blue Ridge, Bfd. Milton, Brighton, and West Cambridge, Mass. 

Use. It is much esteemed as an ornamental stone, and is cut and 
polished for jewelry. 



4 COMMON 4UARTZ. 

Variety 3. — milky quartz. 
Quartz hyalin laiteux, H. Milky Quartz, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, milk-white ; occurs massiyc and 
in crystals ; hardness, that of quartz. 

Obs. When crystal i zed, it is remarkable that the crystals are more 
regular in their forms than those of the transparent variety.— P&J. 

lips. 

Variety 4. — rose quartz. 
Quartz hyalin rose, H. Rose Quartz, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, rose-red, which in small pieces 
appears pale. Occurs massive and in crystals ; trans- 
lucent, or nearly transparent 

Obs. It fades, when exposed for a long time to the light. Its color 
is probably owing to a small quantity of manganese. 

Local. Bavaria, Bohemia, Finland, Siberia. 

U. 8. Southbury, Con. It is of a delicate color, and forms an insu- 
lated mass. — SiUiman. ; also at East-Haddam ; Plainfield, and Wil- 
liamsburg, Mass. ; West-Chester, N. F. ; Keene and Acworth, 
N.H. 

Use. It is cut and polished for jewelry. 

Var. 5.— AMETHYST. VIOLET QUARTZ. 

Quartz hyalin Violet, H. Violet Quartz. Amethyst, P. Ame- 
thyst, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, violet blue, often deep and pale 
in the same specimen ; occurs most commonly in crys- 
tals ; form the same as common quartz ; crystals gen- 
erally grouped, the pyramids only appearing distinct; 
translucent ; hardness, that of quartz. 

Composition. Silex 97.50 ; alumine 0.25 ; oxide of iron 0.50 ; ox- 
' ide of manganese 0.25. — Rose. 

Obs. I. Crystals of amethyst are rarely of the same color through- 
out. The summits only, are commonly purple, the prism being color- 
less, or tinged greenish. 

2. The Orientals were very partial to this stone. The color, they 
considered that of new wine, and the Persians believed that wine 
drank from a cup of amethyst, would not intoxicate. The oriental 
amethyst is a sapphire, but it is probable that the present species was 
the one so highly esteemed, as the sapphire is found only in small 
crystals. 

3. Crystals of amethyst very rarely occur single, but are fasciculat- 
ed, or aggregated, and separate into irregular columnar pieces, when . 
struck. 

4. By long exposure to heat, the color is said to disappear. 

It occurs in greenstone and porphyry, often forming geodes. It is 
also sometimes found in primitive rocks. 



COMMON QUARTZ. 5 

Us$$. It is highly ?alaed as anornamenttl stone, and is cat and set 
for ear rings, necklaces, watch seals, &c. at the present day. 

The name Amethyst occurs in Scripture. It was the ninth stone 
in order, on the Jewish high priest's breast-plate of judgment, with 
the name Issachar engtaved thereon. 

Some of the finest engravings are on this stone. Among these are 
•the bust of Trajan in the Royal Library at Paris ; and more recently 
done, are the Apollo Belvidere, the Farnese Hercules, and the group 
of Laocoon, by Sirkti. 

Local. Cambay in India, Siberia, Spain, Sweden, Bohemia, France, 
England, &c. 

The finest are brought from India, Spain, and Siberia. 

U. S. Wallingford, Farmington, Berlin, and East-Haven, Con. 
— Cleaveland. Mount Tom, Mass. in beautiful crystals. — StUiman. 
Ludlow and Westminster, Vt. Pacquanack Mountain, and at Pat- 
terson, N. J. Chester County, Penn. in large transparent crys- 
tals.— Oibnor. Hampton Falls, and White Hills, N. H. Belcher- 
town, Mass, in rounded masses sometimes 18 inches in diameter. — 
Shepard. 

Var. 6. — yellow quartz, citrine. 
Quartz hyalin jaune, H. Yellow Quartz, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, wine, honey, or straw yellow; 
occurs massive and in crystals; translucent ; semi-trans- 
parent. 

When heated, its color entirely disappears in a few seconds. 

Obs. It is called false, or Bohemia topaz. 

Local. Carngorm, Scot. ; Cornwall, Eng. 

U. 8. Southampton, Mass. Near St. Louis, on the banks of the 
Mississippi. Bine Ridge, Penn. Ac worth, N. H. 

Distinctive Characters. — The topaz, for which citrine is often 
mistaken, scratches quartz, which citrine does not 

Var. 7. — brown quartz. 
Ext. Char. — Color, various shades of brown ; trans- 
lucent. 

Local. Jetland furnishes the finest crystals of this variety. 

Var. 8; — FERRUGINOUS QUARTZ. 

Quartz rubigineux, H. Ferruginous Quartz, A. P. C. Iron 
Flint, J. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish, or reddish, sometimes 
blood, or brownish red ; occurs massive and crystalliz- 
ed in the usual form of quartz ; translucent or opake ; 
fracture small conchoidal. 

Chem. Char. — Some specimens become magnetic when heated. 
Composition. Silex 93.5 ; oxide of iron 6.0 ; water 1.0. — Buchotz. 



6 COMMON QUARTZ. 

Obs. 1. The massive variety is sometimes crystallized on the sur- 
face ; and sometimes groups of common white crystals terminate in 
ferruginous quartz, the summits only being colored. 

2. This variety of quartz is colored by the oxide of iron : hence 
when the yellowish kinds are exposed to heat, oxygen is absorbed, 
and the color is changed to red. 

Ferruginous quartz is most commonly found in primitive moon- 
tains, associated with the ores of iron. 

Local Bohemia, Spain, England, Scotland, Siberia, and* Saxony. 

U. S. Litchfield, Con. At Mentzer's Gap, Perm, in loose masses 
terminated at each extremity by three faces. — Hay den. 

Var. 9. irised quartz. 

Quartz hyalin irise* H. Irised quartz C. Irisated quartz P. 

Obs. 1. This variety is peculiar only for reflecting a series of pris- 
matic colors, either internally, or externally. When the reflection is 
externa], it probably proceeds from the deposit of some metallic ox- 
ide on the quartz. The internal colors obviously proceed from cracks, 
or fissures, which are sometimes in the direction of the natural joints. 

2 Sometimes the internal play of colors may be produced, by plun- 
ging a crystal moderately heated, into cold water. 

Var. 10. RADIATED QUARTZ. 

Quartz hyalin fibreux H. Radiated quartz P. C. 
Obs. It occurs in crystals generally small, and closely aggregated, 
which radiate from a point. 

Far. 11. STALACTICAL QUARTZ. 

Obs. This variety according to Phillips, occurs in one of the Corn- 
wall Copper mines. It has, in no respect, the appearance of chalce- 
dony, since it consists of strait stalactites several inches long, compo- 
sed of an aggregation of crystals diverging from the centre. 

A beautiful specimen of this variety in my possession from South 
America, is studded at every point externally, with small brilliant 
crystals. Internally, and particularly near the surface, it is composed 
of aggregated, radiating crystals. Color, milk-white. 

Var. 12. PSEUDOMORPHOUS QUARTZ. 

Quartz hyalin pseudomorphique, H. Pseudomorphous Quartz, P. C. 
This variety either takes the forms of crystals, or of 
cavities once occupied by crystals. 

Obs. These specimens sometimes present very curious appearan- 
ces, viz : hollow vacant spaces, of the exact form of some crystal which 
the quartz had once invested, but which had been decomposed and 
washed away. Also, the solid form of some crystal, under which 
real crystals of quartz never appear, and which form it took from the 
deposition of quartz into the cavity once occupied by some real crys- 
tal. 

Local. Bristol, Cornwall, and Durham, Eng. 

U. S. Southampton and Deerfield, Mass. Simsbury, Conn. 



COMMON QUARTZ. 7 

Var. 13.— FETID QUARTZ. 

Quartz hyalin gras, H. Fat, or Fetid Quartz, P. Fetid Quartz, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, grey, of several shades, sometimes 
marked with spots or stripes of a dark hue ; occurs 
massive, and sometimes in crystals ; translucent ; lus- 
tre resinous ; gives a fetid odor when struck. 

Obs. 1. According to Professor Cleaveland this variety, never 
transparent, is always translucent or opake, and in some instances 
phosphoresces by friction. 

2. The odour which it emits is like that of sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and probably arises from some bituminous matter, which at the same 
time gives it color. 

Local. Near Nantes, in France. 

U. 8. Topsham, Me. On the banks of Connecticut river, from 
Bellows Fails to Middletown. — Hitchcock. 

Var. 14. — spongiform quartz. 
Float-Stone, J. Spongiform Quartz, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, yellowish, or greyish white; 
occurs massive ; texture loose and spongy ; easily bro- 
ken ; very light ; scratches glass ; floats on water for a 
few minutes. 

Comp. Silex, 93; carbonate of Lime , 2. — Vanquelin. 

Obs. Professor Mohs says, that float-scone consists of a delicate 
tissure of minute crystals, visible under a powerful magnifier, and 
that it insensibly passes into hornstone and flint. 

Var. 15. GRANULAR QUARTZ. 

Quartz hyalin granulaire, H. Granular Quartz, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, or greyish white ; occurs 
massive ; structure, fine granular ; often friable ; some- 
times flexible ; opake. 

Obs. The appearance of this variety resembles a white sand-stone 
without cement. In thin plates it is sometimes slightly flexible. 

It sometimes forms extensive beds. 

Local. Brazil and near St. Gothard. Whitby, Eng. The flexible 
kind occurs at all these localities. 

V. 8. Vernon and Middlebury, Vcr. Williamstown, Mass. where 
it forms a hill. 

Var. 16. — smoky quartz. 
Quartz hyalin enfume, H. Smoky Quartz, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brownish yellow, of various 
shades ; translucent, or nearly transparent. 

Obs. Objects seen through it appear as they do through smoked 
glass. 

Local. Cairngorm, Scot, and Brazil. 

\ 



b CAT 8 EYE— OPAL. 

V. S. White Hills, N. H Shrewsbury and Wardsborough, Ver. 
Lancaster county, Penn Fine crystals — Seybert. Cornwall, and 
Torrington, Conn Topsham, Maine. Acworth, iV. H. Fine spe- 
cimens. 

Uses. It is employed in jewelry. Some very ancient engravings 
are said to be on this kind of stone. 

Sub-species %-*HYALl TE * MULLEWS GLASS. 
Quartz hyalin concretione, H. Hyalite. Muller's Glass, P. J. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish, sometimes grey; often 
bears a strong resemblance to gum arabic ; occurs sta- 
lactical, massive, botryoidal, and in thin layers often 
curved ; lustre vitreous ; hardness equal to quartz ; 
sp. gr. 2. 4. 

Comp. Silex, 92 ; water, 6 3 ; alumine, a trace. — Bucholz. 

It is found chiefly lining amgdaloid, the cavities of burr-stone, 
trap, &c. 

Local. Frankfort on the Maine, Mexico, and at Chemneitz, in 
Hungary. 

U. S. In the cavities of the burr -stone, of Geo. — HaU. 

Spe.2— CAT'S EYE. 
duartz-agathe chatoyant, H. Cat's Eye, J P. C. 
Exter. Char. — Color, grey, with a greenish tinge ; al- 
so brown, or reddish ; gives out internal white chato- 
yant reflections of light, sometimes greenish and pearly, 
resembling the reflection from the eye of the cat; trans- 
lucent in one direction, and nearly transparent in an- 
other ; scratches quartz. 

Chem. Char.— Infusible, but becomes opake and spotted, by heat. 

Comp. Silex, 95; alumine, 1,75; lime, 1,50; oxide of iron, 0,25. 
— Klaproth. 

Obs. This is a singular and beautiful little stone which comes from 
India, ready cut and polished. The size is about that of half a ha- 
zlenut, and it is generally cut in form of an ovate hemisphere. Its 
peculiar pearly reflections are said to be caused by minute fibres of 
amianthus, by which it is penetrated. 

It is in great request as a gem, and bears a high price. 

Its geological situation and localities are unknown. 

Spe. 3.— OPAL t 

Quartz resinite, H. Opal, P C. Indivisible Quartz, J. Uncleav- 
able duartz, M. 

Remarks. This species contains one of the most beautiful and 

* Greek, from its glassy appearance. 

t From the Greek, signifyiog eye. The ancients believed this stone had the 
power of strengthening the eye. 



OPAL, » 

costly of precious stones. The composition of opal differs from that 
of quartz, chiefly in its containing a greater quantity of water. 
None of the varieties are hard enough to give fire with steel. 

Var, i. — precious opal, noble opal. 
Quartz resinite opalin, H. Precious opal, J. P. C. 

Ext Char. — Colors, white, milk white, or yellowish 
white ; occurs in small masses, or concretions ; translu- 
cent, or transparent ; presents, as it is turned in differ- 
ent directions towards the light, most of the prismatic 
colors; fracture conchoidal; scratches glass; easily 
broken; sp. gr. 2,1. 

Chem. Char. Decrepitates and loses its colors when heated, but is 
infusible. 

Comp. Silex 90 ; water 10. — Klaproth. 

Obs. 1. The precious opal is readily known from its beautiful dis- 
play of changeable colors ; these are green, blue yellow, red, and 
purple of various shades, proceeding from the interior of the gem, 
and depending on the direction in which it is turned towards tht 
light. 

2. The phenomenon of this beautiful play of colors, has not been 
satisfactorily explained. Hauy attributes it to the fissures of the in- 
terior being filled with films of air, agreeably to the law of Newton's 
colored rings, when two pieces of glass are pressed together. 

Mans objects to this explanation, on the ground that, were this the 
fact, the opal would present nothing but a kind of irridescence. 

Dr. Brewster, however, after a great number of observations, con- 
cludes that the playnof light depends upon openings in the interior of 
the mass of opal, which are not accidental fissures, but of a uniform 
shape, and which reflect the tints of Newton's scale. 

3. The opal was well known to the ancients, and is mentioned by 
Pliny, who states that the Roman Senator Nonius chose to suffer 
banishment, rather than part with a valuable one to Mark Anthony. 

Local. Hungary ; where it is found in small masses, in a vein of 
clay stone porphyry. Also in the Faroe Islands ; near Freyberg, and 
m South America. 

Obs. The Hungarian opal mines are at Czerwiniza, where they 
are found of various qualities, from the white translucent common opal, 
to the utmost refulgence of the lively play of colors by which that 
noble gem is distinguished. 

Uses. The opal is cut and polished for the finest and most costly 
kind of jewelry. In setting it, a black foil is said to have a power- 
ful effect in heightening its play of colors Some opals of remark- 
able beauty, are equal in value to the diamond. 

Obs. Jameson relates that in the cabinet at Vienna, there are two 
pieces of opal, one of which is 5 1-2 inches long, by 2 1-2 inches in 
diameter; and the other about the size of a hen's egg. Both of them 



10 OPAL. 

exhibit a very rich and splendent play of colors. These are from 
Hungary, and probably the largest specimens ever found. 

Far. 2. — pirb opal. 
Quartz resinite girasol, H. Fire opal, J. P. Girasol, C, 
Ext. Char. This variety differs from the precious opal 
in possessing only a red reflection, when turned toward 
the sun, or a strong light. 

Obs. The color of fire opal is bluish white or milk white. It is 
said to occur with the precious opal, but to be much more rare. 

Jameson describes a tire opal of a hyacinth red, which gives car- 
mine red and greenish reflections. It comes from Mexico. 

Mr. Phillips possesses a specimen of fire opal from Cornwall. 

Var. 3. COnTMON OPAL. 

Quartz resinite commun, H. Common opal, J. A. C. P. 

Ext. Char. Color, white, with shades of yellow, blue, 
or green ; occurs massive, and in rolled pieces ; frac- 
ture perfectly conchoidal; fragments sharp edged; 
lustre resino-vitreous ; translucent ; is scratched by 
quartz ; brittle ; scratches glass ; sp. gr. 2. 1. 

Chem. Char. Infusible ; insoluble in acids. 

Camp. Silex 92; water 7.75 ; oxid of iron 0.25. Phillips. 

Obs. 1. This variety is entirely without the play of prismatic col- 
ors which makes the precious opal so valuable 

2. When viewed by the transmitted light, the milk white variety 
often appears of a different color. 

Dist. Char. Pitchstone which it may sometimes resemble, is fusi- 
ble, and of a darker color. Its fracture is more perfectly conchoidal, 
and it is more translucent than semi-opal. It is not as hard as chal- 
cedony, cacholong, or hornstone. 

Local Hungary, Saxony, Bohemia and Silesia. In Hungary it is 
found with the precious opal. 

U. S. Near Easton, Perm. Litchfield, Conn. 

Uses. It is cut and polished for Jewelry. 

Some fine ancient engravings are on this stone, but it is considered 
too soft for this purpose. Of Modern engravings on it, a cameo is 
mentioned, bearing the likeness of Louis XIII, when a child. 

Var. 4. — semi-opal. 
Semi-opal, J. A. P. C 
Ext. Char.— Colors, white, greyish, yellowish, or 
brownish ; occurs in compact masses, also stalactical 
and reniform ; fracture imperfectly conchoidal ; trans- 
lucent, or nearly opake; colors generally dull, and 
sometimes runs in spots, or veins ; brittle ; often cov- 
ered with an opake crust from decomposition. 



OPAL. 11 

Chem. Char. Infusible. 

Comp. Siiex 85; carbon 1 ; ammonical water 8 ; oxide of Iron 
1.75.~-Klaprotk. 

Dist. Char. It is more opake than common opal ; and is also hard- 
er. Pitchstone is generally of a darker color, and is fusible. It 
never possesses the peculiar milky whiteness of cacholong, nor the 
hardness of chalcedony. 

It occurs in most countries of Europe, especially in silver veins, 
traversing granite and gneiss. 

Local. Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Isles, and France. 

U. S. Bare Hills, MdL Corlear's Hook, N. Y. At the Falls of the 
Delaware, Peon. 

Far. 5. wood opal. 
Quartz resinite xyloide, H. Wood opal, P. A. Opalized wood, C. 

Ext Char. — Color, several tints of white, grey, brown, 
and black ; occurs massive, with a ligneous aspect ; 
fracture conchoidal ; harder than semi-opal ; lustre re- 
sinous or waxy ; translucent on the edges, or opake ; 
sp. gr. 2. r 

Obs. 1. This variety resembles semi-opal, except in its woody ap- 
pearance. 

2. It is distinguished, according to Phillips, from petrified wood, by 
its greater lightness and translucency and its conchoidal fracture. 

Local. Hungary, in alluvium. Transylvania, in trap. 

Far. 6. — ferruginous opal. 
Jasper Opal, J. Ferruginous Opal, J. P. C. 
Ext Char. — Color, some shade of red, yellow, grey, 
or brown, generally deep, sometimes spotted ; occurs 
massive; opake or feebly translucent at tne edges; frac- 
ture flat conchoidal ; lustre shining : sp. gr. 2. 

Comp. Silex 43.5 ; oxide of iron 47 ; water 7.5. 

Dist. Char. Differs externally from common opal in the deepness 
of its colors. It probably passes' into jasper, from which it is some- 
times difficult to distinguish it. 

Local. Hungary, Siberia, Saxony, and near Constantinople. 

Far. 7.— HYDROPHANB.* 

Quartz r&sinite hydrophane, H. Hydrophane, A. P. C. 

Ext CAar.-Colors, white, or yellowish; occurs massive, 
and in small concretions ; opake, when dry, but be- 
comes translucent and opalescent after immersion in 
water ; adheres to the tongue ; fracture conchoidal. 

* From the Greek, in allasioa to its becoming transparent in water. 



12 FLINT. 

Comp. Silex 93.13 ; water 5.25; alumine 1.02. — Klaproth. 

Obs. 1. The curious property which this variety possesses ef be 
coming transparent, on immersion, seems to depend on the porous na- 
ture of the stone. Other porous substances, containing air, as white 
paper and linen, become more or less transparent when their pores 
are filled with water instead of air. 

2. Winklemann describes an ancient engraved stone, with three 
layers, one of which was white ; and says that the white layer be- 
came black, when the ring in which it was set was worn, but that it 
became white again, when the ring was laid aside. 

3. It is probable that the white layer, was an hydrophone, and that 
the moisture of the hand rendered it so transparent as to show the 
black one to which it was attached, through it, and thus to make it- 
self appear black. — Rees* Cyclop. 

Far. 8. — MENILITE. 
Quartz resinite subluisant, H. Menilite, J. P. G. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish grey, brownish, or ash 
grey ; occurs in small (uberous, or roundish masses ; 
fracture conchoidal, sometimes with an apparent slaty 
structure ; lustre dull ; translucent or opake ; aspect 
argillaceous ; scratches glass ; sp. gr. 2.25. 

Chem. Char. — Infusible ; insoluble in acids. 

Comp. Silex 85.5 ; alumine 1 ; water 11 ; with a small portion of 
oxide of iron and bitumen. — Klaproth. 

Local. Near Paris, imbedded in clay, at a place called MenH-Mon- 
tant, and hence the name. 

Species 4.— FLINT. 
Quartz agathe pyromaque, H. Flint, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, yellow, and blackish, of va- 
rious shades ; occurs in nodular masses, covered exter- 
nally with a white chalky coat ; texture compact; frac- 
ture perfectly conchoidal ; lustre glimmering, some- 
what greasy ; fragments sharp edged ; translucent on 
the edges ; gives lively and copious sparks with steel ; 
scratches quartz ; sp. gr. 2.58 to 2.63. 

Chem. Char. — Infusible, but loses its color, and becomes opake 
and brittle. 

Comp. Silex 98 ; lime 0.5 ; alumine 0.25 ; oxide of iron 0.25 ; wa- 
ter 1. — Klaproth. 

It is found in the upper part of chalk formations, in marl, in lime- 
stone formations, and in alluvial deposits. 

Local. Denmark, Poland, Siberia, France, England. Immense 
beds are found in the north of France, and at Dover, in England. 

Obs. Nodules of flint are sometimes found enclosing organic re- 
roaine, and Kir wart quotes an author who says that 126 silver coins were 



CHALCEDONY 13 

.found in different nodules of flint at Grinoc, in Denmark, and an iron 
nail, at Potsham. 

Uses. Its most important use is that of making gun flints. It there- 
fore assumes a very important rank among minerals, and particularly 
when it is considered that the defence, and even liberty of a nation 
may depend on its locality. 

The manufacture of gun flints is chiefly confined to France and 
England. In the former country, in the vallies of the Seine and 
Marne, immense beds of flint are found, and the manufacture is car- 
ried on to a great extent. 

Good stones for this purpose are however comparatively scarce, for 
Dolomieu states, that out of 20 beds, which the workmen go through, 
not more than one or two, contain good flints for working. Nor can 
the stones, though good when first raised, be worked after being ex- 
posed to the air for any considerable time. 

The instruments used in fashioning gun flints are, a large hammer 
with square heads ; a small hammer with blunt points nearly in the 
form of a triangle ; a little steel instrument, in shape of a wheel, with 
a handle in the centre, called a roller ; and a chisel seven or eight 
inches long, bevelled on both sides. 

Having selected a good specimen of silex, the workman seats him- 
self on the ground and proceeds as follows. 

1. Placing the mass on the left thigh, he divides it in the middle 
with a few gentle blows of the large hammer. 

2. He next takes one half of the mass, and with the small hammer, 
breaks it into pieces about 2 1-2 inches long, 1 1-2 wide, and 1-4 of an 
inch thick. This requires peculiar dexterity and much experience, 

3. To fashion the flint ; he places one of the small pieces on the 
edge of the chisel, which is supported by the fore* finger of the left 
hand, and with light blows of the roller, it breaks along the edge of 
the chisel, and is thus reduced to its proper shape and size. 

The operation of fashioning a gun flint is done in less than a mi- 
nute, and a good workman will produce a thousand per day. 

About 800 people are employed in this species of manufacture, in 
a particular section of France, and they have excavated a great pro- 
portion of the plain they inhabit 

Species 5.— CHALCEDONY.* 

This species presents several varieties which nearly agree in respect 
to fracture and hardness, but differ chiefly in respect to color. In 
several instances, however, they mutually pass into each other, so that 
it is sometimes difficult to determine where one variety terminates and 
the other begins. Chalcedony also passes insensibly into agate and 
cornelian, and perhaps into hornstone. 

Var* 1. — common chalcedony. 
Quartz agathe chalcedonia, H. Chalcedony, A. P. Common Chal- 
cedony, C. 

Ext Char. — Colors, white, bluish white, pale yellow, 

• From Ghalcedon in Asia, where it was found by the ancients. 



14 CHALCEDONY. 

brownish, greenish, and grey ; occurs in small masses, 
in nodules, stalactical concretions, and in hollow crusts; 
surface rough ; fracture conchoidal, or uneven ; frag- 
ments sharp edged ; lustre vitreous ; harder than flint ; 
translucent ; with a cloudy, or milky appearance ; sp. 
gr. 2.60. 

Chem. Char. — Infusible, but turns white and opake. 

Comp. Silex 84 ; alumine 16. — Bergman, 

Obs. 1. Chalcedony when viewed by transmitted light, appears 
milky, and sometimes clouded. 

2. It almost always appears externally with a dark colored, corrod- 
ed crust, and is often found hollow, with crystals of quartz lining its 
cavities. 

Dist. Char, It is more transparent than flint ; is never reddish 
like carnelian ; nor milk white and opake, like cacholong, nor striped 
like onyx and agate. It also differs from all these in exhibiting marks 
of internal mammillary concretions, when held between the eye and 
the light. 

Obs. Chalcedony is often called by jewellers, white carnelian. 

It is found in the cavities of rocks, as amygdaloid, porphyry, green- 
stone, and basalt. 

Local Its foreign localities are very numerous, but the finest spe- 
cimens are said to be found in Cornwall, Eng. and the Faroe Isl- 
ands. 

U. S. East-Haven, Con. ; specimens fine, and well characterized. 
— Silliman. Deerfield and Middlefield, Mass. ; Counties of Perry, 
Athens, Hocking, &c. Ohio. — Atwater. Little Britain, Lancaster 
County, Penn. ; very beautiful. — Conrad. Several places in Jlfi«- 
souri. Near Pompton Plain, also on Pracknes Mountain, and in Sus- 
sex County, N. J. ; Lynn, on Nahant beach, Mass. 

Uses. Chalcedony bears a fine polish and is considerably esteemed, 
under the name of white carnelian as an ornamental stone, for watch 
seals, snuff boxes, &c. 

The ancients engraved upon it, and there are still extant, several 
master pieces of the art, on this stone. One of the best is the cele- 
brated Dyouisiac bull, by Hyllus. 

Far. 2. onyx. 
Quartz agathe Onyx, H. Onyx, P. Agate, Onyx, C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, milk white and opake, and blu- 
ish white and translucent, alternating with each other. 

Obs. The onyx, so far as we have been able to ascertain, is a stri- 
ped chalcedonic stone, consisting of alternate layers of opake milk 
white chalcedony, or cacholong, and of the common bluish, translu- 
cent chalcedony. 

Remark . Good specimens of the onyx may often be found at the 
present time among the obsolete, and neglected articles which are 
thrown aside in every jeweller's shop. 



SARDONYX. 15 

Far. 3. cacholong. 
Quartz agathe cacholong, H. Cacholong, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, milk white ; occurs in layers with 
chalcedony ; or sometimes encrusting or penetrating 
it : opake, or as it runs into chalcedony, translucent ; 
hardness equal to quartz ; lustre pearly : subject to 
disintegration. 

Obs. This is merely a white and opake variety of chalcedony, into 
which it passes by insensible shades. In polished specimens of chal- 
cedony, specks of cacholong are often seen. 

Local. On the Borders of the River Cach* in Bucharia, with chal- 
cedony. In the Faroe Island, Elba, Spain, &c. 

U. 8. Deerfield, Mass. (with chalcedony.) Pittsfield, Muss. 

Far. 4. — sard. 
Quartz agathe Sardoine, H. Sard P. Sardonyx, C. 
This is chalcedony of a deep rich, reddish brown 
color ; by transmitted light approaching to blood red. — 
Phillips. 

Remark. This is most probably a variety of carnelian, but is per- 
mitted to remain here, that the varieties forming the* Sardonyx may 
be near each other. 

Species. 6 — SARDONYX. Rees* Cyclop. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, alternately bluish, white, and red : 

consisting of stripes or layers of onyx and sard. 

Remark. Systematic writers do not agree as to what constitutes 
onyx and sardonyx. 

Jameson says, the onyx is formed of white and brown stripes of chal- 
cedony. 

Aikin, considers, that two or more plates of any of the varieties of 
chalcedony forms the onyx. 

Hauy and Cleveland, call that variety of agate, on which the dif- 
ferent colors are arranged in distinct parallel stripes or zones, onyx- 
agate. 

Phillips, agrees with Jameson in respect to onyx, and says that 
sardonyx consists of sard and alternate layers of onyx, or milk white 
chalcedony. 

Hauy and Cleveland, define sardonyx, to be a reddish yellow vari- 
ety of chalcedony, &c. 

Obs. 1 . Amidst this confusion it appeared desirable that the an- 
cient distinctions should be adopted, if they could be ascertained, and 
it appears from Rees* Cyclop, article Gems, that the stone anciently 
called onyx, was one which agreed with the above description of that 
variety, and that the sardonyx consisted of alternate stripes of sard and 
onyx, or sard and chalcedony, or both. 

* Cach, whence the name. 



16 HELIOTROPE BLOODSTONE. 

This account agrees with that of Calmet, who says that sardonyx 
is sardius united to onyx. 

2. Onyx and sardonyx have been employed by ancient, as well ai 
modern artists, for executing those gems in relief, called Cameos ; 
the different colors enabling the artist to display his taste and skill 
with most exquisite effect. Thus if a white translucent zone be next 
to one of sard, the red ground will impart a beautiful flesh red color 
to the face, and if a white opake zone comes next above the translu- 
cent one, as in the onyx, this may be converted into drapery, &c. 

Many celebrated productions of this kind are still preserved, and 
among them, there are in the Royal Library at Paris, the following. 
The Apotheosis of Augustus, of two brown and two white layers, be- 
ing an oval of eleven inches by nine. The celebrated Brunswick 
Vase, representing Ceres in search of Proserpine. Agrippina and 
her two children, th$ stone consisting of two layers, brown and white. 
The quarrel of Minerva with Neptune, three layers. Venus on a sea- 
horse surrounded by cupids, the layers being black and white ; see 
Rets* Cyclopedia. 

Species 7.— HELIOTROPE.* BLOODSTONE. 

Quartz agathe vert obscur et ponctu£, H. Heliotrope, A. P. €. 

Ext. Char.— Color, deep green, peculiarly rich and 
pleasant to the eye, interspersed with blood red, or 
yellowish spots, or dots ; fracture conchoidal ; translu- 
cent on the edges ; lustre glistening and resinous ; sp. 
gr. 2.63. 

Chem. Char. — Infusible, but loses its color. 

Comp. Silex 84 ; alumine 7.5 ; oxide of iron 5. — Thomsdorf. 

Dist. Char. It diners from jasper by its translucency, and from 
this and most other minerals by the richness and peculiarity of its 
colors. 

Remark. It is called bloodstone from the appearance of the red 
spots, and sometimes oriental jasper, because the finest varieties come 
from the east. These spots appear to be fine red jasper. 

Local Siberia, Iceland, Bohemia, Faroe Islands, Scotland, and In- 
dia. 

U. 8. Near Troy, N. Y.—C. V. Shepard. 

Uses. Fine specimens are highly esteemed as an ornamental stone, 
for seals, snuff-boxes, rings, &c. 

Artists who have engraved on this stone, have sometimes availed 
themselves of its peculiar arrangement of colors to produce striking 
effects, Thus there exists in the royal collection at Paris, a bust of 
Christ on a heliotrope, in which the drops of blood are represented by 
the natural red spots on the stone. 

* From two Gmk words signifying, spotted with sans. 



6A*KEJ<IAN. 17 

Fir. 1.— FfciStfA.* 
Plasma, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char.*— Color, green, with yellow and white 
spots; fracture cotachoidaj ; lustre feebly resinous j 
translucent : harder than quartz. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but becomes whitish and opake. 

Comp. Silex 6. 75; alumineO. 25 ; iron 5. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. The green is not so rich, and pleasant, as that of helio- 
trope. It is darker than chysoprase, and its translucency will dis- 
tinguish it from jasper. 

Local. Italy and the Levant . Moravia, Mount Olympus, Prussia 
and South America. 

It was worn as an ornamental stone by the Romans, and is still es- 
teemed. 

V*r* 2— CHRYSOPRASE.t 

Quartz agathe prase, H. Chrysoprase, J. A. P. M. 
Ext. Ckar.< — Colon apple green; occurs in small 
masses 4 fracture conchoidal ; translucent ; lustre, 
glimmering ; hardness, a little less than that of flint « 
sp. gr. 3 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but becomes opake and white. 

Comp. Silex 96. 17 ; lime 0.83 ; alumine 0.08 ; oxide of iron 0.08 ; 
oxide of nickel 1.0. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its color is a little lighter and more lively than those 
of heliotrope or plasma, and it is without spots. The lustre of prase 
is vitreous, and its fracture uneven and quartose. 
Local. Lower Siberia, in veins with chalcedony. 

U. S. New Fane, JV*. H. ; color, apple. green, amorphous. 

Uses. It is highly prized as a gem ; ringstones of the finest qual- 
ity, being sometimes sold for 20 guineas. Its high price has produ- 
ced excellent imitations in paste. 

Species S — CARNELIAN.J 
Quartz agathe cornaline, H. Carnelian, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. {Jhar.—* Colors, red of different shades, from light 
flesh red, to dark blood red, passing into greenish 
brown, and bright yellow ; fracture perfectly conchoi- 
dal • lustre, glimmering ; translucent or semi-transpa- 
rent ; occurs in rounded masses, also rehiform and in 
thin plates. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but turns opake and loses its color. 

* Plasma Greek; engraving ; because tbe ancient* engraved oa it. 
"t From the Greek, a superior kind of prase. 
t From its resemblance to the colour o( flesh. 
3 



18 AGATE. 

Comp. Silex 94 ; alumine 3.5 ; lime 1.5 r oxide of iron 0.75.— 
Sindheim. 

Dist. Char. Carnelian can only be distinguished by its colon, and 
in some specimens it is difficult to decide whether it belongs to chal- 
cedony, agate, jasper, or carnelian. Indeed, in many specimens all 
these varieties are blended together, and insensibly para into each 
other. Specimens properly called carnelian, are often spotted with 
opake jasper, striped, or clouded with cacholong, &c. 

Obs. In making carnelian a species, convenience to the learner 
has been consulted, rather than the dictates of authority. 

It is found with chalcedony, agate, and jasper. 

Local. India, Arabia, Siberia, and almost every other country. 
The finest comes from India. 

U. S. Near Lake Superior. At the Falls of St. Anthony, and at 
Herculaneum, Missouri. Deerfield, Muss. 

Uses. Some of the finest specimens of antique engraving, are on 
carnelian, and the purest and most transparent stones of this kind, 
are still found among these remains of ancient art. Hence it has 
been supposed that the ancients possessed the art of improving the 
beauty of their carnelians, by some process now unknown. 

The number of ancient engraved carnelians still preserved, if 
very numerous, and hence it is inferred that this stone was preferred 
to all others for this purpose. 

Species 9.— AGATE. 
Quartz agathe, H. Agate, J. P. C. M. 
Ext Char. — Agate is an aggregate of a variety of 
silicious substances, each of which maintains, more or 
less, its own character and color in the mass. The 
minerals of which agate is composed, are chalcedony, 
cacholong, quartz, amethyst, carnelian, heliotrope, jas- 
per and common opal. 

Obs. 1. In genera], only two or three of these minerals are present in 
a single specimen, and occasionally specimens of agate occur mostly 
composed of chalcedony, which generally, indeed, is the principal 
ingredient. 

2. The variety of colors which the agate presents, depends chiefly 
on the number and kind of simple minerals which compose it. Some 
specimens are dotted or clouded with red carnelian ; or striped like 
the onyx, alternately with chalcedony and cacholong ; or in some 
parts opake, with the presence of jasper, &c. The varieties depend 
on the arrangement of the colors. 

Var. 1. Ribbon Agate. — It consists of parallel layers of several 
simple minerals, as chalcedony, cacholong, jasper, &c. alternating 
with each other. 

Var. 2. Brecciated Agate. — This beautiful variety is composed of 
the angular fragments of the other varieties united into masses by % 
siliceous cement. 



JASPER. 19 

Local. Saxony, in a metallic vein. 

Var. 3. Fortification Agate. — It consists of a centre of one color, 
fbr instance of red carnelian, surrounded by zigzag angular lines of 
other colors, as of white cacholong, chalcedony, &c ; the whole re* 
eembling with the help of the imagination, a fortification. 

Var 4. Mo< ha-Stone. Moss Agate. — It is formed of a translucent 
exterior, with internal appearances like vegetable fibres, as roots, 
moss, or trees. These perhaps were once real vegetables, changed 
to stone by the infiltration of silicious particles. 

Obs. Dr. Mac Cullock, as stated by Mr. Phillips, has instituted 
an inquiry into the nature of the vegetable appearances in the varie- 
ties of agate, and from which he concludes that they are owing to the 
existence of real plants in the stone. 

Agates are found in porphyry, amygdaloid, greenstone, and ser- 
pentine, generally accompanied with chalcedony, carnelian, &c. 

Local. Oberstein, in Germany. Saxony, Silesia, Italy, Scotland; 
also in many places in England, and most other countries. 

The most beautiful are said to come from Oberstein, in Germany. 

U. S Near Baltimore, Md. In most of the greenstone hills in 
New Jersey. East Haven, Con. Also at Woodbury, Con. Deer- 
field, Mass. composed of chalcedony, carnelian, sardonyx, and ca- 
cholong — Hitchcock. Also in Georgia, Missouri, and Indiana. 
Cumberland, JR. 1. beautiful. 

Ujcs The hardness of agate, and the great variety and beauty of 
its colors, have brought it into extensive demand, both for useful and 
ornamental purposes. It is employed for mortars, snuff-boxes, seals* 
beads, &c. 

The ancients employed it for engravings, and some fine cameos 
still exist on this stone. 

Species 10.— JASPER. 

Jasper, like cornelian, chalcedony, and agate, is chiefly composed of 
silex; but it always contains a greater proportion of iron, and hence 
instead of being translucent, like these minerals, it is always opake. 

This species is subdivided into the following varieties. 

Var. 1. common jasper. 
Quartz Jaspe, H. Jasper, J. C. P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, red, yellow, and brown, of dif- 
ferent shades, often variously intermixed ; also, green* 
ish, bluish, or nearly black, and sometimes white; 
occurs in amorphous masses of various dimensions : 
lustre dull, or slightly resinous ; fracture conchoidal ; 
entirely opake ; sp. gr. 2.70. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but turns whitish. 

Comp. Silex 75 ; alumine 0. 5 ; lime 0. 02 ; iron 13. — Kirwan. 

Dist. Char. Jasper is distinguished from carnelian heliotrope, 
bornstone and opal, by its opacity ; jaspery iron ore is heavier than 
jasper, and blackens under the blowpipe ; pitehstone is fusible ; 



20 JASPER. 

Var. 2. striped jasper. mbHow jaspcv: 
Quartz jaspe onyx, H. Striped Jasper, J. A. P. 0. 
Ext. Char.— Colors, red, yellow, green, grey, or brown, 
arranged in stripes or bands ; sometimes in spots or 
veins. 

Local. Beautiful specimens are found in the Uralian mountains. 

Var. 3. EGYPTIAN JASPER. 

Quartz agathe onyx opaque, H. Egyptian Jasper. J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, red, and yellow of vari- 
ous shades, the yellow often light, approaching to 
cream c »lor. These colors are arranged in irregular 
zones, or in spots, of dentritic delineations. It oc- 
curs in rounded or ovate masses, with a brownish or 
nearly black and rough external coat. 

Obs. This variety is well characterized by the globular shapes of 
the masses, and their dark, rough, exteriors. 

Local. It is found in vast abundance, in Egypt, between Grand 
Cairo and the Red Sea. 

Var. 4.— porcelain jasper. 

Jasper Porcellanite, H. Porceilanite, A C. Porcelain Jaspfcr, P. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, or bluish grey, mixed with 
red, or yellowish, bluish, and brick red, variously in- 
termixed in spots, clouds, or dots; occurs massive; 
structure sometimes slaty ; fracture imperfectly con- 
choidul ; lustre glistening, with the aspect of certain 
porcelains; scratches glass; opake; brittle; softer 
than the other varieties : sp. gr. 2.6. 

Chem. Ckdr. Fusible into a black scoria. 

Comp. Silex60. 75; alumine 27. 25; potash 3. 66; magnesia 3. 
00 ; oxide of iron 2. 50 — Rose. 

Obs. It is found in the vicinity of coal mines, which have once 
been in a state of combustion*; and is considered as shale altered 
by heat. In some specimens, there are evident marks of vitrifica- 
tion. 

Local. Mount Brassat in France ; *nd «t Madely, Brndfey, and 
Staffordshire in England. 

Var. 5. — ruin jasper. 
Ext. Char. — Colors various, but generally thfe ground 
is some tint of brown, with different colored delinea- 
tions resembling ruined buildings; nearly or quite 
opake. 



H0R9ST05B. ^OJCIOtTS £ OTTER. f I 



When ground and polished, h is sometimes a veij 

eraJ. 

££k£ks 11.— HORNSTOXE. 
Quartz agathe grassier, H. Hornstone, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greyish or yellowish white, also 
with shades of blue, green, or brown ; occurs in mass- 
es, nodules, and amorphous concretions : transparent, 
passing into nearly opake; lustre glimmering and 
somewhat waxy ; less hard than quartz; fracture con- 
choidal : sp. gr. 2.6. 

Cktm. Char. Infusible, but turns opake. 

Camp. Silex 71.3; alamine 15. 3 ; protoxide of iron 9. 3 : and a 
trace of lime — Faraday. 

Dist. Char. It resembles compact felspar, and petro «lex r bat they 
are both fusible. It is less hard than flint, and commonly of a higher 
color Jasper is opake. 

Obs. Hornstone is sometimes pscmdomorpktms. 

Wood-Homstotu, m wood petrified bj hornstone. It has the mm 
and texture of wood. 

Hornstone is found in reins, in primitive mountains, also in nodules 
in limestone. 

Local. Bavaria, in limestone ; Sweden, where it forms the basss of 
porphyry, and in most other countries. 

U. 8. Middlebury, Cornwall, Bridport, Orwell, and West Eaten, 
Ve r. Near Saratoga Springs N. Y also in Albany County, at Beth- 
lehem and at Bern N. F. West side of the Hue Ridge, contain- 
ing carbonate of copper, and near Baltimore Md, West Goshen and 
New tin, Pom. 

8pc 12.— SILICIOU3 SINTER. 
Quartz hyalin concretkme, H. Silicious Sinter, J. F C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish white, grey* and 
yellowish grey; occurs in deposites or concretions 
more or less porous ; texture earthy or fibrous ; frac- 
ture conchoidal or uneven ; lustre glistening or pear- 
ly ; translucent or opake : sp. gr. 1.8. 

Cham. Char. Infusible. 

Camp. Silex 96; alamine; 1.5; iron 0. 5.— KJaproii. 
Dist. Char. This substance resembles rommon opal, bat is less 
compact and has less lustre. 
Local. Isle of France. 

Var. 1.— ofau3ce surra. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, whitish, with brownish, black- 
ish, or bluish spots ; fracture imperfectly conchoidal ; 



22 f KARPHOLITE. 

lustre glistening ; brittle ; translucent on the edges ; 
adheres to the tongue. 

Var. 2. — PEARL SINTER. 

• Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, or grey- 
ish; lustre, externally shining, internally, glistening 
and pearly; fracture fine grained, flat conchoidal; 
translucent on the edges ; not so hard as quartz. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, without addition. 
Comp Silex95; alumine2; lime 2. — SomerviUe. 
Obs. It is considered a volcanic production. 
Local Mount Ammiatta in Italy t near Santa Fiora. It is some* 
times called Fiorite. 

Var. 3. — mich a elite. Webster. 
Ext. Char. — It occurs in masses, composed both of 
delicate and coarse fibres, from one inch to four inches 
long, so crossing each other as to form a beautiful net 
work. The cross fracture of the fibres has a glisten- 
ing pearly lustre. Its color, rarely snow-white, is usu- 
ally greyish white, sometimes with a slight shade of 
brown, or red. 

Its specific gravity is 1. 88. — Cleveland. 

Comp. Silex 83 65; water; 16. 35.— Webster. 

Obs. This variety, according to the analysis of Dr. Webster of 
Cambridge Mass. is a hydrate of silex. He found it at the Island of 
St. Michael, and hence its name. 

Silicious Sinter, is a deposite from the water of hot springs, in vol* 
canic countries. The waters of the celebrated Geysers of Iceland, 
deposit vast quantities of it, and even incrust wood, grass, leaves, &c. 
with a coat cf silex. 

U. S. East-Haddam, Conn. 

Speeies. 13— KARPHOLITE. 
Karpholite. W. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellow or yellowish white ; oc- 
curs in minute crystals generally radiating, also amor- 
phous, and in an earthy state probably from decompo- 
sition; translucent; lustre, glistening and pearly; 
brittle : sp. gr. about 3. 

Chem. Char. Intumesces, whitens and fuses slowly into a brown 
•pake glass. 

Comp. Silex 37. 53 ; alumine 86. 47 ; oxide of iron 6. 27 ; oxide 
•f manganese 18. 38. Steinmann. 

Local. Schlachenwalde in Bohemia. 



JEFFERSONrTE. JEN1TE. 23 

Sptcies 14.— JEFFERSONITE * Keating. 
Jeffersonite, P. C. Augite-Spar, M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, dark olive green, passing into 
brown ; occurs in crystalline masses ; translucent on 
the edges ; cleavage in several directions which ap- 
pear to be incompatible with each other ; streak light 
green ; lustre on the planes of cleavage semi-metallic, 
on the cross fracture resinous ; hardness equal to fluor : 
sp. gr. 3.55. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a black globule. 

Comp. Silex 56 ; lime 15. 1 ; alumine 02 ; prot-oxide of manga-* 
nese 13. 5 ; peroxide of iron 10 ; oxide or* zinc 10. Keating. 

Local Franklin Iron works N. J. in small masses, imbedded in 
Franklinite. 

Species 15.— JENITE.t YENITE. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, or brownish black; oc- 
curs amorphous, and in prismatic crystals ; form the 
four-sided prism, terminated by four-sided pyramids ; 
sometimes the prism is rhombic ; also in eight-sided 
prisms terminated by eight-sided pyramids, and in 
fibrous masses; structure foliated; lustre glistening 
and resinous, or somewhat metallic; opake; scratches 
glass, and gives sparks with steel : sp. gr. about 4. 

4 



<5?i 



Fig. 4. — A four-sided prism, longitudinally striated, one of the 
common forms. 

Chem. Char. — Fusible into an opate black globule, which i* 
magnetic. 

Comp. — Silex 30; oxide of iron 57. 5; lime 12. 5. — Vanqut- 
Un * 

Dist. Char. — Blende, which it resembles in color, is infusible ; 
hornblende, and epidote are of less specific gravity. 

Local. Elba in two places, Siberia and Norway. It is found with 
iron ore, augite, and epidote. It is a ?ery rare mineral 

*Io honor of Pres. Jefferson. 
t !■ commemoration of the battle of Jeoa. 



24 GARNET. 

Species 16.— GARNET. 

Grenat, H. Dodecahedral Garnet, J. M. Garnet P. C. 
The garnet family includes several species, which are composed 
of nearly the same elements, but in different proportions. AU the va- 
rieties agree in occurring in dodecahedral crystals, token crystalixed 
at all. 

Var. 1. — precious gaunet. almandijtc. 
Ext Char. — Color, red, mixed more or less with vio- * 
let or blue, sometimes Mood, or cherry red ; oeeurs in 
crystals ; form the dodecahedron, with its varieties ; 
crystals sometimes flattened into tables; also gran«lar; 
structure imperfe ctly lamellar ; lustre shining vitreous j 
fracture conchoidal ; brittle ; translucent, or nearly 
transparent ; scratches quartz : sp. gr. 4. 

Chem. Char. — Fusible into a black globule which is often mag- 
netic. 

Camp. Silex 35. 75 : oxide of iron 36 ; alumine 27. 25 ; oxide of 
manganese 4>. 25. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. — SpinelJe ruby, which it resembles in color, is info- 
Bible : Titanite, which often closely tesembles garnet, is by itself, in- 
fusible and its crystalline form is different. Hyacinth and lencitt 
are both infusible, the latter is white. 

Almandine is found in primitive rocks, as granite and mica 
slate 

Local. Pegu, Bohemia, Hungary, Piedmont, Siberia, Alps, 
&c. *" 

The most beautiful come from Sirian the capital of Pegu, and are 
called Sirian garnets. 

U. S. Hanover, N. H. Bethel and Royalton, Ver. Goshen, 
Conn. Newlin, Penn. 

Obs. 1. The precious garnet is cut and polished for jewelry, 
and is much worn at the present day for ringstones, breast-pins, 
&c. 

2. When set, garnets are easily distinguished from spinelle, and 
red sapphire, by their more intense color, turpidness, and sombre 
aspect. 

3. The garnet was highly esteemed by the ancients as an orna- 
mental stone, under the name of carbuncle. Some beautiful speci- 
mens of ancient skill on this stone, are still preserved. The fhg 
Sirius engraved on the precious garnet, is said to be the greatest 
master-piece existing, in point or deep work and finish. It is in the 
collection of the Duke of Marlborough. Among the more modern 
works on this stone is a head of Louis XIII, preserved in the Nation- 
al Museum, ai Paris. 

Obs. In Bohemia, garnets are obtained by 4 regular system of mi- 
ning, and when cut and polished, constitute an article of commerce, 
by which an extensive class of people are maintained. 



GARHET. 25 



After the garnets are collected, they are passed I month tcj b lI* 
pierced with apertures of different diameters, bj which means taej 
are sorted into six different sizes. Of the Ivgest size k takes £> to 
weigh an ounce ; of the next about 40, 75, 1 10, 16a, 256 and 400, to 
an ounce. 

The art of cutting and boring these stones occnpies a great nana- 
ber of men. 

The boring is done with a diamond fixed to the end of a small rod 
. of metal. The garnet being properly placed and fixed, it is bored by 
turning the diamond with a bow and string. A workman can pierce 
150 per day. 

The large pyrope garnets are cut and ponsbed on a disc of sand- 
stone with emery. Of these a workman will finish 90 per day. 

This art is carried to very great perfection in Bohemia. In the 
town of Waldkirck, alone, there are no less than 2A mills, and 140 
master-workmen, occupied in manufacturing tms article of com- 
merce. — Rets 1 Cyclop. 

Var. 2. common gasjtet. 
Grenat Bran, &e. H. Common Garnet, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char.— Colors, red, yellowish red, brownish 
red, or dark brown ; occurs crystallized and massive ; 
form the dodecahedron, with its modifications ; opake, 
or feebly translucent ; structure lamellar, or granular; 
fracture uneven ; lustre glistening ; brittle ; less hard 
than the precious garnet : sp. gr. 3.69. to 3.76. 

*^ - - '' • 





Fig 5. The dodecahedron with rhombic (aces which » the prim- 
itive form, and is the most common form under which the garnet ap- 
pears. 

Fig. 6. The same, with the edges truncated. 

Fig. 7. A solid with twenty-four trapezoidal faces, forming the tra- 
pezoidal garnet, a form under which it so m et imes appears. 

Obs. The garnet sometimes has 36, 48, or even 60 feces. 

Ckem. Char. Fusible with more ease than the precious garnet, into 
a black, or greenish glass. 

Csest. Char. Silex 43; alumine 16; lime 20; ozkle of iron 
16; — VauqucUm 

Ob$. It is a curious circumstance that the preciotu garnet » hoold 
be nearly transparent, with almost 40 per cent of iron, while the pre* 
sent variety is opake, with only 16 per cent of the same metaJ. 

Dist Char. It differs from the precious garnet in being opake. 
darker colored, more easily fusible, and not so hard. 

4 



26 GARNET. 

It 10 mostl y found in primitive rocks. • 

Local. The con i noon garnet is found in almost every section of 
country where primitive rocks occur. Its foreign localities axe too 
numerous to mention. 

U. 8. Haddam, Chatham, Bolton, and Washington, Conn. New* 
bury, Bedford, Plainfield, and Cummington, Ver. Interior of North 
Carolina, as large as a child's head.— Maclure. Barren-Hills, Pa. in 
dodecahedrons with truncated edges, sometimes five inches in diam- 
eter.— 'Morton. Brunswick and Topsham, Maine. 

Var. 3. — pyrope. 
Grenat granuliforme, H. Pyrope, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color red, often dark blood red, with a 
tinge of yellow, by the transmitted light ; occurs in 
rounded, angular grains, but never in crystals ; trans- 
parent, or translucent ; lustre splendent, vitreous; frao 
ture conchoidal ; scratches quartz : sp. gr. 3.9. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a black glass ; tinges borax green. 

Comp. Silex 40 ; alumine 28 5 ; magnesia 10 ; oxide of iron and 
manganese 16. l&—Klaproth 

Dist. Char. Differs from the other varieties, in never occaringia 
crystals. When polished, its yellowish tinge and greater transpar- 
ency distinguishes it from almandine. 

It is found in serpentine, and alluvial depositee. 

Local. Saxony, and Bohemia ; also at Ely in Scotland. 

U. 8. Chester county, Pa. Its color is fine dark red.— Lea. 

Obs. Werner considered the present variety, as nearlyfallied to 
the pyrope of the ancients, mentioned by the same name by Pliny, 
and Ovid. 

Var. 4. PYRENITE.* 

Pyrenite, J. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, black or greyish black ; occurs 

in minute rhombic dodecahedrons, and more rarely, 

massive; lustre glistening, vitreous; opake; hard: 

sp. gr. 2.5. 

Chem. Char. Melts easily into a porous black slag. * 
Comp Differs little from common garnet. 
Local. Pyrennees Mountains. 

Var. 5 GROssuLAR.t 
Ext. Char. — Color, green, of several shades ; occurs 
in crystals of the same form as common garnet ; trans* 
lucent ; faces of the crystals smooth and shining : sp. 
gr. 3.37. 

♦From the Pyrennees, where it occurs. 
{French, Goosbury, from its fcreen color 



GARNET. 27 

Comp. Silex 44 ; alumine 8. 50; Jime 33. 50 ; oxide of iron 12. — 
Klaproth. 

Local. Siberia. 

Var. 6. aplome. 

Aplome, H. Aplome, P. 

Ext Char. — Colors, deep brown, or orange brown ; 

occurs in rhombic dodecahedrons, the faces of which 

are striated parallel to their shorter diagonals ; fracture 

uneven ; scratches quartz ; nearly opakej sp. gr. 3.44. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a black glass. 

Comp. Silex 40 ; alumine 20 ; lime 14. 5; oxide of iron 14. 5. 
oxide of manganese 2 — Laugier. 

Dist. Char. The direction of its striae differs from those £f com- 
mon garnet, and its specific gravity is less ; in other respects they 
are much alike. 

Local. Siberia, and probably in Saxony. 

Var. 7. MANGANESIAN GARNET. 

Garnet Manganesie, Bt. Manganesian Garnet, P. 
Ext Char. — Colors, deep hyacinth, or brownish red j 
occurs in dodecahedral crystals and massite ; fracture 
imperfectly conchoidal ; lustre vitreous. 

Chem Char. Fusible alone ; with borax and nitre, gives a violet 
globule. 

Comp. Silex 35; alumine 14; oxide of manganese 35 ; oxide of 
iron 14. — Klaproth. 

Remark. It is singular that a substance differing so much in com- 
position, from common garnet, should take its form and color. 

Local. Franconia. 

U. 8. Nine miles from Philadelphia, Penn. in masses from 1 
pound to lOOpounds. — Jessup. Corlear's Hook, N. Y. Jones' Eddy, 
near Bath, Maine. 

Var 8. MELANITE. 

Grenat noir, H. Melanite, J. A. P. C. 

Ext Char. — Colore, black or greyish black ; occurs 
in rhombic dodecahedrons ; often with truncated edg- 
es; fracture imperfectly conchoidal; lustre shining 
and resinous ; opake : sp. gr. 3.7. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a brilliant black globule. 

Comp. Silex 35 ; alumine 6 ; lime 32; oxide of iron 25 ; oxide 
of manganese 0. 4. — Klaproth. 

Local. Near Vesuvius in Italy. Bohemia, and in the iron mines 
ofLapmark. 

U. S. Germantown, Penn. in gneiss ; also at Morris 9 Hill, near 
the Philadelphia water works. 



28 GARNET. 

Far. 9. allochroite* 

Allochroite. H. J. P. C. 

Ext. Cliar. — Colors, yellowish brown, brownish grey, 

greenish, or reddish ; occurs amorphous ; structure 

slaty ; fracture uneven ; lustre feeble ; translucent or 

opake ; not so hard as quartz : sp gr. 3.5 to 3.7. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a brilliant black globule ; with borax into 
a green glass, which goes through several changes of color as it 
cools. » 

Comp. Silex 35 ; alumine 8 ; lime 30.5 ; oxide of iron 17; oxide 
of manganese 3.5 ; carbonate of lime 6. — Vauquelin. 

Local. Dandrada, in Norway, in an iron mine. 

U. 8. Near Baltimore, Md. 

Var. 10. COLOPHONITE.t 

Grenat Resinite, H. Colophonite, J. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, blackish or yellowish brown ; 
brownish black, or greenish ; occurs in grains or in 
masses, composed of grains slightly adhering ; also in 
rhombic dodecahedrons ; opake or slightly translu- 
cent ; aspect resinous, and often beautifully irrides- 
cent : sp. gr. 4. 

Chem Char. Infusible, but turns black ; with borax gives a green 
glass. 

Comp. Silex 38 ; lime 29 ; alumine 6 ; protoxide of iron 25.20 ; 
water 0.33 — Seybert. 

This specimen was from Willsborough N. Y. 

Local Arundel in Norway, in a bed of magnetic iron ; also in 
Ceylon and Italy. 

U S Willsborough, N Y. It forms a vein 5 feet wide, in a 
hornblende rock, and is so plentiful that by blasting, hundreds of tons 
may be obtained. It is easily distinguishable from all other miner- 
als, by the variety and brilliancy of its colors, and by its peculiar res- 
inous aspect. It is composed of small distinct concretions, which 
may often be separated, even by shaking it in the hand. — Hall. 

Var, 11. TOPAZOLITE.f 

Topazolite, Bonvoisin, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, topaz yellow, or greenish ; oc- 
curs in dodecahedrons ; transparent or translucent 

Comp. Silex 37 ; alumine 2 ; lime 29 ; glucine 4 ; iron 25 ; man- 
ganese 2. — Bonooisin. 

Local Mussa, in Piedmont. 

"From the Greek, in allusion to its change of color as it cools. 
fFrora the Greek, signifying resin colored. 
JFrom its being similar in color to topaz. 



CINNAMON STONE. IDOCRASE. 29 

Var. 12. succinite.* 

Ext. Char. — Color, amber yellow; translucent; oc- 
curs in globular masses of the size of &pea ; does not 
scratch glass; brittle. 

Obs. It is probably a variety of topazolite. 

Local. Piedmont, in serpentine. 

Species 17. CINNAMON STONE. t 
Prismatic Garnet, J. Cinnamon Stone, P. C. Essonite, H. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, red, brownish red, yellowish 
brown, and orange ; occurs in fissile masses, and in 
splintery fragments ; transparent or translucent ; frac- 
ture imperfectly con^hoidal ; lustre shining, resinous ; 
sometimes occurs in dodecahedral crystals ; scratches 
quartz slightly : sp. gr. 3.6. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with ebullition into dark green translucent 
glass. 

Comp. Silex 38,8; alumine 21.2; lime 31. 25; oxide of iron 
6.6. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. The fusible varieties of garnet melt into dark opake 
globules, and are generally crystallized. The present species is trans- 
lucent when melted and is rarely found in crystals. 

Local Ceylon, in the sands, and in Brazil. 

U. S. Roxborough, Mass.—Nuttall. 

Var. 1 ROMANZOVITE. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, brownish black, or black; 
occurs compact or in crystalline plates, which indicate 
the dodecahedron ; fracture conchoidal ; lustre oily ; 
scratches glass ; brittle ; streak yellow : sp. gr. 3.60. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a dark globule. 

Comp. Silex 41. 2 ; alumine 24. 1 ; lime 24. 8 ; oxide of iron 7. 
02 ; magnesia and oxide of manganese 0. 92 ; loss 1. 98. — Norden- 
skiold. 

Local. — Kimito in Finland, in limestone. 

Species IS. ID^CRASEf VESUVIAN.§ 
Idocrase, H. Pyramidal Garnet, J. Vesuvian, W. Idocrase, A. 

P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish or brownish green, 
reddish yellow or blackish brown ; occurs massive, 
but more commonly in crystals ; form the four-sided 

'Succinum Amber. Lat. It is of an amber yellow. 

tFrotn its color being that of cinnamon. 

lidocrase, a miied figure, in allusion to its form. 

^Vttuvian, because it was found at Vesuvius, 



30 



IDOCRASE. 



prism, terminated by four-sided pyramids, or it some- 
times assumes an eight-sided prism, by truncation of 
the lateral edges of the four-sided prism; the angles of 
the summits being also truncated ; cleavage parallel 
to all the planes of the prism ; cross fracture small 
conchoidal; scratches felspar; transparent or trans- 
lucent : sp. gr. 3. 




<?0*t 



Fig. 8. A right four-sided prism, with a square base. This is the 
primitive form. 

Fig. 9. The four-sided prism with the lateral edges truncated, 
forming an eight-sided prism, with unequal sides. The edges of the 
summits are also truncated. 

Fig. 10. The same form differently modified by truncation. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ebullition into a translucent glass. 

Comp. (That of Vesuvius) Silex 35.50 ; alumine 33 ; lime 22. 
25 ; oxide of iron 7. 50. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Pargasite, which it resembles, has not its translucen- 
cy, and fuses into a white enamel. Grossular, the variety of garnet 
which it most resembles in color, occurs in dodecahedrons. Olivine 
and chysolite are infusible. Epidote, which resembles it in crystal- 
line form and color, wants its transparency, and is only fusible in 
part. 

It is found both in volcanic, and in primitive rocks. 

Local. Vesuvius and Etna, Siberia, Piedmont, St Gothard, Nor- 
way. 

U. S. Worcester, Mass. in four-sided prisms, of a brown color — 
Meade. Salisbury, Conn. — SiUiman. Cumberland, JR. L— Robin- 
son. * 

Uses. At Naples it is cut into ring stones, and sold under various 
names, as chrysolite, hyacinth, &c —-Jameson. 

Var. 1. egeran. 

Ext Char. — Color, deep brown ; occurs in crystals in 
the form of right four-sided prisms, with the lateral 
edges sometimes truncated ; crystals deeply striated ; 
translucent ; lustre shining vitreous. It also occurs 
massive, composed of primitive concretions ; scratches 
felspar: sp.gr. 3.29. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, into a blebby glass. 



GEHLENITE. PREHNITE. 31 

Camp. Silex 41; alumine 22; lime 22 ;> iron 6 ; manganese 2 ; 
potash l.—Borkowski. 
Local. Egcr, in Bohemia, hence the name. 

Species. 19. GEHLENITE.* 
Ext. Char. — Color, grey, with a greenish or yellowish 
tinge; occurs in rectangular crystals, nearly in form of 
a cube, also tabular ; surfaces rough and dull ; nearly 
opake ; fracture uneven, splintery ; scratches glass ; 
structure imperfectly foliated ; crystals commonly ag- 
gregated : sp. gr. 3. 

Chem. Char. Suffers no change, without a flux. With borax, 
melts into a brownish glass. 

Comp Silex 29. 5 ; alumine 14 5 ; lime 27. 55 ; oxide of iron 
12. 2 ; water 6. ; magnesia 0. 25 ; potash and loss 10. — Fuchs. 

Local. Fassa in the Tyrol. 

Species 20. PREHNITE.t 

Prenite, H. Prismatic Prehnite, J. Prehnite A. P. C. Prismatic 
Triphane-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, pale green, or greenish white ; 
occurs in crystalline masses of a fibrous radiating struc- 
ture; also in distinct crystals, with four, six, or eight 
sides, and of a tabular form ; translucent; in thin pieces 
transparent ; fracture splintery ; lustre shining ; 
scratches glass : sp. gr. from 2.6. to 3.1. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with intumescence, into a pale porous glass. 
Electric by heat. 

Camp. Silex 48. 8 ; alumine 30. 33 : lime 18. 33; oxide of iron 
4. 66 ; water 1. 88.—Klaproth. 

Diti. Char. Beryl, which it resembles in color, is much harder 
and infusible ; stiibite never has the green tinge of prehnite. Zeo- 
lite forms a jelly with acids, and from felspar it differs entirely, in 
structure. 

Obs. Prehnite, though always the result of crystallization, often 
appears massive in consequence of the close and confused aggrega- 
tion of its crystals. It generally consists, on one side, of tuberose, 
warty excrescences, composed of minute crystals, with shining faces, 
or of grannular concretions composed of radiating fibrous crystals, 
joined together. The other side of the mass or crust, is generally 
corroded and black. 

9 After the chemist, Geblen. 

t In honour of Colonel Prebn, its discoverer.- 



32 STILBITE. 

t Var. 1. KAUPHOL1TE.* 
Fibrous Prehnite, J. Koupholite, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white or yellowish white ; occurs 
crystallized in small rhombic tables ; transparent ; 
lustre glistening and pearly. 




Fig. 11. A rhomboidal plate, the common form. 

Comp. Silex 48 ; alumine 24 ; lime 23 ; oxide of iron 4.— Pan* 
quelin. 

Obs. Prehnite is found chiefly in secondary rock, as amygdaloid, 
greenstone, hornblende rock, &c. 

Local. Cape of Good Hope, where it was first discovered by Col. 
Prehn ; Tuscany, Tyrol, many places in Scotland, and in England. 

U. S. Scotch Plains, Patterson, and near Newark, N. J. At 
the latter place, masses are found near a foot in diameter. — Torrey. 
Staten Island, N. Y. New Haven, Berlin, Woodbury, Simsbury, 
Granby|Farniington, Hartford and Windsor, Conn. Brookfield, Wa- 
tertown, and Charlestown, Mass. At the latter place, in hexagonal 
tables. — Waterhouse. Bellows Falls, Ver. 

Species 21.— STILBITE.t 

Stilbite, H. Radiated Zeolite, J. Stilbite, P. C. Prismatoidal 
Kouphone Spar. M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, grey, yellowish, brownish, 
orange red, and brick red ; occurs crystallized in the 
form of four-sided prisms, which is the primitive form; 
also variously modified by truncation. Sometimes it is 
compressed into the form of a table, and sometimes it 
assumes the form of a six-sided prism. It terminates 
iti four-sided pyramids, often with truncated angles ; 
translucent, or transparent ; structure foliated in one 
direction ; yields to the knife ; lustre pearly ; crystals 
sometimes slender and fasciculated : sp. gr. 2.5. 



Fig 12. A four-sided prism, terminated by four-sided pyramids, 



r From the Greek, signifying a light stone* 
t A peculiar lustre. 



HEULANDITE. ZEOLITE?. 33 

the faces of which! are set od the angles of the prism. This is a 
common form. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a blebby, colorless glass. 

Comp. Silex 50.24; alumine 29.3; lime 9.46; water 10.— 
Vauquclin. 

Dist. Char. Zeolite, which it resembles, forms a jelly with acids, 
and becomes electric by heat. Prehnite is harder than stilbite, and 
has not its pearly lustre. Stilbite is foliated, which is not the case 
with prehnite. 

Stilbite is found in the fissures of primitive rocks. It is also associated 
with zeolite, chabaise, and carbonate of lime, iif secondary rocks. 

Local. Dauphiny, of a pale straw color. Arendal in Norway. 
Iceland. Scotland. Giant's Causeway, and in the Faroe Islands. 

U. 8. Woodbury, Conn. Deerfield, Mass. associated with cha- 
baise. — Hitchcock. Scotch Plains N. J. in four-sided prisms, and 
six-sided tables. — Pierce. Torrey. West Farms, N* Y. pale and 
deep red. 

Species 22. HEULANDITE. 

Heulandite. — Brooke. Foliated Zeolite, J. Hem i- Prismatic Kou- 
phone-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colore, white, yellowish white, brownish, 
red, and sometimes colorless ; occurs crystallized in 
the form of a right oblique angled prism, (two of its op- 
posed lateral planes being longer than the other two,) 
generally modified by truncation; faces bright ana 
shining; lustre pearly; translucent or transparent; 
brittle. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with phosphorescence into a porous glass. 

Comp. Silex 52.6 ; alumine 17.6 ; lime 9 ; water 18.5. — Vauqudin. 

Dist Char. It does not form a jelly with acids, like zeolite. Its 
crystalline form diners from that of stilbite. 

Local Faroe Isles, Giant's Causeway ; Tyrol and Norway. 

Remark. This mineral was considered as a variety of zeolite, by 
Werner and Jameson, and a variety of stilbite, by Hauy. 

U. 8. Chesterfield, Mass. associated with stilbite and chabaise* 
Distinguished by its superior pearly lustre. Chester, Mass. 

Species 23. ZEOLITE. MEZOTYPE. 

Mesotype, H. A. P. Prismatic Zeolite, J. Zeolite, C. Prisma- 
tic Kouphone-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, sometimes shaded with 
yellow, grey, or red ; occurs in masses and in crystals ; 
form the four-sided prism terminated by four-sided 
pyramids ; but more commonly it is found in masses 
composed of radiating fibres, or in fasciculated minute 
crystals of a stellular aspect Sometimes the crystals 



34 ZEOLITE. 

are so broad as to give a foliated appearance ; fracture 
splintery ; lustre pearly or silky ; translucent, some* 
times nearly transparent ; scratches carbonate of lime : 
sp. gr. 2. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with intumescence, and phosphorescence in- 
to a spongy enamel. Phillips says, fusible without intumescence. 
It forms a jelly with nitric acid. The proportion of acid should be 
small. 

Comp. Silex 54.24; alumine 293; lime 9.46 ; water 10. — Vmh 
quelin. Tennant found 17, and Gehlen 15 per cent, of soda. Pos- 
sibly these gentlemen analysed different minerals. 

Dist. Char. In its radiated structure, zeolite closely resembles 
prehnite, but differs from it in color, hardness, and lustre. Stilbhe is 
foliated. Chabaise is crystallized in cubes, and from all these as well 
as from analcime, harmotome, and heulandite, it may be known by 
its forming a jelly with niiric acid. 

Obs. Zeolite is often found in thin fibrous coats investing other 
minerals. 

Var. 1. ME80LITB. NEEDLESTONE. 

Mesolite, Fuchs and Gehlen. Mesolite, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white or greyish white, or color- 
less ; occurs in long slender prisms, terminated by four- 
sided pyramids ; crystals often radiate from a centre; 
lustre pearly ; resembles zeolite, except in the dis- 
tinctness and length of the crystals. 

Chem. Char. Becomes opake, curls, and then melts into a porous 
bead. 

Comp. Silex 45.8 ; alumine 26.50 ; lime 9.87 ; soda 5.40 ; water 
12.30.— Berzelius. 

Local Pargas, in Finland. Iceland, Faroe Islands, and in the 
Tyrol. 

Far. 2. natrolite. 
Natrolithe, H. Natrolite, A. P C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, or red- 
dish brown, disposed in alternate zones around the 
centre ; occurs in mammillary masses composed of di- 
verging fibres ; lustre pearly or dull : sp. gr. 2.2. 

Ckem. Char. Before the blow-pipe, behaves like Zeolite. 

Comp. Silex 48 ; alumine 24.25 ; soda 16.5 ; water 9 ; oxide of 
iron 1.75. — Klaproth. 

Local. Near the lake of Constance. In Scotland, and in Sua- 
bia. 

Var. 3. MEALY ZEOLITE. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, white, yellowish grey, or reddish; 



WERNERITE. 35 

occurs in dull friable masses, or in thin coats on other 
minerals ; fracture earthy. 

It is, probably zeolite in a decomposing state. 
Far. 4. — thomsonite.* 
Thomsonite, — Brooke, P. C. 
Ext Char. — Colors, white and translucent; in thin 
pieces transparent ; occurs in radiating fibrous masses, 
in the cavities of which are sometimes formed crystals, 
in form of a right prism, with square bases. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but swells, curls, and becomes snow white, 
and opake, and loses 13 per cent, of its weight. 

Comp. Silex 36 6 ; alumine 31.36; lime 15.4 ; magnesia 0.2 ; pe- 
roxide of iron 0.6; water 13 — Thomson. 

Remark. Phillips has made a species of Thomsonite, but it is evi- 
dently a variety of zeolite. 

Zeolite is found in secondary rocks, as basalt, greenstone, por- 
phyry, and amygdaloid. It occurs in small masses, or investing 
these minerals in thin coats. Sometimes it runs in veins, but is 
seldom more than half an inch, or an inch thick. It is associated with 
prehnite, stilbite, analcime, calcareous spar, &c. 

Local. Scotland, England, Faroe Islands, Brittanny, Tyrol, &c. 

U. S. Near New Haven, Con. in secondary 7 greenstone. — Sifli- 
man Patterson and Scotch Plains, N. J. in four-sided prisms. Deer- 
field, Mass. in radiated masses. — Hitchcock. At Jones' Falls, Md\ 
Near Philadelphia. Near Baltimore, Md. in quadrangular prisms. — 
Gilmor. 

Species 24. WERNERITE. 

Wernerite, H. P. Pyramidal Felspar or Scapolite, J. Scapolite, C. 

Pyramidal Feld-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish grey, olive green, bluish 
green, and greyish white ; occurs massive and crystal- 
lized in eight-sided prisms, terminated by four-sided 
pyramids ; lustre glistening or shining ; structure folia- 
ted ; translucent or transparent ; crystals often long and 
deeply striated; the massive is composed of parallel 
or diverging crystals ; fracture splintery ; fragments 
angular; scratches glass : sp.gr. 2.5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with intumescence, into a white shining en- 
amel. 

Comp. Silex 40 ; alumine 34 ; lime 16 ; oxide of iron 8 ; oxide of 
manganese 1.5. — John. 

Local. Buoen, in Norway. Ulrica, in Sweden. 



* la honor of Dr. Thomson. 



36 Z0181TE. 

Var. 1. scapolite. 
Paranthine, H. Foliated Scapolite, J. Scapolite, P. C. 
Ext. t har.— Colors, grey, white, greenish white,yellow- 
ish, and greenish grey; occurs massive and crystallized 
in four or eight-sided prisms, terminated by four-sided 
pyramids ; primitive form, a right four-sided prism ; 
cleavage parallel to the sides, terminal planes, and both 
diagonals of a square prism ; crystals long and often 
striated ; sometimes acicular and radiating, but more 
often broad, and collected into groups or masses; 
structure foliated ; translucent ; lustre pearly ; scratch- 
es glass : sp. gr. 2.5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with intumescence into a shining white en- 
amel. Liable to decomposition, by which it becomes dull, and efflo- 
rescent. 

Comp. Silex 45 ; alumine 33 ; lime 17.6; potash 0.5; soda 1.5; 
oxide of iron and manganese 1. — Laugier. 

Dist Char. It is harder, and less easily fusible than zeolite, or 
stilbite, nor is it like these soluble in acids. Its crystalline form 
and structure will distinguish it from prehnite and analckne. Apo- 
phyllite separates into flakes in acid, which scapolite does not 

Lecal Arendal, in Norway, with oxide of iron. In various places 
in Sweden and Greenland. 

U. 8. Bolton, Mass. color white, crystals two inches long, form 
four-sided prisms.— Meade. Near Baltimore, Md. At Cold Spring, 
and at West Point, N. Y. 

Remark. The external characters of Wernerhe and scapolite are 
very nearly the same, and with the exception of a small portion of al- 
kali in the Wernerite, there is nearly an identity of composition. 
Cleveland has blended the descriptions of both under scapolite. 
Jameson and Phillips make them separate species. The alkali has 
not been thought a sufficient reason for separating them, and scapo- 
lite has therefore been placed as a variety of Wernerite, untrl fur- 
ther analysis shall determine its place. 

%cn* 2&. ZOIBITE. 
Zoisite, J. P. A. C. 
Ext Char. — Colors, grey or greyish yellow, or 
brown ; occurs in rhombic prisms, which are compress- 
ed and deeply striated longitudinally; terminations 
commonly incomplete. It also occurs massive; cleav- 
age parallel to the sides of a right rhombic prtett ; 
translucent; lustre pearly; scratches glass. 
Chaa. Char. Fusible, at first into a yellowish transparent' glass, but 



EPIDOTE. 



37 



finally into a vitreous scoria ; with borax swells, and melts into a 
vitreous scoria. 

Comp. Silex 45 ; alumine 29 ; lime 21 ; oxide of iron 2.4. — Khp- 
roth. 

Dist. Char. It resembles epidote and tremolite ; but the first gives 
a colored glass with borax, and the second melts into a white ena- 
mel. 

Local Carinthia, Franconia, Bavaria, and Tyrol. 

U. S. East Marlborough, in regular tetrahedral prisms. Pittsfield, 
Mass. Near Philadelphia, Penn. Woodstock, Vt. 



Epidote, H. P. C. 



Species 26. EPIDOTE. 

Prismatoidal Augite, J. 
Spar, M. 



Prismatoidal Augite- 



Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish, bluish, or blackish 
green; occurs massive, granular, and crystallized in 
four, six, eight, or twelve-sided prisms ; lustre of the 
massive, glimmering, of the crystals, shining ; translu- 
cent or opake ; fracture of the massive, uneven and 
splintery ; crystals generally grouped, and the crystal- 
lization often confused ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 3.45. 
is ^ . -Jt 



kJ 




Fig. 13. A four-sided prism with truncated edges, and terminated 
bj two faces standing on the truncated angles. 

Fig. 14. A four-sided prism, also truncated and terminated by 
four planes standing obliquely on the lateral planes. 

Fig. 15. A six-sided prism, with unequal lateral planes, and ter- 
minated by two unequal faces. 

Ckem. Char. Turns black, the sharp angles only being fusible into 
a shining glass. Wkh borax slowly fusible into a greenish transpa- 
rent glass. 

Comp. Silex 37 ; alumine 21 ; lime 15; oxide of iron 24 ; oxide 
of manganese 15; — VauqueUn. 

Dist. Char. It resembles actynolite, but the latter turns greyish 
white, under the blowpipe. This difference will always distinguish 
these two minerals, provided crystalline fragments of each be taken. 
Hornblende is easily fusible into a back shining globule. Idocrase is 
fusible into a translucent yellowish glass. Sahlite whitens and be- 
comes glazed with a yellowish glass. These differences will distin- 
guish the present species. 



38 AXINITE. 

Var. 1. . MANGANESIAN EPIDOTE. 

Epidote manganesifere, H. Manganesian Epidote, P. C. Epidote 

Violet, Bt. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, reddish brown, or violet ; occurs 
in small prismatic crystals, closely aggregated into 
groups ; opake ; yields to the knife. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with ease into a black glass ; with borax into 
a transparent glass. 
Comp. It contains about 12 per cent, of oxide of manganese. 
Local. Piedmont, in gneiss, with quartz and asbesters. 

Var. 2. GRANULAR EPIDOTE. SKORZA. 

Epidote Arenace, H. Arenaceous Epidote, C. Granular Epidote. 

Skorza, P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish green ; occurs in grains 
of various sizes, and appears to be common epidote 
disintegrated and reduced to grains by attrition. 

Comp. Silex 43.0 ; alumine 21 ; lime 14 ; oxide 1G.5; oxide of man- 
ganese 0.25. 

Local. The borders of the river Arangas, in Transylvania. 

Epidote is found chiefly in primitive rocks, both disseminated and 
in veins. 

Local. Isere, in France. Chamouni, in the Alps. Arendal, in 
Norway, crystals an inch in diameter. England, Scotland, Ireland, 
&c. 

U. 8. Middlebury and Chester, Ver. Near Lake George, A". F. 
Cumberland, R. I. Near Baltimore, Md. Blue Ridge, Fa. Mil- 
ford, Con. Litchfield and Washington, Con. ; also at Had dam, Say- 
brook, and Tolland, Con. Near Boston. Brighton, Dedham,&c. Mass. 
Also at Newbury, in large crystals. — Webster. Franconia, N. H. 
NearNew-York ; also in West-Chester, and in the Highlands, N. Y. 

Species 27. AXINITE. 
Axinite, H. Prismatic Axinite, J. M. Axinite, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, violet, brown, green, grey, yel- 
low, and white ; occurs in crystals, the form of which 
is an oblique rhomb, or four-sided prism, so compressed 
that the edges appear sharp like the edge of an axe ; 
angles often truncated ; lustre splendent ; fracture un- 
even; fragments angular; translucent or transparent; 
occurs also massive ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 3.2 to 
3.30. 



INDIANITE. LAPIS LAZULI. 39 





M 

Figs. 16 and 17. Present the common forms of these crystals. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a dark greenish glass. 

Camp. Silex 44 ; aluraine 18 ; lime 19 ; oxide of iron 14 ; oxide 
of manganese 4. — Vauqudin. 

Obs. I. The crystals are generally striated, except the greenish 
variety, which is the most perfect. 

2. The same crystal is sometimes of various colors, and has various 
degrees of transparency. 

3. Some crystals, and particularly the violet colored, become elec- 
tric by heat. 

It is found in primitive rocks and is rather a rare mineral. 
Local Thum* in Saxony. In the Pyrennees. Mount Atlas. 
Arendal, in Norway. France. Cornwall, Eng. 

Species 28. INDIANITE. 
Indiauite, J. P. C. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, whitish or greyish, sometimes 
tinged with brown ; translucent ; scratches glass ; 
cleaves into prismatic fragments ; lustre shining. 

Chem. Char, Infusible ; becomes gelatinous with acids. 

Comp. Silex 42.5 ; aluraine 37.5 ; lime 15 ; iron 3. — Chene- 
viz. 

Obs. 1. It is considered the matrix of corundum, and occasionally 
contains felspar, garnet, fibrolite, hornblende and mica. 

2. It is not a well defined species. 

Local. Carniatic. 

Species 29. LAPIS LAZULI. 

Lazulite, H. Azurestone, of Lapis Lazuli, J . Lapis Lazuli, A. P. C. 

Dodecahedral Azure-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, azure blue of various tints, but 
always intense and beautiful ; occurs massive ; struc- 
ture fine grained and compact ; lustre glimmering ; 
fracture uneven ; scratches glass ; opake or translucent 
on the edges : sp. gr. 2.9. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty into a glassy globule, at first 
bluish, but soon becomes white. With borax forms a clear glass. 

Comp. Silex 49; magnesia 2; alumine 11; lime 16; potash and 
soda 8; oxide of irou 4 ; sulphuric acid 2. — Gmelin. 

* Jameson calls it Thumerstone on thrs acconnt. 



40 LAPIS LAZULI* 

Klaproth found neither ioda nor potash. Clement found soda 23. 
2, and sulphur 3.1. 

Dist. Char. Its peculiar and beautiful color, will distinguish it 
from most other minerals. The blue carbonate of copper which its 
color most resembles, becomes dark, and is reduced by the blow* 
pipe. 

Obs. 1. The color of Lapis Lazuli is seldom uniform, and the 
stone is often interspersed with spots, or veins of iron pyrites. 

Local China, Persia and fiucharia. 

According to Patrin, as quoted by Pinkerton, it chiefly comes 
from Great Bucharia, where it exists in rocks of granite. The 
amount of Patrin's information on this subject is as follows. 

1. Lapis is seldom found pure, except in small pieces. 

2. It is disseminated through a granite rock, in all sorts of propor- 
tion, but it is rare to find a piece as big as one's head, in which the 
blue predominates over the white and grey. 

3. It is sometimes found in solid pieces, and particularly on the 
Lake Baikal. 

Uses, Lapis Lazali receives a high polish and is in great demand 
as an ornamental stone. Specimens in which the yellow pyrites is in- 
termixed, are often exremely beautiful. In the palace which Cath- 
arine II. built for her favorite Orlof, at St. Petersburg, Patrin says, 
there are some apartments entirely lined with lapis, and that it would 
be scarcely possible to imagine a decoration more simple, and at the 
same time more magnificent 

But the most important use of this mineral, is that of furnishing 
the celebrated and beautiful pigment called ultra-marine blue. 

Beckmann, in his history of Inventions, has devoted an entire chap- 
ter to this subject, and as usual, has quoted a great number of authors. 
From him we learn as follows. 

1. Lapis Lazuli was well known to the ancients, under the name 
of Sapphire. 

2. The process of preparing the ultra-marine, was known as early 
as the 15th century. 

3. In the eleventh century, lapis, or some preparation of it was used 
in medicine. 

4. It appears also that the process for making ultra-marine, was 
for a long time kept a secret, and the paint sold at a great price. In 
1763 an ounce of it cost at Paris, £4 sterling. It was also sold at a 
ducat per ounce at Hamburg, and was warranted to "stand proof by 
fire." 

The walls of the palace at St. Petersburg mentioned above, Beck- 
mann says, are covered with amber, interspersed with plates of this 
costly stone. 

The process of extracting the ultra-marine, is iound in books on 
Chemistry. It is employed in oil, and not only gives the richest and 
most beautiful of all blue colors, but is said never to fade ; hence its 
high price. 

Some engravings have been executed on this stone, but it is much 
too soft for this purpose. 



i 



dipyre. laomonit*. clay slate. 41 

Species dO. DIPYRE, 
Dipyre, H. A. P. €. 
Ext. Char.— Colors, greyish Or reddish white; oetanrtr 
in slender prisms, fasciculated into masses ; fofm six- 
sided prisms, but often so minute a* to fender it diffi- 
cult to ascertain their modifications $ scratches glass: 
sp. gr. 2.63 

Chem. Char, Turns milk white, phosphoresces, and melts into a 

blebby colorless glass.* 

Comp. Silex60; alumine 24 ; lime 10 ; water 2.— Vanquelin, 
Local. Pyrennees, in steatite, mingled with sulphuret of iron. It 

is very rare. 

Specks 91. LAUMONITE.t 
Laumonite, H. J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, sometimes with a tinge of 
yellow, or red ; occurs in aggregated crystalline mass- 
as, and in regular crystals ; form an octahedral prism, 
with dihedral summits, variously modified by trunca- 
tion ; primary form an oblique rhombic prism ; fracture 
foliated ; structure lamellar ; cleavage perfect in two 
directions ; translucent, or transparent ; scratches 
glass : sp. gr. 2.2. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty, into a porous cobrless glass; 
Forms a jelly with acids. 

Comp. Silex49, alumine 22; lime 9; water 17.5; carbonic acid 
2.5— .Vosel. 

Obs. The above description applies to the present species, Only in 
its recent, or perfect state. On exposure to the air it effloresces, or 
loses its water of crystallization, and divides into angular fragments ; 
becomes opake, of a millk white color, and pearly lustre, and finally 
falls into powder. Its appearance in this state, is much like that of 
selenite, after being exposed to heat. 

Local. Brittany, in a lead mine Ireland and Faroe in trap. Chi- 
na, Transylvania, St. Gothard. England in several places. 

V. 8. Near New-Ha?en, Conn.—SiUiman. Philipstown, N. Y. 
—Barratt. 

Species 32. CLAY SLATE. 
Clay Slate, P. Argillaceous Slate, G* 
Ext. Char. — Colors, reddish, bluish, greenish, brown, 
also yellowish brown and black, always dull ; occurs 

♦Hence the name, which in Greek signifies the doable effects of Are, in alls, 
sftoa to its turning white and phosphorescing. 

Wo honor of Gilbert tanmont 
6 



42 CLAY SLATE. 

massive ; structure slaty ; lustre glimmering ; princi- 
pal fracture slaty ; cross fracture earthy, or uneven ; 
opake ; yields to the knife ; does not adhere to the 
tongue : «p. gr. about 2.5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a black slag. 

Comp. Silex48; aluraine 25.5; magnesia 1.6; oxide of iron 11. 
3 ; oxide of manganese 0.5 ; potash 4.7 ; carbon 0.3 ; water 7.6— 
Kirwan. 

It is very universally distributed, and forms vast strata in different 
countries. 

Local. England. Scotland. Ireland, &c. 

U. 8. Hartford, Windsor, Suffield, Conn. 

Var. 1. — HOOF SLATE. 

Roof Slate, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, brownish black or bluish black ; 

occurs massive in beds ; fracture splintery ; cleavage 

perfect in one direction ; easily fusible ; surface 

smooth, or slightly undulating; divides into large thin 

Elates ; sonorous, when suspended and struck with a 
ard body. 

It is found botb in primitive and secondary rocks. 

Local. It is found in most European countries. 

U. S. Wayne, York and Lancaster counties, Penn. (quarried) 
Hoosack, N. Y. (quarried) Dummerston, Rockingham, Castleton, 
and Brattleborough, Ver. Charlestown, Mass. extensively quarried. 

Uses. It is employed extensively, in cities, to cover the roofr of 
buildings. 

Obs. In Pennsylvania, roof slate is quarried, to the amount of about 
1600 tons annually. It sells at Baltimore, for $22, the ton. — Hay* 
den. It is also extensively quarried at Dummerston, and Brattlebo- 
rough, Ver. — Hall. And at Charlestown, Mass. — Dana. 

Var. 2. shining aroillite. 
Shiste luisant, Bt. Shining Argillite, C. 
Ext Char. — Colors, blue, bluish black, grey, and red- 
dish ; occurs massive ; fracture slaty ; surface undulat- 
ing or waved ; lustre shining, sometimes pseudo-metal- 
lic. 

Obs. This variety is primitive, and passes into mica slate. It 
abounds with ores ; most of the tin and copper mines of Cornwall! 
traverse this rock. 

Var. 3. shale. 

Slate Clay, J. P. Shale. C. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, grey, bluish black, brown* red- 



CLAY SLATE. 43 

dish, or greenish ; occurs massive ; fracture uneven ; 
lustre dull ; more or less fusible ; yields to the knife ; 
layers often uneven, protuberant, or knobby j adheres 
a little to the tongue. 

Chem. Char. It is fusible by the blowpipe. 
Obs. This variety often disintegrates, and falls in pieces. 
Dist. Char. It is less solid, and not so hard as argillite ; and does 
not, like roof slate, split into thin smooth layers. 

Var. 4. bituminous shale. 
Bituminous Shale, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black or brown ; structure slaty ; 
fracture conchoidal ; lustre a little shining or dull ; 
yields easily to the knife : sp. gr. about 2. 

Obs. This variety contains a considerable quantity of bitumen. 
When heated, or struck, it exhales a strong bituminous odor, and oft- 
en burns with a flame. It is a strong indication of coal. 

2. Shale frequently exhibits impressions of vegetables, as reeds, 
ferns, leaves, &c. It also exhibits impressions offish. 

Local England, Scotland', &c. 

U. 8. Virginia, Rhode Island, Ohio, Connecticut, &c. 

Obs. It is found with the R. Island anthracite, containing impres- 
sions of vegetables. 

2. At Westfield, Conn, is a bed of highly bituminous shale, con* 
mining numerous impressions offish. Sometimes the fish are a foot, 
or two feet long, the head, fins, and scales, being perfectly distinguish- 
able. A single specimen sometimes presents parts of three or four 
fish, lying in different directions, and between different layers They 
are sometimes contorted and almost double. Their color, sometimes 
jjrey, is usually black, and the fins and scales, appear to be converted 
into coal —Sitlifnan. 

Var. 5, novaculite. 

Argile schisteuse novaculaire, H. Novaculite, K. C. Whet Slate, 

J. A. * . 

Ext. CAar.— Colors, yellowish white, or blackish grey, 
often running in stripes ; translucent on the edges ; 
texture fine grained or compact ; structure slaty, more 
or less fissile ; fracture conchoidal ; fragments sharp 
edged : sp. gr. 2.75. 

Chem Char. Fusible, into a brownish, porous enamel. 

Comp. Silex71.3; alumin* 15.3 ; oxide of iron 9.3 ; water 3.3. — 
Faraday. 

Obs. The Turkish hone often presents the two colors, pale yel- 
low, and bluish or greenish grey, in distinct layers, or stripes. It is 
from this circumstance, perhaps* that this substance is thought by 
many to be petrified wood. Sometimes the two layers are cemented 



44 CLAY SLATE. 

together. The yellow, is generally more compact and hard, than tia 
bluish. 

Local. In the primitive mountains of Saxony, and in several parts 
of Germany. It was first brought from the Levant, hence it was cal- 
led Turkish hone. 

U. 8. Berks County, Penn, It is explored, and sells at 35 cents 
the pound. — Cooper. Arkansas Territory, of a good quality— £eA#o/- 
eraft. Charleston, Maiden, and Dorchester, Miss, — Dan*. Their 
ford, Ver. — Hall. Kennebec river, Maine — Cleveland. 

Uses. It is employed to give a fine edge to cutting instruments. 

Fur. 6. AMJM SLATE. 

Alum Slate, J. A. P. Aluminous Slate, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, bluish, or greenish black, or iron 
black ; sometimes irridescent ; structure slaty ; layers 
often curved or undulated ; lustre glimmering or dull ; 
fracture uneven or earthy : sp. gr. 2.33. 

Chem. Char. Fusible. It turns red by the action of heat, and fall* 
in pieces. 

Comp. Silex 40; alumine 16; carbon 19.6; sulphur 2.8; sul- 
phate of iron, lime, and potash 1.5 each; iron 6.4; water 10.7. — 
Klaproth. 

Ops. On exposure to the air, it disintegrates, and throws out a sa- 
line i ffloresceuce, which covers the surface with a white powder, and 
which is found to be alum. The production of this salt, is explained 
on the principle of chemical affinity. The sulphur on exposure, ab- 
sorbs oxygen from the atmosphere, and is converted into sulphuric 
acid, which then unites to the alumine and potash, and forms a sul- 
phate of alumine and potash, or alum. The alum is then obtained 
by lixiviation. 

Local. Yorkshire, and near Whitby, Eng. At Whitby are exten- 
sive alum works. Also in Italy, near Rome. 

U. & Frederic, and Washington Counties, Md. Near Zanes- 
ville, Ohio. Near New Lebanon Springs, N. Y Pownal, Ver. 
Also in the western counties of Pennsylvania. 

Vat. 7. ADHESIVE SLATE.* 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish grey, or greenish 
brown ; occurs massive ; texture slaty, which becomes 
visible on exposure ; but it the mass be moistened the 
slaty characters disappear ; splits easily ; yields to the 
knife ; adheres to the tongue ; sp. gr. about 2. 

Comp. Silex 82.50 ; alumine 0.75 ; lime €.25 j magnesia 8.0j 
carbon 75 ; iron 4 — Klaproth. 
Local. Near Paris, in the gypsum formations. 



* Because it adheres to the tongue. 



8ILICIOUS SLATE. 45 

VarS. polishing slats. 
Polishing Slate, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char.~ Colors, white, yellowish white, or yel- 
low ; occurs massive ; structure slaty ; opake \ brittle ; 
swims on water for a short time. 

Comp. Silex 83.50; alumine 4 ; lime 8.50 ; oxide of iron 1.60 ; 
water 9.0. — Bucholz. 

Local. Bohemia, Saxony, and Auvergne. It is supposed to be a 
volcanic production. 

Use. It is used for polishing glass, marble, the metals, &c. 

Var. 9. graphic slate. 

Argile schisteuse graphique, H. Drawing Slate, J. Black Chalk, 
A. P. Graphic Slate, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, black, greyish, or bluish black ; 

structure slaty ; fracture earthy ; leaves a black dull 

trace on wood, or paper ; opake ; soils the fingers : 

sp. gr. 2.U. 

Comp. Silex 64 ; alumine 11.25 ; carbon 11 ; oxide of iron 2.75 ; 
water 7.5. — Weiglib. 

It is found with argil ite, and in the vicinity of coal formations. 

Local. Spain, France, Italy, Iceland, &c. 

U. S. Rhode Island, with anthracite. On the Susquehannah, 
Penn. 

Uses. It is employed for tracing lines on wood, and for making 
crayons, for drawings. 

Species 33. SILICIOUS SLATE. 

Silicious schistus, K. Flinty Slate, J. P. Silicious Slate C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, bluish grey, reddish, brown 
or black ; occurs massive ; structure slaty ; fracture 
imperfectly conchoidal ; lustre glimmering ; hardness 
about equal to that of quartz ; translucent on the edges; 
colors sometimes arranged in spots or stripes : sp. gr. 
2.59 to 2.64. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but turns reddish. 

Comp. Silex 75 ; the remainder being lime, magnesia, and oxide 
of Iron. — Weiglib. 

Local. Saxony, Bohemia, France, Scotland. 

Var. 1. BASINITE. TOUCHSTONE. 

Lidian stone, J. A. P. Ba&inite, K. C, 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish black, or black ; occurs 
massive, and in rolled pieces ; opake ; fracture con- 
choidal ; streak black. 



46 CLAY. 

Obs. This variety, was formerly much employed as a test of the 
purity of gold. The metal being drawn across the stone, a judgment 
of its purity or quantity of alloy, is formed by the color of the streak ; 
and if this is not satisfactory, the trace of metal is touched with 
nitric acid which dissolves the alloying substance without touching 
the gold Hence the name touchstone. 

Local. U. 8. Topsham, Mass. Northampton, N. H. Near Read- 
ing and Bethlehem, -Penn. Topsham, Me. 

Species 34. CLAY. 
The varieties of this species , are composed of silex and alumine, 
with variable proportions of oxide of Iron, and sometimes a little car* 
bon, manganese and water. 

Far. 1. INDURATED CLAY. 

Claystone. J. C. Indurated Clay, K. A. P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, yellowish grey, brown, red- 
dish, and sometimes greenish ; occurs massive ; frac- 
ture conchoidal and splintery ; yields to the knife ; 
texture compact, or porous ; yields an argillaceous 
odor when moistened ; crumbles and falls in pieces in 
water; opake ; sp. gr. about 2.21. 

Obs. It sometimes forms the basis of porphyry. 
Chem. Char. Infusible, but becomes glazed by heat 
It often occurs in extensive beds. 

Far. 2. iron clay. 
Iron Clay, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, reddish, or yellowish brown; 
occurs massive ; fracture earthy ; opake ; easily brok- 
en ; gives an argillaceous odor ; often porous, or amy- 
daloidal. 
Local. Ireland, Scotland, England, &c. 
Far. 3. wackb* 
Wakke, Bt. Wacke, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish grey, brownish, green- 
ish, or reddish ; occurs massive ; fracture conchoidal, 
or earthy ; opake ; unctuous to the touch ; gives the 
argillaceous odor when breathed on; may be cut by a 
knife ; sp. gr. 2.53, to 2.89. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a porous slag. 

Comp. Silex 28; alumine23; lime 4.5; water 1618; oxide of 
iron 26 ; carbonic acid 2.32. — Webster. 

* Pronounced Wak'kt. 



CLAT. 47 

It is associated with basalt, and seems to be intermediate between 
that substance and clay. 

Local. Germany, Scotland, Saxony, Norway. 

U. 8. Near Boston, Mass. It there forms the basis of amygda- 
loid. — Cleveland: 

Obs. It frequently contains embedded crystals, of mica, hornblende, 
calcareous spar, &c. In it are also found magnetic iron, chalcedo- 
ny, agate, and zeolite. It also sometimes contains fossil bones, and 
petrified wood, but Jameson says, it never, like basalt, contains 
augite, or olivine. 

Var. 4. rotten stone. 
Rotten Stone, A. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brownish grey, or reddish brown, 
passing into black ; occurs massive ; fracture earthy 
and dull; soft; soils the fingers; fetid when rubbed 
or scraped. 

Comp. Alumine 86 ; silex 4 ; carbon 10. — Phillips. 
Local.. Derbyshire, where it is believed to ai ise from the decompo- 
sition of the shale, of that country. — Phillips. 
U. S. Albany, N. Y. 

Var. 5. porcelain clay. 

Peldspath decompose, H. Porcelain Clay, P. Kaolin, Porcelain 
Clay, K. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish, or reddish white ; oc- 
curs massive ; composed of small particles slightly 
coherent ; soft ; friable between the fingers ; 
unctuous to the touch ; adheres slightly to the tongue ; 
absorbs water, and falls to powder ; but does not form 
a ductile paste : sp. gr.2.?0 to 2.40. 

Chem. Char. Infusible. 

Comp. (From Saxony,) Silex 55 ; alumine 27; lime 2; water 14 ; 
oxide of iron 5 ; — Vauquelin. (From Cornwall,) Silex 20 ; alumine 
60; water 12. — Wedgewood. (From Vermont, ) Silex 50 ; alumine 
€3.— Smith. 

Obs. This is the clay of which China or porcelain ware, is manu- 
factured. It is infusible even in a porcelain furnace, when pure, but 
hardens, and acquires a degree of firmness, though not sufficient for 
the purposes of the manufacturer, without the addition of some flux, 
as a little lime, by which it is softened in the fire, and as it cools as- 
sumes the proper degree of hardness and firmness. 

2. Sometimes the best porcelain clay is of a yellowish color, prob- 
ably from the intermixture of earthy matter, as it becomes white in 
the fire. When colored by oxide of iron, or other metallic oxides, it 
becomes reddish or brown in the fire, by which its value is greatly 
lessened The value of this clay, can therefore be ascertained, only 
by actual experiment. 



48 CLAT. 

3. Porcelain day, is found in primitive reeks, where it occurs in 
beds, more or less extensive It is produced by the decomposition of 
felspar, one of the component parts of granite, and more particularly 
of graphic granite, which is almost entirely composed of felspar. 

Local. Meissien in Saxony, and from which the Saxoo porcelain » 
made. Limoges, in France. Cornwall, in England. Near Passu 
in Austria, &c. 

U. 8. Monkton, Vtr. At this place, it appears to form a large 
bed, and to be of a good quality for the manufacture of porcelain.— 
SiHiman. Near Wilmington, Del. Near Philadelphia, Penn. ill 
several places. — Wister. Washington, Conn, in small quantities. 

Var. 6. LITHOMARGE.* 

Argile Lithomarge, H. Lithomarge. J. A. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, reddish or yellowish white, also 
bluish, and greyish white, often spotted internally ; oc- 
curs massive ; opake ; fracture conchoidal ; texture 
fine grained ; son: ; adheres to the tongue : polishes 
with the nail ; falls to powder in water, but does not 
form a paste : sp. gr. 2.20. 

Ckem. Char. Infusible ; sometimes phosphoresces, when heated. 

Comp Silex45.2; alumine 39.5; water 14; oxide of iron 2.7 — 
Klaproth. 

It is found in veins in porphyry, gneiss, and serpentine, and in 
beds over coal. 

Obs. Werner, divides it into two kinds, indurated and friable* 

Local. Saxony, England- 

U. S. Bare Hills, near Baltimore, Md. Montgomery County, 
Penn. 

Var, 7. fuller's earth. 
Fuller's Earth, J. A. P. C. 
Ext Char. — Colors, greenish brown, greenish grey, 
greenish white, yellowjsh, reddish, and bluish, some- 
times striped or spotted; occurs massive; fracture 
somewhat conchoidal ; texture earthy ; polishes with 
the finger nail ; unctuous to the touch • soft and tender; 
becomes translucent when thrown into the water, and 
falls into a pulpy impalpable powder, but does not be- 
come ductile : sp. gr. 1 .7 to 2. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a porous slag. Turns white when 
heated. 

Comp. Silex53; alumine 10; water 24; magnesia 1.25; lime 0. 
5 ; muriate of soda 0.1 ; oxide of iron 9.75. — Klaproth. 

♦Signifies Rock Marrow. 



CLAY. 49 



It is found in beds, some tim es enclosing fossil wood, sea shells, 
sulphate of barytes, and quartz. 

Local The .best, is said to occur in England. It is also found in 
Austria, Saxony, &c. 

U. S. Newfield, Maine, Kent, Conn. 

Uses. This -earth was formerly muck employed, isx the Iblting of 

cloth, whence its name. At the present time, soap is genetalls- 

snbstituted. I 

Var. 8. Tripoli.* 

Tripoli, J. A. P. C. 

Ext. Char^> Colors, varioas shades of grey* yellow, 
and red ; occurs massive ; fracture dull, oarse, and 
earthy ; yields to the nail ; rough to the touch ; opake ; 
aspect argillaceous ; indurated or finable ; does not 
form paste with water ; sp. gr. 2.20. 

Chem. Char, Infusible, sometimes enerresces with acids, from for- 
eign ingredients. 

Comp. Silex 90 ; the rest being alnmine, oxide of iron, and lime. 

It is (bond among secondary rocks, or in alluvial earths. 

Local. France, Bohemia, Saxony, Brittany, &c 

Uses. It is used, like emery, for polishing metals, stones, marble, 
&c. 

Var. 9. bole: 
Bole, K.J.iP.C. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, reddish yellow, brownish black, 
yellowish white, or pitch black ; occurs in solid amor- 
phous masses ; opake ; fracture conchoidal ; smooth 
to the touch ; yields an argillaceous odor when mois- 
tened ; soils the fingers : sp. gr. 2. 

Chem. Char. Turns red, or Mack, and melts into a porous slag. 

Comp. (From Lemnos) Silex 61$ ; alnmine 14.5; water 8.5; ox- 
ide of iron 6 ; soda 3.5 ; lime and magnesia 0.5. — Klaproth. 

It is found with basalt and wacke. 

Local. Armenia and Lemnos. 

Obs. Bole appears to be a fine clay, colored by iron. 

Uses. Formerly the Armenian bole was much employed in medi- 
cine as an astriugent and absorbent. That of Lemnos was used 
when moistened, and made into a thick parte, to take the impressions 
of seals, and hence was called terra sigiUata. Bole from Sienna, cal- 
led Terra dc Sienna, is a dark brown color, and is used as a paint. 
At the present time, the red bole is employed at Constantinople, to 
form the bowls of their tobacco pipes. It takes an exact and beaut i* 
ful impression from the mould, and when gilded, appears like the fin- 
est workmanship. 

" It was first broefkt frost Tripoli 

7 



50 CLA*. 

Vm. 10. caioun. 
Cimolite, H. J. A. P. C, 
Ext. Char. — Color, internally greyish white, but ac- 

2uires a reddish tint by exposure ; occurs massive ; 
acture earthy ; texture a tittle slaty j yields to the 
nail ; adheres to the tongue ; gives a shining streak » 
(alls to pieces in water : sp. gr. 2. 

Chem. Char. It whitens, but is infusible. 

Comp. Silex 63 ; tiumine 23 ; water •« ; iron 1.25.— fZoprrf*. 

Local. Argenteria, formerly Cimaku, an island ia the Archipela- 
go, situated near Mile 

Uses. It was employed by the ancients as a detergent, and is nse4 
by the inhabitants of the island m a substitute for fuller 's earth, at 
the present day. 

Far. 11. — MOUNTAIN MEAL. 

Obs. This singular substance was found in the form of a bed A by 
Fibbroni, at Santa Fieri, between Tuscany and the Papal dominions. 
It is formed into bricks, so light as to swim on water.— Phillips. 

Comp. Silex79 ; alumine 5; oxide of iron 3; water 12.—ja7e> 
proth. 

Var. 12. pipe* clay. 

Pipe Clay, K. J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish white ; fracture earthy; 
feels smooth and greasy ; adheres to the tongue ; when 
kneaded with water becomes plastic and tenacious. 
Chem. Char. Becomes white in the fire, but is infusible. 
Obs. This is merely a pure kind of potter's clay. 
Local. Devonshire and Dorsetshire, Eng. 
U. 8. Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 
Uses. Besides tobacco pipes, it forms the basis of queen's wait. 

Var. 13. potter's clay. 
Argile glaise, H. Clay, A. Potter's Clay, P. C. 
Ext. Chor. — Colors, grey, greyish white, reddish, or 
bluish ; occurs massive in beds ; fracture earthy ; tex- 
ture more or less compact ; sometimes friable ; soft 
and unctuous to the touch ; when dry, receives a po- 
lish from the nail ; when moistened and worfced, it 
makes a very tenacious and ductile paste : sp, gr.irora 
1.08 to 2. 

Chem. Char. Infusible. Some varieties, however, soften in a porce- 
lain heat. 

• BecauM towicto pipst are mctoof it. 



CLAY. 51 



Comp. Silex48.6; aluminc 33 2 ; time 3.5 ; iron l.«; water ift 

It is found in beds, or forming hills. It often oontains organic re* 
mains of animals, fish, and plants 

Uses. This clay is employed in large quantities, in the aaaaniac- 
tare of stone ware, consisting of pots, jugs, churns, jars, dte. which 
mm of a yellowish, or greyish white color When quite pore, it it 
accessary to mix with it a proportion of ground flints, te temper it lot 
the potter's use When it contains a sufficient quantity of fine silt 
cious matter, this becomes unnecessary. 

Btone ware is glazed in the ffsrnace, by throwing in a quantity of 
conmon salt, at a oertain stage of the burning. It may also be gla* 
sedby a mixture of alkali, ground sitox, and oxide of lead, spread on 
each vessel. 

Local Devonshire, and Hampshire, in England, from whence 
large quantities are taken to supply the potteries at Staffordshire and 
Newcastle. 

V. S. Near Philadelphia, Pensu Burlington and Bordentown, 
N. J. of a good quality for Pottery. Also in Maryland. Martha's 
Vineyard, Mass. It is white, and fit for pipe clay. Missouri, on 
the right bank of the Mississippi. This is an immense bed of 34 
miles long, and from one to ten feet in thickness.— Jcssup. 

Var. 14. loam. 
Loam, J. P. C. 
Obs. Loam or brick earth, varies very much in appearance, tex- 
ture and composition. It consists of potter's clay mixed with a por- 
tion of sand, carbonate of lime, oxide of iron, mica, chalk, d&c. 
It is the substance of which bricks are made, and is found in almost 
every country. 

Far. 15. reddle, rid chalk. 
Reddle, K. A. C. Red Chalk, J. P. 
Ext. Char<— -Color, red, of different shades ; occurs 
massive ; fracture conchoidal ; texture earthy ; struc- 
ture often slaty ; soils the fingers, and leaves a bright 
red trace on paper ; opake ; adheres to the tongue, 
and gives an argillaceous odour when moistened ; falls 
to powder in water, but does not form a paste : sp. gr. 
from 3.1 3 to 3.93. 

Obs. It seems to pass into red oxide of iron. It occurs in small 
masses in clay-slate, and sandstone, of the mere recent forma* 
tkras. 

Local. France, Germany, Siberia, &c That used in commerce, 
is brought from Germany and France. 

Uses. It is principally used for drawing. The coarser varieties 
are used by the carpenter, the finer by the painter. It is either used 
in the natural state, or is pounded, waahed, andmiied with gum, and 



52 



FAHLUN1TC. HARMOTOME. 



cast into moulds. The crayons which are designed for small tnd 
delicate drawings, are mixed with a large portion of gum, in order t* 
give them sufficient hardness.— Jameson. 

Species®*. FAHLUNITE* 
Fahlunite, P. C. M. 
Ext Char.— Color, dark reddish brown, streak 
greyish white; occurs massive, and in thin layers; 
opake, or translucent on the edges ; yields to the knife; 
scratches glass ; lustre waxy ; texture crystalline ; 
sometimes shows a tendency to form six-sided prims. 

Comp. Silex 46 74'; alamine 526.73 ; magnesia 2.97 ; oxide of 
iron 5.11 ; water 12.5. — Heisinger. 

Local Fahlun, in Sweden, embedded in a slaty talcose rock, in a 
copper mine. 

Species 36. HARMOTOMK 

Harmotome, H. A. P. C. Pyramidal Zeolite, or Cross Stone, J. 
Partomatons Kouphone-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, greyish white, milk white, some- 
times with a tinge of yellow, or red ; occurs in crystals 
which are rectangular four-sided prisms, terminated 
by rhombic planes, or four-sided pyramids ; solid angles 
ouen truncated ; crystals cross each other lengthwise, 
or so that the broad planes of one prism are perpen- 
dicular to the broad planes of the other. Crystals of- 
ten compressed into a tabular form ; translucent, or 
transparent ; lustre pearly ; scratches glass; structure 
foliated : sp. gr. 2.35. 

v 

Fig. 18. A compressed four-sided prism, terminated by a pyramid, 
consisting of four rhombic faces. 

Fig. 19. A double, or twin crystal, consisting of two four-sided 
prisms joined together, and intersecting each other so as to make 
their axes coincide. 

Chem. Char, fusible into a diaphanous glass. On hot coals phos- 
phoresces with a greenish light. 




* From its Jocality. 



AMIANTH01DE. AUGITE. 53 

Comp. Silex 49 ; alumine 16 ; barytes 18 ; water 15. — 10b- 
proth. 

Dist. Char. It does not, tyke zeolite, form a jelly with acids ; arra- 
gonite is infusible ; staarotide is of a deeper color and infusible. Stil- 
bite exfoliates on hot coals. 

Local In the Hartz, it is found in metaliferous reins, with carbo- 
nate of lime, and sulphnret of lead. Also in Norway, Scotland, and 
Germany. It is a rare mineral. 

Species 37. AMIANTHOIDE.* 
Amianthoide, H. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, olive green, or greenish white ; 
occurs in long capillary filaments, very flexible and 
elastic ; lustre shining and silky. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with difficulty into blackish enamel. 

Comp. Silex 47 ; lime 1 1 ; magnesia 7 ; oxide of iron 20 ; oxide of 
manganese 10. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. It is more elastic than amianthus, and more flexible 
than asbestus. The result of its fusion, will also distinguish it from* 
both. 

Loral. Oisans, in France. 

U. S. Topsham, Maine. — Cleveland. 

Var. 1. BYSSOLITE.t 

Byssolete, P. C. Variety of Amianthoide, H. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, green, or brownish yellow ; oc- 
curs in delicate filaments implanted on other minerals, 
standing erect, and somewhat resembling a. kind 
of moss. These filaments are flexible and elastic. 

Comp. Silex 34 ; alumine 43 ; lime 9 ; oxide of iron 19. — Saus- 
sure. 

Local. At the foot of Mont Blanc, and at Oisane, in France. 

Species 38. AUGITE 
Pyroxene, H. Oblique edged Augite J. Augite. Pyroxene, P. 
Augite, A. C. 
Paratomous Augite-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, brownish, or blackish 
green, yellowish green, grey, and sometimes white ; 
occurs in crystals, in grains, and amorphous ; form six 
or eight-sided prisms, terminated at each extremity by 
two principal laces ; primary form, an oblique rhombic 
prism ; cleavage parallel to the sides of this prism ; 
lustre glimmering or splendent ; opake , scratches 

* From resemblance to amianthus. 
tFrom Its resemblance to lichen or moss. 



54 AVGITE. 

glass ; structure foliated ; fracture cohchoidal, or une- 
ven : sp. gr. from 3. 15 to 3.57. 

Obs. 1. T ie lateral planes of the crystals ire often unaqtnl, mm be- 
ing broader than others. Augite is subject to a variety of mdifioaj- 
tions, by truncation. Sometimes it occurs in hemitrope crystals, It 
is subject to decomposition, by which it is reduced to a yellowish 
green, earthy mass. 

2. Augite is found in primitive rocks, and in the productions of 
volcanoes. But whether in the latter case, it existed in the rock 
previously, and had passed the action of the volcanic fire unaltered, 
or whether its crystals are formed in the lava, after its ejectioa, is a 
matter of doubt and dispute, among geologists. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, in small fragments, into a glassy globule, 
the color of which, depends on that of the specimen. 

Comp. Silex 54 86; lime 33.57; Magnesia 16.49 ; protoxide of 
iron 444 ; manganese 0.43; alumine 0.21— lfr»e. 
Dist Char. It is commonly darker, and always harder, and heavier 
than olivine. Hornblende is more easily fusible than augite, sah- 
lite is commonly more translucent, yenite fuses readily, and attracts 
the magnet. By these differences, this species may be distinguished. 

Local. Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Teneriffe, Bourbon, &c. in 
volcanic products. Bohemia, Hungary, TransyUania, and Hese, in 
basalt Norway, in primitive trap. North Wales, Scotland, Eng- 
land, &c. in trap and basalt. 

U. 8. Kingsbridge, N. T. in primitive limestone. It is white.— 
Brute. Litchfield, Conn, in whitish crystals, sometimes four inches 
long.— "Brace. Also at Washington and Brookfield, Con*. Deer* 
field, Mass, in black imperfect crystals. Eight miles from Baltimore, 
in white six-sided prisms. Also five miles from Baltimore, in six-aid* 
ed prisms, of an olive green, or brownish red color, and sometimes 
five or six inches long. — Hayden. Pittsfield, Mass. 

The following minerals, are considered varieties of augite. 
Far. 1. diopside.* 
Diopside, J. P. C. Variety of Pyroxene, H. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, greenish white, greyish, 
and yellowish white ; occurs in crystals, of which die 
primitive form is an oblique rhombic prism ; seconda- 
ry forms six, eight, or twelve-sided prisms, terminated 
by four or six faces ; crystals longitudinally striated • 
translucent, or transparent ; often compressed into ta- 
bles ; sometimes the crystals are fibrous, and are ag- 
gregated into radiating masses ; structure foliated; 
scratches glass; lustre vitreous and shining: sp. gr. 
between 3.23 and 3.30. 

* From the Greek, signifying transparency. 



AUGira 55 

0*m.Ck*r. Pw*Kwilhdife«ky,iill»«gr^riA 

Qmp. Silex57; magnesia 1&25; lime 16.5; oxides of iron and 
manganese 6. — Laugier. 

JjHst. Char. It differs from angite and sahiite, in being more trans- 
parent, and of brighter green. 

Local. Miasm, in Piedmont, and hence it has been called Mussite. 

U. 8. Philipstown, N. Y. Pennsborough, fern. 

Var. 9. pybgom. fassaitk.* 
Pyrgom. Passaite, P. Fassaite, C. 
Ext. Char.— Color, green, of various shades, often 
blackish green ; occurs in crystals of six or eight sides ; 
also in the form of an octohedron, or double four-sided 
pyramid, truncated on the edges ; cleavage parallel to 
the sides of an oblique rhombic prism ; crystals in con-? 
fused groups ; translucent or opake ; scratches glass. 
Load. In the valley of Fassa, in the Tyrol. 

Vat!Z. SAHLlTE.t 

Pyroxene, H. Sahiite, J. A P. C. Paratomous Augite-Spar, M. 
Ext. Cftor.— Colors, greyish green, or pale green ; oc- 
curs in four or eight-sided crystals, with dihedral sum- 
mits > also massive, and in granular concretions ; struc- 
ture of the massive lamellar, with joints parallel to the 
planes of an oblique prism ; lustre shining, or glim* 
mering ; a whitish foliated substance often interposes 
between the natural joints ; slightly unctuous to the 
touch ; translucent or opake ; breaks easily into rhom- 
boidal fragments : sp gr. about 3. 

Cham Char. Infusible, or melts with difficulty into a porous glass. 
In small fragments with borax it does not melt, but seems to impart 
its color to the glass. 

Comp. Silex 53 ; alumine 3 ; lime 20 ; magnesia 19 ; oxide of 
iron and manganese 4. — Vauquetin 

Dist. Char. Sahiite is of a paler green than augite, and less trans- 
parent than diopside, mto which it passes. Fassaite occurs most 
commonly in crystals, sahiite rarely. 

Local. Sahla, in Shorten, in a silver mine Arcndal, in Norway, 
with iron, lead, and hornblende. Siberia, with beryl and mica. 

U. 8. Near lake Champlain, N. Y. Near Ticonderoga, N. Y. in 
men octahedral crystals of an inch in diameter.— McEwen. Near 
New-Haven, Con. in serpentine. It is olive green and foliated, — 
8Uiiwtan. 

Far. 4. Bailcatitt. — This substance receives its name from the 

* From the calley of Fossa. 
t Bwiiie it ww found at Sahh . 



56 HORNBLENDE. 

lake Baikal, in Siberia, and was considered by Werner as a distinct 
rariety. But no difference can be observed between it and sahlite. 
They are therefore considered to be the same mineral. 

Var. 5. coccolite.* 
Pyroxene grannliforme, H. Coccolite, f. A. P. C. 
Ext Char. — Colors, greyish, or bluish green, greenish 
black, red, or reddish brown; occurs in grains adhering 
together, and forming masses of irregular shapes; lustre 
vitreous and shining ; scratches glass ; translucent ; 
grains angular and easily separable by the fingers :sp* 
gr. from 3. 30 to 3.37. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ease, into a vitreous opake •globule. 

Comp. Silex50; alumine 1.5; lime 24; magnesia 10 ; oxide of 
iron 7 ; oxide of manganese 3. — Vauquclin. 

Obs. The grains of this substance are of all sizes from that of the 
smallest sand, to that of a pea. Their form is angular, or rounded 
with irregular shining mces, often resembling crystals. In the same 
mass the different colors, red, green, &c. sometimes occur in dis- 
tinct grains. Sometimes thin, white, and apparently silicioos parti- 
tions run through the masses, and divide them into layers. - * 

Local Arendal, in Norway , with iron and carbonate of lime. An- 
trim, in Ireland, disseminated in limestone. 

U. 8. West Chester, Ticonderoga, and Philipstown, N. T. Char- 
lotte, Ver. At the last locality it is found in abundance, and of va- 
rious colors. — Hall ;■ ■ , "; 

Var. 6. white coccolite. 
White Coccolite. — Dr. Barratt 
Ext. Char. — Color, clear white, or yellowish white ; 
occurs in masses composed of angular grains of the 
size of gun shot. 

Local Philipstown, Putnam County, N. Y. The masses are in- 
terspersed with crystals of white augite. 

Obs. This is a new variety, and was discovered by Dr. Barratt in 
1820. 

Dr. Barratt also found at the same locality, rose colored coccolite.-^ 
Silliman's Journal. 

Species 39. HORNBLENDE. 

Amphibole, H. Hornblende, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark bottle green, passing into 

black ; occurs massive, crystallized and slaty ; form of 

the primitive, an oblique rhombic prism ; secondary 

form, a six-sided prism, variously modified ; crystals 

* From the Greek, a granular stone. 



HORNBLENDE. 57 

striated and often flattened ; sometimes distinct* but 
commonly aggregated, intersecting each other, or in 
confusedly radiating masses ; opake ; lustre shining, 
sometimes pseudo-metallic ; indents under the edge of 
the hammer ; breaks with difficulty $ fracture, foliated 
or fibrous 5 streak and powder, greyish green 5 yields 
to the knife : sp. gr. 3.15 to 3.38, 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with ease, into a greyish black glass. 

Cemp. (Deep green.) Silex 47.21 ; alumine 13.94; lime 12 73; 
magnesia 21.8U ; oxide of iron 2.28 ; oxide of manganese 0.57 ; flu- 
oric acid 0.90 ; water 44. — Bonsdorff. 

Obs. There is a considerable variety in the composition of this 
species. 

Dist. Char. Schorl, which it resembles, is much harder, does not 
give a green streak and powder, and is generally found in distinct, 
nine sided crystals. It differs from augite in being more easily fusi- 
ble, softer and tougher. 

Obs. 1. Hornblende is a very abundant mineral. It is found chief- 
ly in primitive rocks, but occurs more or less in secondary forma- 
tions. 

2. It frequently enters into the composition of granite, gneiss, and 
mica slate, and is an essential ingredient in syenite and greenstone. 

Local. U. 8. Jerico, Ver in long capillary crystal 3. — Hall, 
Franconia, Ver. in superb polished crystals, some of which are near- 
ly half an inch broad, also in long and slender crystals, in a hornblende 
and serpentine rock. On the Schuylkill, Penn. in larue masses, and 
in bladed, or acicular crystals.— Lea. Brunswick, M/ine, fibrous 
hornblende occurs with white granular limestone. — Cleveland. 

Var 1. Massive Hornblende^ P. — This variety presents a cry** 
talline mass, consisting of long, straight, or curved fib«ils } ofu n inter- 
secting each other, being closely compacted together. Sometimes 
the fibrils are twisted or curled, and appear like knots of wood, and 
sometimes like tufts of hair. It is very tough and difficult to break. 
Colors as in the species. 

Var. 2. HORNBLENDE SLATE. 

Hornblende Slate, P. C. J. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greenish black ; occurs in beds, 
more or less extensive ; texture slaty, each layer being 
composed of fibres, interlacing, diverging, or curled 
into knots. 

Ob$. This variety agrees in all its characters with the massive, ex- 
cept in its slaty structure. 

Var. 3. basaltic hornblende. 
Basaltic Hornblende, J. A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, black, brownish black, or jet 
8 



38 HORNBLENDE. 

black; occurs in distinct crystals, in lava, volcanic 
scoria, and basalt ; opake; otten moves the magnet; 
crystals sometimes have a brilliant lustre ; structure 
foliated ; easily broken ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 3.25. 

Chcm. Char. Melts with difficulty. 

Comp. Silex 47 ; alumine 26 ; lime 8 ; magnesia 2 ; iron 15.— 
Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It is of a more intense black, and has a much stronger 
lustre than common hornblende. Schorl is harder, and more easily 
broken. Its matrix also will generally distinguish it from other black 
crystals. 

Local. Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, and other countries, where 
basalt and volcanic products exist. 

Far. 4. pargasite. 
Pargasite, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, light bottle green ; occurs crys- 
tallized in six-sided prisms, with dihedral summits ; 
also in rounded crystalline masses ; cleavage parallel 
to the lateral planes of a rhombic prism ; translucent; 
scratches glass : sp. gr. 3 1 1. 

Chem Ch'tr. Fusible into a green glass. 

Comp. Silex 42 ; alumine 14.1 ; lime 14.3 ; magnesia 18.3 ; ox- 
ide of iron 3.5 ; of manganese, 1 .0 ; water and fluoric acid 3. 

Dist. Char. This mineral resembles hornblende in every respect, 
except its lighter color and translucency. 

Obs. The specimen before me from Pargas, resembles in color 
and translucencey, some varieties of prehnite. 

Local. Pargas,* in Finland, in calcareous spar. 

U. S. Chester, Mass. 

Var. 5. HEDENBERGITE. 

Hedenbergite. — Berzelius. 
Ext. Char.— Colors, greenish black, or dark brown, 
powder pale brownish green ; occurs in masses com- 
posed of shining plates ; fracture uneven ; fragments 
rhomboidal ; scratches carbonate of lime ; phospho- 
resces by heat and friction : sp. gr. 3.15. 

Chcm. Char. Fusible into a black shining glass, which is some- 
times magnetic. 

Comp. Silex 40.63 ; alumine 0.37 ; water 16.5 ; protoxide of iron 
35.25 ; oxide of manganese 75 ; carbonic acid 4.93. — Hedenberg. 

Local. Tunaberg, in Sweden, in calcareous spar, with iron pyrite§ ( 
quartz, and mica. 

* Whence the name Pargasite. 



TREMOLITE. 59 

Obs. 1. This variety seems to differ from common hornblende, 
chiefly in the form under which it occurs. 

2. Pinkerton quoteb several authors to prove that mountains of 
hornblende exist in several parts of the world Patrin, he says, ob- 
8' rved in Siberia, many mountains entirely composed of it, with oc- 
casional veins, or masses of granite. 

Species 40. TREMOLITE. 

Variety of Am phi bole, H. Grammatite, Bt. Tremolite, J. A. P. C, 

Tremolite occurs massive, crystallized, fibrous, and granular. Its 

colors are generally white, and greyish, or yellowish white ; lustre 

shining, vitreous, or silky ; it affords several varieties, depending 

chiefly on the different forms. 

Far. 1. CRYSTALLIZED TREMOLITE. 

Common Tremolite, J. C. Crystalized Tremolite, P. 
Ext Char. — Color, white, often with a tinge of grey, 
yellow, or red ; occurs in crystals, which are either 
very flat four, six, or eight-sided prisms, deeply striated, 
or minute fibres, the forms of which, it is difficult to de- 
termine; crystals seldom well defined, but commonly 
compressed ; translucent, sometimes nearly transpa- 
rent ; very brittle ; harsh to the touch ; lustre glisten- 
ing or silky ; scratches glass : sp. gr. about 3. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, in small particles, into a porous white ena- 
mel. 

Comp. (Fibrous.) Silex 65 ; lime 18; magnesia 10.33 ; water and 
carbonic acid 6.5 ; oxide of iron 0.16. — Klaproth. 

Obs. The carbonic acid in the above analysis probably came from, 
the gange, which is commonly limestone or dolomite. 

Dist. Char. It may resemble asbestus, but tremolite is very brit- 
tle, while asbestus is flexible. It never has the green color of acty- 
Dolite The foliated structure of stilbite, and the electrical powers 
and chemical qualities of zeolite, will distinguish them from tremo- 
lite. 

Far. 2. FiBROts tremolite. 

Variety of Amphibole fibreux, H. Fibrous Tremolite, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, often very pure and beau- 
tiful ; occurs in masses consisting of fine delicate 
fibres, sometimes long and straight, or gently c.urved, 
and sometimes radiating ; lustre silky ; fibres separa- 
ble by the fingers ; harsh to the touch ; friable, some- 
times between the fingers, in which case it i§ apt to 
penetrate the skin* 



60 TREMOLITE. 

Dist. Char. This variety resembles fibrous gypsum, but gypsum 
instantly becomes opake, when heated, and falls in pieces. 

Far. 3. bladbd tremolite. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, or yellowish, or bluish 
white ; occurs in long flattened prismatic crystals, re- 
sembling in form the blade of a double-edged knife; 
translucent ; traversed by cross fissures; easily broken; 
Several inches long. 

Obs. These are flattened, four or six-sided prisms. 

Far. 4. pyrallolite.* 
Pyrallolite, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greenish, becomes white by long 
exposure ; occurs massive, and in crystals ; form the 
flat rhombic prism, resembling the bladed variety of 
tremolite ; crystals an inch or more long ; fracture dull 
and earthy ; cleaves into triangular prisms, but not 
with shining faces ; opake, or in thin laminae, translu- 
cent : sp gr. 2.57. 

Chem. Char. Becomes black, then white, and the edges are redu- 
ced to a white enamel. In powder, phosphoresces on hot iron. 

Comp. Silex 50.6 ; alumine 3.4 ; lime 5.6 ; magnesia 23.4 > <**• 
idc of iron and manganese 1.1 ; bituminous matter and loss (M— 
Nordenskiold. 

Local Pargas, in Finland, in foliated limestone. 

U. S. Kingsbridge, N. Y. in limestone. — NuttaU. 

Far. 5. calamite.t 
Catamite, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, light green ; occurs in rhombic 
prisms, striated longitudinally ; translucent ; cleavage 
parallel to the sides of a rhombic prism $ soft ; resem- 
bles tremolite in the form of its crystals, which are 
traversed by fissures. 

Local Normark, in Sweden, with oxide of iron. 

Obs. Tremolite is a common and abundant mineral. It is found 
in limestone, and particularly in that variety called dolomite. It was 
first found in the mountains of Tremolo, in Switzerland, whence thti 
name. 

Local. Its foreign locations are very numerous. Beautiful speci- 
mens come from St. Gothard, in Switzerland. 

* From the Greek, signifying change by fire, in allusion to its turning black 
or white under the blowpipe. 

+ From Calamus, Latin, a reed, from the appearance of the crystal. 



ACTYNOLITE. 



61 



U. S. Litchfield and Washington, Con. Beautiful specimens of 
the bladed and fibrous varieties are found at both places in dolomite. 
Also at Milford, Canaan, and Goshen, Con. Newbury and Bolton, 
Mass. Great Barrington and Sheffield, do. At Sheffield the fibres 
are two feet long. — Dewey. Wardsborough and Bellows Falls, Ver. 
fJear Baltimore, Md. East Marlborough, Penn. fibres a foot long.— 
Jessup. Kingsbridge and Tarrytown, N. Y. Smithfield, R. 1. very 
beautiful. — Webb. West Marlborough, Penn. 

Species 41. ACTYNOLITK. 

Variety of Amphibole, H. Amphibole Actinote, Bt. Actynolite, J. 

P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, sometimes deep and 
beautiful, also dark green and brownish ; occurs in sin- 
gle, long, straight, four-sided flattened prisms, crossing 
each other at various angles, and in fibrous masses, 
either radiated or curved ; lustre highly shining ; crys- 
tals often deeply striated ; translucent; scratches glass; 
brittle : sp. gr. from 3 to 3.30, 

Chem. Char. On the first application of the heat, it turns deep 
brown, afterwards becomes ash grey, with the edges glazed with a 
black enamel ; tinges borax light green. 

Comp. Silex 50 ; alumine 0.75 ; lime 9.75 ; magnesia 19.75 ; 
oxide of iron 1 1 ; oxide of chrome 3 ; of manganese 0.5 ; potash 
0.5 ; water 5.0. — Laugier. 

Dist. Char. Its color will distinguish it from hornblende and tre- 
molite, both of which it very nearly resembles in form. Epidote is of 
a lighter, or yellowish green, and zeolite is greyish white. 

Var. 1. BEADED ACTYNOLITE. 

Amphibole hexaldre, H. Common Actynolite, J. C. Crystallized 
Actynolite, P. 

J&xt. Char. — Color, deep green, often of various 
shades in the same crystal ; occurs in long slender, flat, 
four or six-sided crystals, with alternate sharp lateral 
edges, and often deeply striated ; summits commonly 
incomplete ; translucent ; lustre shining ; brittle ; com- 
monly occurs in talc, crystals crossing each other at 
various angles. 



Fig. 20. A flat six-sided prism, the common form. 
Fig. 31. The same with the lateral edges truncated 



62 HTPERSTHENE. 

Var. 2. acicular acttnolite. 
Asbestus Actynolite, J. Acicular Actynolite, C. 
Fxt. Char. — Color, lighter green than the bladed ; 
occurs in capillary crystals, closely aggregated, and 
either parallel, intersecting, diverging, or radiating 
from a centre ; lustre glistening ; opake ; harsh to the 
toucii ; brittle and inelastic. 

Far 3. Glassy Actynolite. It differs from the above variety, in 
possessing a vitreous, or glassy lustre. 

Var. 4. ASBESTIFORM ACTYNOLITE. 

Amphibole fibreux. Fibrous Actynolite, C. Asbestiform Acty- 
nolite, P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, greenish grey ; occurs in slender, 
somewhat elastic, fibrous crystals, closely aggregated ; 
lustre silky; fibres parallel or diverging, and easily 
separable by he fingers ; very brittle. 

Dist. Char. It resembles amianthus, but is easily known from it, 
by its brittleness. 

Var 5. massive actynolite. 
Massive Actynolite, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, green ; occurs in lamellar masses, 
composed of granular concretions ; structure foliated ; 
also disseminated in other minerals. 

Obs. Actynolite is found in primitive rocks, as granite, mica slate, 
and in veins of talc. 

Local Tyrol, and St Gothard, in long six-sided prisms. Norway, 
Saxony, Piedmont, England, Scotland, and most other countries. 

U. S. Bolton, Middlefield, Hawley, and Chelmsford, Mats. Wind- 
ham, Ver. in compressed four-sided prisms, sometimes five inches 
long. — Hall Brunswick, Maine, in all its varieties. — Cleveland Near 
New Haven, and also at Litchfield and Canton, Conn. Near Balti- 
more, Md. in all its varieties. Concord, Venn, in large masses. — Cfefi- 
rad. On the Island of New York, N. Y. Near Philadelphia, Pa. 

Species 42. HYPERSTHENE 
Hypersthene H. J. A. P. C. Labrador Hornblende K. 
Ext. Char. — Color, blackish green, or dark brown ; 
occurs massive ; structure lamellar ; cleavage parallel 
to the sides, and shorter diagonals of a rhombic prism ; 
lustre, when viewed in certain directions, greenish, in 
others, copper red, and strongly metallic ; opake or 
translucent on the edges; powder, dark greenish grey; 
yields to the knife slightly ; scratches glass. 



METALLOIDAL DIALLAGE. GREEN DIALLAGE. 63 

Chem. Char, Fusible on the sharp edges ; with borax, gives a dark 
green glass. 

Comp. Silex, 54.25; magnesia, 14.0 ; alumine ^.25; lime 15 ; 
oxide of iron, 24 5 ; water, 1. — Klaproth. 

Local. Hypersthene was first found on the coast of Labrador, and 
hence has been called Labrador hornblende. It occurs, forming a 
constituent of a rock, with Labrador felspar. It is also found in 
Greenland. 

U. S. On Brandy wine creek, Penn. color dark green ; lustre me- 
tallic. — Jessup. Hingham, Mass. with hornblende. Essex, N. Y. 
crystals two or three inches long, color greyish brown.— Hall 

Uses. It is sometimes cut and polished for ringstones, and broach- 
es. — Cleveland. 

Species 43. METALLOIDAL DIALLAGE. 

Diallage metalloide, H. Schiller-Spar, A. P. Metalloidal Dial- 
lage, C. Hemi-Prismatic Schiller-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, bottle, emerald, or olive green, 
metallic grey, brownish, or nearly white ; occurs mas- 
sive ; structure lamellar, sometimes curved ; lustre 
metallic ; opake ; colors suddenly appear and disap- 
pear as the specimen is turned towards the light, in 
this respect resembling the Labrador felspar : sp. gr. 
about 3. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty into a blackish enamel. 

Comp. Silex 41 ; alumine3; lime 1 ; magnesia 29; oxide of iron 
14 ; water 10. — Drappier. 

It is commonly found in serpentine. 

Local. Tyrol, Saxony, Scotland, England, 

U. S. Near Haverstraw Bay, N. Y.—Schaefer. Middlefield, 
Mass. 

Species 44. GREEN DIALLAGE. 

Diallaga Vert, H. Diallage, J. Smaragdite, A. P. Green Dial- 
lage, C. Paratomous Augite-Spar M. 

Ext.Char. — Color, brilliant emerald green, or grass 
green ; occurs massive and disseminated ; structure 
foliated ; cleavage parallel to the sides and diagonals 
of a slightly rhombic prism ; opake or translucent ; 
lustre of the laminae, pearly or silky ; scratches car- 
bonate of lime : sp gr. about 3. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty into a grey, or greenish ena- 
mel. 

Comp. Silex 50; alumine 21 ; lime 13; magnesia 3 ; with a lit- 
tle oxide of iron tad chrome,— Vauquelin. 



64 ASBESTUS. 

Local On the banks of the Lake of Geneva, in saussurite. Near 

Turin. Corsica and Switzerland. 

U. S. Crown Point, N. Y. — Gibbs. New Haven, Conn, in ser- 
pentine. — Hall. 

Species 44. ASBESTUS. 

Asbeste, II. Asbestus, J. A. P. C. Hemi-Prismatic Augite- 
Spar, M. 

There are several varieties of this mineral, which differ considerably 
in their external characters but they generally agree in possessing 
a fibrous structure, more or less a v eg it able appearance, and in be- 
ing infusible in a common fire. % 

Far. 1. AMIANTHUS. 
Asbeste flexible, H. Amianthus, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Chttr. — Colors, white, yellowish, silver grey, 
greenish, and reddish ; occurs in long threads or plates, 
easily separable : lustre silky ; somewhat unctuous to 
the touch; soft, flexible, and elastic; fibres usually 
straight, often resembling raw flax, and sometimes the 
finest silk. 

Chem. Char. Becomes white, brittle, and opake, and then melts in- 
to a white enamel ; gives a diaphanous glass with borax. 

Comp. Silex 59 ; alumine 3 ; lime 6 ; magnesia 29. — Chenevix. 

Dist. Char. It resembles amianthoide, byssolite and common as- 
bestus The two first are fusible in a black enamel and tinge borax 
green. Asbestus is inflexible ; the others are flexible. 

It is found in veins, in serpentine. 

Local. Corsica, in great abundance. Savoy, fibres a foot long. 
Pyrennees, Cornwall, &c. 

U. S. Hoboken, N. J. Staten Island, N. Y. it is uncommonly 
beautiful. The fibres are sometimes more than two feet long. — Pierce 
and Torry. New Haven, Conn, in serpentine ; also at New Milford. 
Some specimens are exceedingly soft and fine. Kellyvale Fer. Mount 
Holly Mass. very abundant. — Hall. 

Uses. It is said that the ancients preserved the ashes of their dead, 
by wrapping their bodies in cloth made of this substance, before they 
were committed to the funeral pile. It was also used for incombus- 
tible wicks ; but is now considered chiefly as a curiosity. 

In Siberia it is said to be manufactured into various articles, as 
gloves, purses, &c. Incombustible paper has also been made of it, 
and if it be a fact, that ultra-marine blue, will " stand proof by fire ; 
as it was anciently advertised to do, we should have the materials for 
making incombustible records, an improvement of great consequence 
to the world. 

Cloth is made, by mixing the amianthus with flax, and spinning and 
weaving the mixture in the usual way, after which the flax is burned 
out, and the incombustible cloth remains. When such cloth requires 



ASBESTUS. 65 

cleaning, it may be thrown into a fire, and moderately heated for a few 
minutes. A strong heat would render it brittle. 

Far. 2. common asbestus. 
Asbest dur, H. Common Asbestus, J P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish grey, green, or yellow- 
ish grey ; occurs massive, composed of fihres of various 
lengths, either^straight, curved, or radiating from a cen- 
tre ; often appears nearly compact from the close ag- 
fregation of its fibres ; fracture splintery or fibrous ; 
bres inflexible and inelastic ; translucent on the 
edges ; lustre shining ; sp. gr. from 2.5 1. to 3. 

Chem. Char. Easily fusible into a dark enamel. 

Comp. Silex63.5; magnesia 16.0; lime 12.8; al limine 1.1; ox- 
ide of iron (i. — Bergman. 

Dist. Char. Its inelasticity will distinguish it from amianthus, and 
its softness, particularly in powder, from tremolite and actynolite. 

It is usually found in serpentine. 

Local Sweden, Hungary, Uralian mountains, &c. 

U. 8. On the summit of the Green mountains, Vtr. — Hall. New 
Castle county, Del. in abundance. On the Island of New York, N. 
Y. Also on the banks of the Hudson. Washington, and near New 
Haven, Conn. 

Var. 3. mountain cork. 
Asbeste tressee, H. Mountain Cork, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, brown, yellowish brown, 
or pale yellow ; occurs in amorphous, or flattish pieces ; 
structure fibrous, with the fibres interlacing each other 
in every direction ; it is somewhat elastic, and so 
light as to swim in water. 

Far. 4. ligniform asbestus. 
Asbeste ligniforme, H. Ligniform Asbestus, K. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, brownish, or yellowish ; occurs 
massive, structure fibrous, often much resembling.chips 
of wood ; it is hard, the fibres rigid, sometimes straight, 
but often interwoven, curved or radiated ; opake and 
dull : sp. gr. about 2. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty, into a black slag. 
Local. U. S. Mount Holly, Vtr. Newlin township, Penn. 

Far. 5. mountain leather. 
Mountain Leather, P. Variety of Hock Cork, J A. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, yellowish white, or red- 

9 



ttf 



Sapphire. 



dish ; occurs in flat layers composed of fibres, straight, 
or curved ; opake ; layers sometimes separable ; has 
more or less the aspect of leather. 

Local Washington, Conn. 

Far. 5. mountain paper. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white ; lustre silky, or pearly ; 
separable into thin layers, having the aspect of pa- 
per. 

Local Washington, Conn. 

Species 46. SAPPHIRE. 

Corundum hyalin, H Rhombohedral Corundum, J. Sapphire, C. 
Perfect Sapphire, P. Rhombohedral Corundum, M. 

Ext Char. — Colors, blue, red, violet, yellow, green, 
and chatoyant ; also limpid; occurs crystallized, and 
in rolled pebbles and angular fragments ; primary form 
the rhomb ; secondary forms the regular six-sided 
prism, often truncated, and the double six-sided pyra- 
mid, or dodecahedron ; also modified by truncation ; 
transparent or translucent ; hardness only inferior to 
that of the diamond ; fracture conchoidal • cleavage 
indistinct : sp. gr. about 4. 



£S 




l> 



VI A 



Fig. 22. A double six-sided pyramid. 

Fig. 23. A short six-sided prism, with the solid angles alternately 
truncated. These are the common forms. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, but loses its color. With borax 
slowly dissolves into a colorless glass. 

Comp. Alumine 98.5 ; lime 0.5 ; oxide of iron 1 — Klaproth. 

Remark. The varieties of sapphire depend on its different colors, 

Far. J. blue sapphire. ( Oriental Sapphire. ) 

Ext. Char.— Color, azure, or indigo blue ; translu- 
cent or transparent. 

Obs. The color of this variety often differs in the same specimen, 
some parts being deep blue, while others are nearly colorless* 



Sapphire. 69 

far. 8. fcfto samphire. (Oriental Ruby.) 
Ext. Char. — Color, blood red, passing into aurora, or 
rose red ; cleavage more distinct than in the blue va- 
riety, sometimes chatoyant, translucent or transpa- 
rent. 

far. 3. ASTERIATED SAPPHIRE. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, reddish, or violet. When cut 
in a certain manner it shows a silvery star, of six rays. 

Obs. The term oriental, merely signifies, that the stone comes 
from the east, and as most of the gems come from the eastern quar- 
ter of the globe, dealers in these articles, often attach this epithet to 
the name of the stone, in order to raise its value. 

2. In addition to the above varieties, lapidaries make the following 
distinctions The violet sapphire, is called Oriental Amethyst. 
The yellow sapphire, Oriental Topaz. Green sapphire, Oriental 
Emerald. 

Sapphires are found in alluvial earths, and m the sand of rivers, 
generally at the foot of primitive mountains. Their matrix is prim- 
itive rock, as granite and gneiss, though it has seldom been found in 
its native situation. 

Local. The finest are found in Pegu, on the Island of Ceylon, and 
in the kingdom of Ava in the East Indies. It occurs also in Bohe- 
mia, France, Switzerland, and Portugal. 

Obs. 1. The sapphire is often mentioned in scripture, and was the 
fifth stone in order, on the high priest's pectoral, or breast-plate of 
judgment, having the name of Simeon inscribed upon it. 

2. Pliny says, that the best sapphires come from Media ; perhaps 
from Mount Sephar mentioned by Moses. Calmet says, that Shaphir 
in Hebrew, which he translates sapphire, signifies beamy, and that 
the orientals had an extraordinary esteem for this stone. Those who 
wore it about them thought it to be the occasion of their happiness 
and good fortune. 

Uses The sapphire is ranked among the most valuable of gems. It 
yields in hardness only to the diamond, and is employed in the finest 
kind of jewelry. It is also employed for jewelling the pivot holes of 
chronometers, and other astronomical instruments. 

Obs. 1. No ancient engravings exist on this stone, probably be* 
cause its hardness is such, as to resist, like the diamond, the ancient 
means of engraving gems. 

2. Since diamond dust has been used for cutting bard stones, the 
sapphire has been employed by a few artists. Caldore engraved a 
portrait of Henry IV, of France, on a sapphire, which was in the cab 
inet of the Duke of Orleans, and one or two German artists have 
tried their skill upon it. 

3. The red variety is most esteemed under the name of oriental 
ruby. 

4. The price of the oriental ruby is estimated by carats, after the 
manner of estimating the diamond.-f&t Diamond.) 

6. A perfect ruby! above three and a half carats or fourteen grains 



68 CORUNDUM. 

is more valuable than a diamond of the same weight If the weight be 
one carat, it is worth ten guineas, two carats forty guineas, three ca- 
rats, one hundred and fifty guineas, six carats, above one thousand 
guineas. It is said, that in the throne of the Great Mogul, there are 
one hundred and eight oriental rubies, weighing from one hundred to 
two hundred carats each. 

A blue sapphire of good quality, weighing ten carats, is worth fifty 
guineas, one of twenty carats, is worth two hundred guineas. 

Among the crown jewels of France, is a ruby weighing one hun- 
dred and sixty-six carats. At ten guineas the carat, this would be 
worth two hundred seventy-five thousand, five hundred and sixty 
guineas. It is said that the lapidaries expose the light-blue varieties 
to a certain degree of heat, when they become white, and are worn 
instead of the diamond. 

The sapphire is cut with diamond du&t, and polished with emery. 

Species 47. CORUNDUM. 
Corindon harmophane opake, H. Common Corundum, P. A. Ad- 
amantine Spar, K. Corundum, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish, greyish green, reddish, 
yellowish, bluish, brown, or while; occurs in six-sided 
crystals, in rolled pieces, also granular and amorphous • 
structure foliated ; cleaves into rhomboidal fragments; 
lustre shining ; translucent or opake : sp. gr. nearly 
4; hardness nearly equal to that of sapphire. 

Ckem. Char. Infusible. Fusible by the compound blowpipe.— SU» 
liman. 

Comp. Alumine85.5; silex7; oxide of iron 14. — Ckenevix. 

Dist. Char. The extreme hardness of this mineral, will distinguish 
it from all others which it resembles. 

Local. India, in the kingdom of Ava, on the coast of Malabar. At 
Bengal, in China, Thibet. &c. It is accompanied with garnet, fibro- 
lite, zireon and magnetic iron. 

Obs. 1. That of China and Ava is brown, or greenish, and sometimes 
nearly black. That of the Cam atic is blue, or reddish purple. That 
of Thibet is reddish brown, often coated with steatite. 

2. The variety which comes from China, was formerly called ad& 
mantine spar. 

U. 8. Laurens District, S. C. A six-sided prism has been found. 
Litchfield, Conn, in cyanite. It is greyish blue, and occurs massive 
and in six-sided prisms. — Brace. 

Uses. It is employed like emery, for the polishing of hard stones 
and metals. 

Var. 1. EMERY. 

Corindon granulaire, H. Emeril, Bt. Emery, K. J. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, blackish or bluish grey, powder 

brownish black ; occurs massive ; structure finely 

granular ; fracture uneven, or splintery ; opake ; lustre 



DIASPOSE. TURQUOISE. 69 

a little glistening, or somewhat metallic ; hardness 
equal to corundum ; conducts electricity : sp. gr, 4. 

Comp. Its constituents are the same as those of corundum. 

Local. Saxony, in steatite. Naxos, in the Archipelago, where it 
is found in abundance, in fragments, or rolled pieces at the foot of a 
primitive mountain. Italy, Spain, East Indies, and Ireland. 

Obs. The emery of commerce, is chiefly from Naxos. 

Uses. It is employed almost universally in cutting and polishing 
stones, steel, &c. For this purpose it is reduced to powder in a steel 

H 

Even the sapphire and oriental ruby, the hardest substances, next 
to the diamond, yields to emery when placed on the lapidary's wheel. 

Species 48. DIASPORE.* 
Diaspore, H. P. C. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greenish grey ; occurs massive, 
consisting of laminae slightly curved, and easily sepa- 
rated ; occurs also in cellular masses, consisting of 
slender crystals ; lustre pearly ; translucent in thin la- 
minae ; also, though rarely, in separate crystals, in form 
of a doubly oblique prism : sp. gr. 3.43. 

Chcm. Char. In the flame of a candle, it crackles, and is dispersed 
in minute fragments, or spanglejs; It is infusible alone ; with borax 
ncJts into a colorless glass. 

Comp. Alumine8Q; water 17 ; iron 3. — Vauquelin. 

Nothing is known of its geological situation. 

Obs. When heated in a retort, it decrepitates violently,, and splits 
Into small white brilliant scales. — Phillips. 

Species 49. TURQUOISE. 

Calaite. Oriental Turquoise, P. Turquoise, C. Mineral Tur- 
quoise, J. Calaite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, bluish green, passing into sky 
blue, and apple green ; occurs in reniform masses, from 
the size of a nut to that of a goose's egg ; opake ; pow- 
der white ; lustre waxy, or dull ; fracture conchoidal ; 
not so hard as quartz ; decomposes on the outside, 
when it resembles porcelain clay ; sp. gr. about 3. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax melts into a limpid 
glass. Suffers no change with acids. 

Comp. Alumine 73 ; water 18 ; oxide of copper 4.5 ; oxide of 
iron 4. — Johns. 

Local. Persia and Turkey, in alluvial soils. 

Obs. A kind of turquoise, which for distinction is called occidental 

* From tht Greek, in allusion to its being dispersed by beat. 



70 GIBBSITE. FIBROL1TE. 

turquoise, is found near the town of Siraore, in I/>wer Lanjruedoc. 
This is suppos. d to consist of horns, or teeth of animals, penetrated 
and colored by oxide, or carbonate of copper. This variety consists 
chiefly of phosphate of lime. 

Uses. The oriental turquoise receives a fine polish, and is much 
esteemed for ring stones, bracelets, watch ornaments, &c. It is 
greatly esteemed by the Persians, who work it into handles for sabres, 
&c. 

Obs. 1. The ancients, especially the Egyptians, held this stone in 
great estimation. Some fine engravings were executed on it, bat it 
was considered much too soft for this purpose. 

2. This stone is so nearly imitated by the French lapidaries as 
to make it difficult to discover the difference. 

Species 50. GIBBSITE *— Torrey. 
Gibbsite, C. P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish, yellowish, or greyish 
white ; occurs in irregular stalactical masses, with a 
knobby surface, from one to three inches in length, and 
an inch in diameter ; presenting an aggregation of elon- 
gated tuberose masses, somewnat resembling those of 
prehnite ; structure fibrous, radiating from the centre ; 
translucent on the edges ; easily reduced to powder ; 
harder than calcareous spar : sp. gr. 2.40. 

Chcm. Char. Infusible, but whitens. Does not effervesce with 
acids. 

Comp. Alumine 64.8 ; water 34.7. — Torrey. 

Obs. This is a new mineral. 

Local U. S. Richmond, Mass. in a neglected mine of brown has* 
matite, where it was discovered by Dr. Emmons. Also at Pittsfield, 



Species 51. FIBROLITE.t 
Fibrolite, H. Bt. P. C. J. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, or greyish white ; occurs 
in minute fibres, closely united, and crossing each other 
in various directions ; harder than quartz ; form inde- 
terminate ; electric by friction : sp. gr. 3.2. 

Ckem. Ckar. Infusible. Emits a phosphoric light, when two pieces 
are rubbed together 

Comp. Alumine 58.25 ; silex38 ; iron 0.75. — Chenevix. 

Local. It is found with corundum in the Carnatic and China. It 
is a rare mineral. 

U. 8. Cummington, Mass. — NuttaU. Saybrook, Con. — NuttaU. 

* ' — - — ■ . ^^^_^_^^^^ 

* In honor of Col. Gibbs. 
t Because it ocean in fibres. 



FINITE* KYANITE. 71 

Speeies 52. PINITE. 
Pinite, H. J. Bt. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, blackish brown, or grey; 
occurs in crystals only ; form the regular six-sided 
prism, variously modified by truncation ; sometimes 
four of its sides are extended, while the others are di- 
minished, giving it the aspect of a four-sided prism with 
bevelled edges ; sometimes it is truncated so as to ap- 
pear as a twelve-sided prism ; structure foliated ; lus- 
tre glistening, sometimes slightly metallic ; fracture 
splintery ; powder unctuous ; odor argillaceous ; opake 
or translucent on the edges : sp. gr. 2.98 ; yields to the 
knife. 

£4 



Fig. 24. A twelve-sided prism ; or a six-sided prism so truncated a$ 
to give twelve faces. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but becomes glazed on the edges 

Comp. Alumine 63.75 ; siiex 25.9 ; oxide of iron 6.75. — Kla* 
proth. 

Dist. Char. The form of its crystals, which often appear round, 
will distinguish it from most other minerals. Some specimens have 
the aspect or mica. It is softer than scapolite or cyanite. 

Local. Saxony, in a mine called Pirn, whence its name. France, 
Savoy, Cornwall, &c. 

U. 8. Haddam, Con. in a micaceous rock, crystals several inches 
long. — Silliman. Bellows Falls, N. H. in cylindrical crystals.— 
Hall. Lancaster, Mass. in six-sided prisms. 

Species 53. KYANITE. CYANITE* 

Disthene, H. Bt. Prismatic Kyanite, J. Cyanite, A. P. C. Pri* 

matic Disthene-Spar, M. Sappare. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, azure blue, passing into light 
blue, or bluish white ; also bluish green, greyish white, 
and reddish ; colors often vary in the same crystal, 
from deep blue, running in veins, to bluish white ; oc- 
curs in masses, composed of a confused aggregation of 
crystals ; also in distinct crystals ; form, four, or eight- 
sided prims, greatly compressed, and having two broad 

* From the Grtek, ifeutfyiog bkw. 



72 STAUR0T1DE. 

shining faces ; translucent or opake ; lustre pearly ; 
scratches glass ; yields a little to the knife : sp. gr. 
3.60. 




Fig. 25. A four-sided lamellar, prism, with two broad and two nar- 
row faces. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but turns wbite. 

Comp. Alumine 55.5 ; silex 43 ; oxide of iron 0.5. — Laugier. 

Obs. Cyanitc or Sappare, generally occurs in long imperfect crys- 
tals closely aggregated, and crossing, or standing on each other, so 
as to present a singular and curious aspect. Some of the crystals are 
curved, others are corrugated, or wrinkled, as though they had been 
pressed endwise, or had not room to stretch themselves full length, 
others are pressed into triangular shapes, &c. 

It is found in primitive rocks, especially in granite. 

Local Switzerland, Tyrol, Spain, and Hungary. 

U. S. Several places in Maryland. Chester County, Delaware 
County, and several other places in Perm. Litchfield, Harwinton, 
Middle Haddam, and near New-Haven, Con. That of Litchfield is 
of a fine azure blue; That of Haddam, is brown. Chesterfield, 
Mass. imperfect crystals sometimes two feet long. — Webster. Con- 
way, Granville, Deerfield, and Plainfield, Mass. Grafton, Norwich, 
and Bellows Falls, Ver. Orford, N. H. East Marlborough, and 
East Bradford, Penn. 

Var. 1. RHETIZITE. 
Rhetizite, J. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, bluish grey, yellow, greenish and 
greyish white ; occurs in masses composed of aggre- 
gated fibres or in laminae ; fracture splintery or fibrous; 
lustre shining or pearly ; structure foliated presenting 
broad shining faces, or fibrous ; opake, or translucent 
on the edges : sp. gr. 3.10. 

Local. In the Tyrol, at Rhaetia. 

XI. 8. Kingsbridge, N. Y.—Svkaeffer. West Chester, N. Y. 

Species 54. STAUROTIDE. 
Staurotide, H. C. Grenatite, J. Staurolite, A. P. 
Ext Char.— Color, reddish brown ; occufs crystal- 
lized, in six-sided prisms, terminated by dihedral sum- 



AUTOMOLITE. 



mits, often variously modified by truncation ; crystals 
often cross, or intersect each other : lustre, sometimes 
shining, with a smooth surface, and sometimes rough 
and dull ; scratches quartz ; opake or translucent 







Fig. 26. A single six-sided prism, the common form. 

Fig. 27. Two six-sided prisms united in the form of a cross. This 
is not an uncommon form. 

Chtm. Char. Infusible alone ; dissolves slowly with borax, giving 
it a greenish tinge. 

Camp. Alumine 52.25 ; silex 27 ; oxide of iron 16.50 ; oxide of 
manganese 0.25 — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. Its color resembles the garnet, but its form and in fusi- 
bility will distinguish them. Titanite has a metallic lustre and a dif- 
ferent form, and pinite differs from it in form and color. 

Staurotide is found most frequently in mica-slate, sometimes in gra- 
nite, and gneiss. 

Local. U. 8. Bolton, Litchfield, Harwintoo, and Haddam, Cm. 
Near Baltimore, Md. Sheffield, Northfield, Cummington, and Mid- 
dlefield, Miss. Chester and Putney, Ver. Near the city of New- 
York, N. Y. Winthrop, Sidney, Paris, and Hallowell, Maine. 

Species 55.— AUTOMOLITE. 
Spinelle zincifere, H. Automolite, J. A. P. Gahnhe, C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, dark bluish green, or blackish 
green ; occurs in octohedrons, or hexahedrons, vari- 
ously modified by truncation ; faces of the crystals 
often unequal, sometimes mackled ; cleavage parallel 
to all its planes ; scratches glass ; lustre shining and 
resinous ; opake, or translucent on the edges : gp. gr. 
4.26 to 4.69. 

Chtm. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax in powder, gives a green- 
ish glass. 

Comp. Alumine 42 ; silex 4 ; oxide of zinc 28 ; oxide of iron 5 ; 
sulphur 17. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. It is heavier, and not so hard as spinelle ruby, and 
pleonaste ; garnet is fusible. 

Local. Fahlun, in S&eden, in a talcose rock 

U 8. Franklin Iron Works, N. J.—PkMp$. 

10 



74 



TOPAZ. 



Species 56. TOPAZ. 



Silice fluatee alumineuse, H. 



Prismatic Topaz, J. 
A. I . C. 



H> Topaz, W. 



Ext.Char. — Prevailing color, wine yellow, of various 
tints, also bluish, greenish, lilac, and white ; occurs 
crystallized, in rolled pieces, and massive ; form, a six, 
eight, or ten-sided prism, with various and dissimular 
terminations ; structure lamellar ; cleavage parallel to 
the sides of a right rhombic prism; often electric by 
heat ; fracture small conchoidal ; lustre vitreous ; 
scratches quartz; translucent, or nearly limpid: sp. 
gr. 3.5. 



Fig. 28. An eight-sided prism, terminated by four unequal planes. 

Fig. 29. The same with the solid angles replaced by truncation. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but after long heating becomes opake ; 
with borax melts into a limpid glass. 

Comp. (Yellow Brazilian.) Alumine 47.5 ; siiex 44.5 ; fluoric 
acid 7 ; oxide of iron 0.5. — Klaproth. 

Remark. In the composition of this species, there is a considerable 
variety. 

Dist. Char It is harder than citrine, which is infusible with bo- 
rax. The greenish Siberian topaz becomes electric by heat, and not 
by rubbing. The emerald and beryl are not electric at all. From 
colored glass, which is often sold for real topaz, it may be distinguish- 
ed by a fine file, which will scratch the paste, but not the topaz. 

Topaz belongs to primitive rocks. 

Local. Siberia, Saxony, Bohemia, Brazil, Savoy. Cornwall, Eng. 
and Aberdeenshire, Scotland. 

U. S. Huntington, Con. Color, honey yellow ; structure foliated. 
One crystal from this locality weighed 1 3-41 b, and a fragment of an- 
other 21b. loz. — Hitchcock. Goshen, Mass. This locality was dis- 
covered by the Rev. Mr. Hitchcock. It exactly resembles the lim- 
pid topaz of Rio Janeiro. 

Remark. The largest crystal of topaz, probably ever in Europe 
weighs 7 ounces, and was found in Aberdeenshire. — Jameson. 

Obs. 1. The topaz was known to Moses. But whether it was the 
same which we call by that name may admit of doubts. The ancient 
topaz was of a green color. Pliny says it was first found by king 
Juba, but whether he means the same stone with that mentioned by 
Moses, is also uncertain. 



PYCNITE. CHRYSOBERYL. 75 

2. The topaz was the second of the first row in the Jewish ponti- 
fical breastplate, with the name of Simeon inscribed on it. 

Uses. The yellow variety is chiefly employed in jewelry, and when' 
of au equal color, and without flaws, it is considerably esteemed, 
though much too common to be highly valued by the lapidaries. 

Obs. 1. The ancients Engraved on the topaz, of which a few exam- 
ples still remain. In the imperial library at Paris, there is a beauti- 
ful intaglio on this gem, representing an Indian Bacchus. The cabi- 
net of the emperor of Russia also contains several portraits of empe- 
rors, and empresses on the same stone. 

2. The topaz is polished on a copper wheel with tripoli and spirits 
of wine. 

Var. I. PTROPHYSALITE. 

Pyrophysalite, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish white, or pale bluish 
green ; occurs in small roundish masses, and in crys- 
tals ; translucent or opake ; structure lamellar in one 
direction ; fracture, uneven or conchoidal ; lustre glim- 
mering ; not so hard as quartz : sp. gr. 3.4. 

Cfiem. r har. It intumesces, and gives out a greenish phosphoric 
light. — Phillips. 

Comp. It is composed of nearly the same ingredients as topaz. 
Local. Fahlun and Finbo, in Sweden. 
U. S. Goshen, Mass. 

.Species 57. PYCNITE. 
Pycnite, H. A. P. C. Schorlous Topaz, J. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dull yellowish, or reddish white ; 
occurs in long six-sided pnsms, longitudinally striated; 
crystals, closely aggregated laterally; possesses no 
regular structure ; full of transverse rents ; lustre shi- 
ning ; scratches quartz ; translucent; brittle; electric 
by heat : sp. gr. 3.5. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax slowly dissolves into a 
limpid glass. 

Comp. Alumine 60 ; silex 30 ; lime 2 ; fluoric acid 6 ; water 1.— 
Vauquetin. 

Local. Altenberg, in Saxony. Bavaria, Bohemia, Norway, Sibe- 
ria, &c. 

U.S. Cheater, Mass. 

Species 58. CHRYSOBERYL* 
Cymophane, H. A. Chrysoberyl, K. J. P. C. Prismatic Corun- 
dum, M. 

Ext. CAar.-^Color, green, with a yellowish or brown- 

* A superior kind of beryl* 



76 SPINELLE. 



ish tinge, sometimes reflects a whitish light, which ap- 
pears to come from the interior of the crystal ; occurs 
massive, crystallized, and in rolled pieces ; form, a 
short broad four or six-sided prism, or table, terminat- 
ed by four or six-sided summits ; translucent, or nearly 
transparent; structure foliated; lustre shining ; elec- 
tric by frhtion; scratches topaz: sp. gr. 3.8. 



so 



^ 



/ 




Fig. 30. A broad, short, four-sided prism, or table. 

Fig. 31. A flat six-sided prism, so truncated as to appear as an 
eight-sided prism terminated by 3ix-sided pyramids. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, in small particles melts 
into a yellowish green transparent glass, which becomes colorless on 
cooling. 

Comp. Alumine 71.5 ; silex 18 ; lime 6 ; oxide of iron 1.6. — JKZa* 
proth. 

Dist. Char. The beryl is infusible with borax ; the emerald with 
borax melts into a colorless glass. Its great hardness being next to 
that of sapphire, will distinguish it from most minerals. 

Local. Ceylon and Brazil, where it is found in alluvial soils with 
the topaz, ruby, and sapphire. 

U. 8. Haddam, Conn, where it occurs chiefly in tabular crystals, 
of a yellowish green color, embedded in granite with garnet, beryl, 
and talc. 

Use It is sometimes cut and polished for jewelry. It takes a high 
polish, but its color is seldom of that rich and pleasant green exhibi- 
ted by the emerald. 

Species 58. SPINELLE. 

Spinelle, H. J. A. Ruby, C. Spinelle Ruby, P. . Dodecahedwl 
Corundum, M. 

Ext. Char.— Color, red, often with tints of violet, 
yellow, or crimson, also dark brown, or black ; occurs 
in round and angular grains, and crystallized in oc- 
tohedrons, variously modified ; translucent, transpa- 
rent, or nearly opake ; structure lamellar ; fracture 
conchoidal ; lustre vitreous ; scratches quartz : sp. gr. 
3-7. 



SPINELLE. 77 





Fig. 32. The regular octohedron. 

Fig. 33. The same with the edges truncated. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, and retains its color, even when melted by 
the compound blowpipe. 

Comp Alumine 84.47 ; magnesia 8.78 ; chromic acid 6.18. — 
Vauqutlin. 

Remark. The color is probably owing to the chromic acid. 

Dist. Char. It resembles the precious garnet, but the garnet is fu- 
sible ; it also resembles some varieties of the zircon, but these lose 
their color by heat The red sapphire is harder and of a more lively red 
than spinelle. It may resemble octohedral iron, but this is magnetic. 

It is found with sapphire and zircon, in the sand of rivers. Its 
geological situation is little known. 

Remark. The scarlet colored is termed spinelle ruby : the rose 
red, the balas ruby ; the orange red, rubicelle, and the violet colored, 
almandine ruby. — Phillips. 

Local Ceylon, Mysore, and Pegu. 

V. S. Roxborough, Mass. colors, bluish grey, and dark green.-r- 
Robinson. Warwick, N. Y At this locality, Dr. Fowler of Frank- 
lin, has discovered red and black spinelles of enormous and unpre- 
cedented sizes. The red is of \arious shades inclining to brown, 
and the largest crystals, (octohedrons,) are nearly 4 inches in cir- 
cumference. The black crystals are still larger ; the largest mea- 
sures 16 inches around the base, and many others give a base of 4 
and 8 inches. 

Both kinds are embedded in pink , carbonate of lime, associated 
with crystals of serpentine. — Simmon's Journal. 

Var. 1. PLEONASTE. 
Pleonaste, H. A. P. Ceylanite, C. 
ExL Char. — Color, dark blue, or greenish black ; 
occurs in octohedral crystals, and in rounded grains ; 
structure indistinctly foliated ; cross fracture conchoi- 
dal ; scratches quartz ; feebly translucent ; transmits,, 
in thin pieces, a dark, bluish, or greenish light : sp. 
gr. 3.8. 

Chem. Char. Suffers no change alone ; with borax melts into a 
dark green glass. 

Comp. Alumine 72.25 ; silex 5.48 ; magnesia 14.63 ; oxide of 
iron 4.26 — Berzelius. 

Dist Char. It is not so hard as spinelle. 

Local. Ceylon, in alluvial soils. Vesuvius and Somma, in the cav- 
ities of volcanic rocks. 



78 lOLlTE. LAZULITE. 

Specie* 59. IOLITE ♦ 

Iolithe, H. Iolite, A. P. C. Prismato-Rhomboidal Iolite, J. Prifc 

matic Quartz, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, violet blue, or purple, sometimes 
with a tinge of black ; by transmitted light, in one 
direction, brownish yellow, in another, indigo blue: 
occurs massive, and in regular six and twelve-sided 
prisms ; cleavage parallel to the sides of a six-sided 
prism ; lustre, shining vitreous ; fracture imperfectly 
conchoidal, or uneven ; translucent or opake ; struc- 
ture foliated ; scratches glass, and sometimes quartz: 
sp. gr. 2.36. 

Chtm. Char. Fusible on the edges ; with borax dissolves slowly 
into a diaphanous glass. 

Comp. Silex 42.6 ; alumine 34.4 ; lime 1.7 ; magnesia 5.8; ox* 
ide of iron 1.5 ; oxide of manganese 1.7. — Gmelin. 

Loral. Cape de Gatte and Grenada, in Spain, in a blue elaj. Tu- 
naberg, in Sweden, with pyritous copper. Greenland, embedded in 
quartz, or felspar. Siberia and Ceylon, in rolled masses. 

Var. 1. peliom t 
Peliom, W. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, blue ; occurs in six-sided crys- 
tals, truncated on the angles ; fracture conchoidal ; 
resembles the iolite in every respect except in color. 
Local. Bodemnais, in Bavaria, in grey granite. 
Far. 2. steinheilite $ 
Steinheilite, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, light blue, sometimes With a tinge 
of red ; rarely colorless ; translucent ; occurs amor- 
phous ; lustre shining ; fracture conchoidal : sp. gr* 
2.69. 

Comp. Silex 49.95 ; alumine 32.28 ; magnesia 10.45 ; oxide of 

iron 5. — Von Bonsdorff. 

Local. Fiubo, in Finland, mixed with pyrites. 

Species 60. LAZULITE. 
Lazulet de Verner, H. Azurite, J. Lazulite, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, fine azure blue ; occurs in crys- 
tals ; form, the oblique four-sided prism, and the six- 

* From the Greek, a violet, or purple stone. 
t Signifying blue color. 
t After Count Steinheil. 



CHRYSOLITE. 79 

sided prism ; also, and more commonly, in grains and 
small masses of the size of a hazlenut ; structure foliat- 
ed ; translucent ; scratches glass ; lustre vitreous and 
shining; brittle. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax forms a yellowish glass. 

Comp. Alumine 66; silex 10 ; lime 2; magnesia 18; oxide of 
iron 25 — Tromsdorf. 

Disi. Char. It resembles lapis lazuli and the azure carbonate of 
copper. But the lazulite is never impregnated with iron pyrites, and 
the lapis rarely occurs in crystals. The carbonate of copper is hea- 
vier, blackens under the blowpipe, and tinges borax green. 

The lazulite does not afford the ultra marine. 

Local Stiria, in quartz, and Saltzburg, in clay-slate. 

Species 6\. CHRYSOLITE. 
Peridot, H. Prismatic Chrysolite, J M. Chrysolite, A. P. C. 
Ext. Cher. — Colors, green, yellowish green, and 
brownish green ; occurs in angular rounded crystalline 
grains ; primary form, a right prism, w ith rectangular 
bases; secondary form, eight, ten, or twelve-sided 
prisms, with truncated pyramidal terminations; the 
number of terminal faces varies from six to ten ; some- 
times the termination is wedge-shaped, with truncated 
edges ; fracture conchoidal ; lustre, splendent and 
vitreous ; translucent or transparent ; crystals often 
compressed, with the broad lateral planes striated; 
scratches glass : sp.gr. 3.4. 



Fie. 34. A ten-sided prism, with two broad faces, terminated by 
two principal planes corresponding with the lateral planes. 

Chem. ( har Infusible alone, but turns brown ; fusible with borax 
into a greenish transparent glass. 

Comp. Magnesia 50.5 ; silex 38 ; oxide of iron 9.5. — Vauquelin. 

Local. Hungary, in serpentine. In the isle of Bourbon, among 
folcanic products. 

The chrysolite of commerce comes from the Levant. 
Obs. 1. 1 he chrysolite wasthe tenth stone in the Jew ith high priests 
pectoral, bearing the name of Zebu Ion. 

2. The Hebrew word commonly translated chrysolite, has also 
been rendered carbuncle and beryl. — CalmeU 



80 BRUCITE. 

Uses, Chrysolite is sometimes employed in jewelry, but is little es- 
teemed on account of its softness. 

Far. 1. olivine.* 
Peridot Olivine, Bt. Olivine, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, olive green ; occurs in masses of 
various sizes, from grains to many pounds in weight ; 
translucent ; lustre shining, often metallic and imdes- 
cent from decomposition ; fracture small conchoidal ; 
structure somewhat foliated ; brittle ; sp. gr. about 
3.24. 

Chem. Char. Becomes brown, but does not melt ; with borax (usee 
slowly into a yellowish green translucent glass. Loses its color in 
nitric acid. 

Comp Silex 50 ; magnesia 38.5 ; lime 0.25 ; oxide of iron 12.— 
Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its metallic lustre, foliated structure, and deeper co- 
lored glass when melted with borax will distinguish it from chrysolite, 
and its localities from the other minerals which it resembles. 

Local. Bohemia, in basalt. Isle of Bourbon, in lava, and in most 
volcanic products. It is also occasionally found in trap and green- 
stone porphyry. 

Olivine is said also to have been found by Professor Pallas, in the 
meteoric iron of Siberia. 

Species 62. BRUCITE. t—Gibbs. 
Maclurite. — SeybcrL v Condorcite. — Berzelieus. Brucite, C. P. 
Chondorcite, M. v c - : *\ ^s . 

Ext. Char. — Color, wine or amber yellow, or yellow- 
ish brown ; occurs in grains and crystalline masses ; 
also in four-sided prisms, with rhombic bases ; lustre 
a little pearly ; structure not apparent, or indistinctly 
foliated in one direction ; crystals generally imperfect, 
sometimes terminated with dihedral summits ; iracture 
uneven ; hardness equal to that of felspar ; translu- 
cent : sp. gr. 3.2. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, but becomes white ; with borax fuses 
slowly into a transparent globule, tinged with iron. 

Comp. (From Pargas.) Magnesia 54 ; silex 39 ; oxide of iron 
5.1 ; alumine 1.5; potash 0.86; manganese a trace. — D'Ohsson. 

(That of Sparta.) Magnesia 54.000; silex 32.666 ; fluoric acid 
4.066; potash 2.108; peroxide of iron 2.333; water 1.000.— Sey- 
bert. 



* From its color. 
t In honor of Prof. Bruce, of New York. 



HYDRATE OF MAOKEftiA. SERPENTINE. 81 

Local Sudennaanland, in Sweden. 

27. 5. Sparta, iV. /. in foliated limestone, where it was discovered 
by Dr. Langstaff. Warwick, Orange County, It. Y. 

Species 63. HYDRATE OF MAGNESIA. 
Hydrate of Magnesia, A. J. P. C. Name Magnesia,— Brwu* 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, often tinged with green; 
occurs in plates, or thin pieces ; structure foliated; the 
folia often radiating from a centre ; lustre shining and 
pearly ; somewhat elastic : translucent, in thin plates 
transparent ; soft ; yiekfo to the nail ; adheres slightly 
to the tongue ; dissolves entirely, without effervescence 

in acids : sp. gr. 2. IX 

C&mp. Magnesia 70; water ^k ^BrmnX oU^^i^^f^ 
Loud. U. 8. Heboken, AT. F. in veins, frsma lew lines, to two in- 
ches in thickness, in serpentine. Also in Unst, one of Shetland. Isl- 
ands, traversing serpentine in all directions. 

Species 64. SERPENTINE.* 
Serpentine, Br. Bt Serpentine, K. J. A. P. C. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, green, yellowish, hrownish, or 
blackish green ; also, reddish and greyish : colon 
often run into spots, stripes, or veins ; occurs massive, 
and very rarely in rhombic crystals ; fracture splinte- 
ry, uneven, or conchoidal ; translucent or opake ; re- 
ceives a high polish ; unetuous to the touch ; yields to 
the knife : sp. gr. 2.*. 

Obs. Serpentine, in rhotnboidal crystals has been discovered by 
Samuel Fowler, M. D. in Warwick, Orange County. If. Y. This 
appears to have been the first discovery of crystallized serpentine, in 
any country. It occurs in crystalline carbonate of lime, with spindle, 
scapo&te, and Brucite. — Simmon* s Journal. 

Warwick is probably one of the richest mineral localities in this, 
or any other country. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, but turns white ; with bocax slowty 
dissolves with bubbling into a transparent greenish glass. 

Var. 1. PRKCVOTO SBBPElfTIirc. 

Precious perpentine, J. C. Noble Serpentine, P. Serpentine no- 
ble, Bt 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, yellowish, or blackish 
green, or brown, often clouded ; occurs massive ; frac- 
ture conchoidal ; translucent ; fragments sharp edged; 

* From its restmblaaee to the akia of a terptnt. 
11 



82 SERPENTINE. 

lustre glimmering ; unctuous to the touch ; yields to 
the knife ; texture compact : sp. gr. 2.2. 

Comp. Silcx 32 ; magnesia 37.24 ; alumine 0.5 ; lime 10.2 ; ox- 
ide of iron 6 ; water 14. — Hisinger. 

Dist. Char. It is softer and more easily broken than nephrite, or 
jade, which it most resembles. 

It is found in masses and beds in primitive limestone, gneiss, and 
mica-slate. 

Local. Sweden, Bohemia, Saxony, Cornwall. In Italy it is inter- 
mixed with limestone forming the verd antique. 

U. S. Mil ford, Conn. It is embedded in primitive limestone, in 
irregular masses commonly enveloped in amianthus, and containing 
chromate of iron. Its color is a rich green, and it receives a high 
polish. Near Newburyport, Mass. The precious serpentine of 
this place is often extremely beautiful, and perfectly resembles that of 
Kevens, in Cornwall. — Dewey. Philipstown, N. Y. associated with 
white augite. — Barry. 

Far. 2. common serpentine. 
Common Serpentine, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, green, yellowish green, blackish 
green, brown, bluish grey, or reddish ; colors variously 
intermixed; or running in stripes or veins ; opake or 
feebly translucent x>n the edges; occurs massive; 
fracture uneven, or splintery \ harder than precious 
serpentine : scarcely yielding to the knife ; often gives 
out the odor of clay, when breathed on : sp. gr, 2.5. 

Comp. Magnesia 44 ; silex 44 ; alumine 2 ; oxide of iron 7.3 ; ox- 
ide of manganese 1.5 ; oxide of chrome 2. — Vauquelin. 

Obs. 1. It is found in primitive mountains, and according to Wer- 
ner, in more recent formations overlaying the older primitive rocks. 

2. It occurs with, and commonly embraces the precious serpen- 
tine. 

Local. Portsoy, in Scotland. Shetland Isles, Hebrides, Cornwall, 
&e. 

U. 8. Bare Hills, near Baltimore, Md. West-Chester and Mont- 
gomery County, Penn. Hoboken and Compton Plains, N. J. Rye, 
N. Y. Newport, R. 1. Grafton, Ver. 

Obs. 1. At Mount Rosa, serpentine is found at an elevation of 
from 7 to 9,000 feet. 

2. The whole front of the Alps, which looks towards Italy, every 
where affords serpentine. 

3. France, has some mountains of this mineral, particularly in Li- 
mousin. 

4. The finest serpentine is said to occur near Grenada, in Spain, 
superb columns of which, decorate the churches, and palaces of Ma- 
drid. 



zmcos. 83 



5. The mountain, called Red Aura, i 
upwards of 7,000 feet, and is composed of < 
ed into irregular masses of immense size. 

6. The serpentine of Bareith, is spotted with gurnets of the j 
a pea, the base being green. Ornaments are made of Una, j_ 
ing fine red spots, contrasted with a deep rich green grand. 

7 ' Saussure, found on the shores of the lake of Geneva, a variety 
of serpentine of remarkable specific gravity, it being 3.00.— See Pimk- 
erton. 

Uses. Jameson says, that at Zoblitz, in Upper Sanmy, seven! 
hundred persons are employed in quarrying, cutting, turning, and po- 
lishing the serpentine, which occurs in the neigh bo ur hoo d, and that 
the various articles into which it is manufactured, are carried all over 
Germany. 

Species 65. ZIRCON. 

Zircon, H. Bt Pyramidal Zircon, J. M. Zircon, A. P. C. 

Ext Char.— Colors, grej. green, yellowish, red. blu- 
ish, brown, and reddish ; occurs in rounded grains or 
fragments; also crystallized, in the form of four-sided 
prisms, terminated by four-sided pyramids, and in do- 
decahedrons, composed of four hexagonal lateral feces, 
and of four rhomboidal terminal ones at each extremi- 
ty ; cfeavage in two directions parallel to the axis of 
the crystal ; structure indistinctly foliated ; harder 
than quartz ; translucent or transparent ; lustre renin* 
ous, or adamantine : sp.gr. 4.4. 

25 






Fig. 95. A four-sided prism, terminatd by four-aided pyramids. 
This is the common form. 

Chem. Char. It is infusible, but loses its color ; with borax it 
forms a transparent glass. 

Comp. Zi?coniaG9; silex 26.5 ; oxide of iron 0-5. — KJaprotk 

Dist. Char. It is not so hard as chrysoberyl. It is more trans- 
parent than staarotide. Idocrase, which it resembles, is fusible 
alone, and from these and all other stones which it resembles, H may 
be known from its greater specific gravity, hardness, and peculia r 
oily lustre when cut and polished 

It occurs in the beds of rivers and alluvia) soils, with spinelle, tour- 
maline, 6lc. also embedded. 

Local Ceykm, in the sand of rivers, and embedded in crystalline 



84 zmcoif. 

■late. Norway, in eienite. Galloway, in Scotland and Anvergne in 
France. 

U. S. Buncombe County, N. C. in four-sided prisms, terminated 
by four-sided pyramids. On the Schuylkill, 14 miles from Philadel- 
phia, Penn. in small light brownish crystals. — Jessup. Near Tren- 
ton, N. J. Also at Franklin Furnace. At Scaoofey's Mountain, 
N. Y. Sharon, Conn. Color, dark brown, crystals seldom exceed 
half an inch in length — Sittiman. Two miles from Baltimore, Mi. 
Philipstown, A*. Y. East Marlborough, Penn. in beautiful tetrahe- 
dral prisms, color, brownish red.— Carpenter and Spademan. 

Uses. It is cut and set as a precious stone. Jameson says it exhi- 
bits in a faint degree the play of colors belonging to the diamond, and 
that it w frequently sold as an inferior kind of diamond. The pale 
variety is used in the jewelling of watches instead of the diamond. 

Var. 1. HYACINTH. 

Zircon Hyacinth, Bt. Hyacinth, K. J. A. C. P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, various shaded of red, as yellow- 
ish or brownish red ; occurs in small angular, or rolled 
grains, and in crystals ; form, the four-sided prism, ter- 
minated by four planes, which are set on the lateral 
edges ; crystals short, small, and often variously termi- 
nated ; lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous ; structure 
foliated ; transparent or translucent ; fracture con- 
choidal ; cleavage parallel to the sides of the primitive 
octohedfon : sp. gr. 4 to 4.6. 

Ckem. Char. Infusible, loses its color hut retains its transparency. 
With borax fuses into a colorless glass. 

Comp. Zirconia70 ; silex 25 ; oxide of iron 0.5. — Klaproth 

It occurs in primitive rocks, and is found in the beds of rivers. 

Local. Ceylon. Near Pisa, in Italy. Auvergne, in France, in 
volcanic sand. Lisbon, Saxony, and in Fifeshire, in Scotland. 

Obs. 1. The oriental hyacinth is an orange colored sapphire. The 
occidental hyacinth is a topaz. The volcanic hyacinth is the ido- 
crase, or vesuvian. 

2. The hyacinth is frequently mentioned by the sacred writers. 
St. John says that the eleventh foundation of the heavenly city is a 
hyacinth, and in Canticles, gold rings, set with hyacinths, are spoken of. 
Moses often speaks of the hyacinth color, which learned interpreters 
say meant, violet color, or azure blue tinged with red. Hyacinth 
color now means yellowish red, so that it is at present uncertain what 
stone the ancients meant by the hyacinth, most probably however it 
was the amethyst 

Uses. When of a good color, and without flaws, it is much valued 
in jewelry. It is said, that after destroying the color by beat, it is 
sometimes sold for the diamond. 



EUCLA3E. 85 

t t 

Var. 2. jarooon. 
Zircon Jargon, Bt. Jargon, K. Jargoon, A. P. Common Zircon, C. 
Ext.Char. — Colors, greenish, bluish grey, and brown- 
ish red, always faint and passing into colorless ; occurs 
in small four-sided prisms, and in grains ; lustre splen- 
dent and adamantine ; transparent or translucent : sp. 
gr. 4.4. 

Chem. Char. Becomes limpid by heat, bat is infusible. 

Camp. Zircon 66; silex31; oxide of iron 2. — Vauqutlin 

Local. Ceylon, in the sands of rivers. Italy, Spain, and several 
parts of India. 

Uses. It is employed in jewelry, particularly in ornamenting watch 
cases, and is said to be frequently sold in Paris for the real diamond. 
Indeed after the colorless variety is cut and set, it 13 difficult to dis- 
tinguish it from diamond. It is considered the most valuable of the 
varieties of zircon. 

Species 66. EUCLASE.* 

Euclase, H. Bt. A. P. C. Prismatic Emerald, or Euclase, J. Pris- 
matic Emerald, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, light green of various shades ; 
greenish white, bluish green, or sky blue : occurs in 
crystals, in the form of oblique angled, four-sided 

{>risms, variously modified and terminated ; structure 
aminated ; cleavage parallel to the sides of the prism : 
lustre strongly vitreous ; cross fracture conchoidaH 
scratches quartz ; very brittle ; translucent or trans- 
parent ; sp. gr. 2.91 to 3.32. Crystals longitudinally 
striated. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a white enamel. 

Comp. Glucine 21.78; silex 43.32 ; alumine 30.54; iron 2.22; 
Oxide of tin 0.70. — Berzelius. 

Dist. Char. Its fusibility and brittleness will distinguish it from 
the greenish varieties of zircon ; idoerase melts into a yellowish glass. 
The different forms of its crystals will distinguish it from emerald 
and beryl. 

Local Peru and Brazil. Its localities and associations are un- 
known. 

Jameson observes, that it is a beautiful fossil, but cannot be em* 
ployed in jewelry on account of its brittleness. 

Obs. Phillips has given the figure of a crystal of euclase, which 
exhibits 78 longitudinal faces. The faces are so narrow as to make 
it appear striated. 

* From the Greek, signifying easHy broken, in allusion to its brittleness. 



86 BERYL. 

Species 67. BERYL. 

Berry], K. Beryl, J. A. P. C. Rhomboidal Emerald, J. M. 

Aqua-Marine. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, yellowish green, bluish 
green, or greenish white, always pale ; occurs in six- 
sided crystals, terminated by six-sided pyramids; 
crystals often taper gradually, from one end to the 
other, and are of all sizes, from a line to a foot in diam- 
eter ; lateral faces striated, often so deeply as to ren- 
der the angles indistinct ; large crystals frequently 
contain other substances, or are hollow in the line of 
the axis ; transparent or translucent ; lustre vitreous ; 
scratches quartz ; fracture uneven or conchoidal : sp. 
gr. 2.67. 

Ckcm. Cliar. Infusible, but turns white and turbid. With borax, 
it fuses into a nearly transparent glass. 

Comp. Silex 68 ; alumine 15 ; glucine 14 ; lime 2 ; oxide of iron 
] . — Vauqutlin. 

Vist. Char. It differs from the emerald in being of a paler green ; 
apatite is much softer and dissolves in nitric acid, it also phosphores- 
ces on hot coals. The greenish variety of tourmaline, resembles the 
beryl, but is softer, electric by heat, and fusible alone. 

Beryl belongs to primitive rocks, and particularly to that variety of 
granite called graphic. It is associated with garnets, quartz, chryso- 
beryl, schorl, topaz, &c. 

Local Siberia, Persia, on the confines of China. Limoges, in 
France. Aberdeen, in Scotland. Peru, Brazil, Saxony, and hlba. 

U. S. Haddam, Brooklyn, Litchfield, Chatham, and Middle Had- 
dam, Conn. Crystals 7 or 8 inches long have been (band at Haddam. 
One in the cabinet of Yale College is 7 inches long, and 9 in the 
diagonal diameter. — SiUiman. Germantown, Chesnut Hill, East 
Marlborough, and in Chester County, Penn. Chesterfield, Goshen, 
and in the vicinity of Boston and Northampton, Mass. At Goshen, 
two rose colored emeralds have been found, one of which is an inch 
and a half long. — Gibbs. In the state of Maine, it is found more or 
less constantly to an extent of 30 miles in the counties of Lincoln 
and Cumberland, also at Topsham and Bowdoinham. — Cleveland. 
Cumberland, R. I. 

Uses. Beryl is occasionally employed in jewelry, but its pale color 
and numerous fissures commonly render it unfit for this purpose. 
The greenish variety is set with a steel colored, or greenish blue foil. 
The pale or nearly limpid variety is set on a black ground like the 
diamond, or on a silvery foil. 

Obs. 1. The beryl is mentioned in scripture as the eighth stone in 
the high priest's pectoral, or according to Calmet, the twelfth, with 
the name of Naptkali, engraved on it. According to some learned 
writers, our beryl is the same with that meant in scripture. 



EMERALD. 



87 



2. The only remarkable differences between the emerald and beryl 
are in their colors, which however produces such an uninterrupted 
series, that only arbitary limits can be fixed within it The color of 
emerald, is emerald green ; all the varieties of other colors are beryl. 
— Mohs. 

Species 68. EMERALD. 

Emeraude, H. Rhomboidal Emerald, J. Emerald, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, lively emerald green, or bluish 
green, always rich and beautiful ; occurs in long six- 
sided prisms, generally perfect, and variously termi- 
nated ; structure imperfectly foliated ; not so large as 
beryl ; scratches quartz ; lustre vitreous and shining ; 
becomes electric by friction ; crystals seldom more 
than two or three inches long ;. transparent or translu- 
cent ; sp. gr. from 2.60 to 2.77, 





Fig. 36. A six-sided prism, acuminated by six planes correspond- 
ing with the lateral planes. 

Fig. 37. A six-sided prism, terminated by a six-sided pyramid, 
the planes of which are set on the angles of the prism, with the an- 
gles of the summit truncated. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty into a porous glass. With 
borax slowly dissolves into limpid glass. 

Comp. Silex 64.5 ; glucine 13 ; alumine 16 ; lime 1.6 ; oxide of 
chrome 3.25. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. It is known from beryl by its deeper and richer green, 
and from green tourmaline by the same quality. From apatite by its 
greater hardness and insolubility in acids, and from chrysoberyl, by 
being less hard, more transparent, and of a brighter green. 

The emerald has been found chiefly in secondary countries, but it 
is supposed that its proper situation is in primitive rocks. 

Local The finest emeralds formerly came from Manta, in Peru, 
but it is said that this mine is exhausted, and that the best are now 
found in the valley of Tunca, in Santa Fe, where they occur in gra- 
nite. 

Obs. 1. The emerald was well known to the ancients, and was the 
third stone according to Calmet's arrangement, on the high priest's 
breast-plate of judgment, with the name ofZebulon inscribed on it. 

2. In the time of Pliny, this stone was held in so high estima- 
tion, that it was seldom or never engraved upon, which probably is 
the reason, that scarcely any well authenticated antique engravings 



88 GADONOLITE. 

exist on this gem. The moderns have, however, engraved *fon it, 
as there exists in the royal collection at Paris, a head of Hour; IV, 
and another of Lewis XIV, on the emerald. 

An emerald is said to have existed at the Chapel of our Lady, at 
Loretto, in Italy, larger than a man's head, and for which an English 
gentleman offered 90,000 crowns. 

3. Keyalcr, in his travels has given the outline of an emerald, 
which he saw at the monastery of Reichenan, in SwtUerJand, and 
which was presented by Charles the Fat. This emerald, saya he, 
weighs 281b. 3qrs., and could be sold for .£0,550 sterling per pound. 

Later authors,, however, say that this is green Jiuor, or green 
glass. 

4. Probably the largest real emerald ever found, was that possess- 
ed by the inhabitants of the valley of Manta, in Peru, which accord- 
ing to De la Vega, was about the size of an ostrich's egg. When 
the Spaniards arrived there, it was worshipped, as the goddess, or mo- 
ther of emeralds, and smaller ones were brought to it as offerings. 

5. But perhaps the most magnificent specimen of genuine eme- 
ralds in the world, was presented to the cathedral of Loretto, by one 
of the Spanish kings. It consists of a mass of white quartz, thickly 
implanted with emeralds more than an inch in diameter. 

6. According to Mohs, the locality -where the ancients procured 
their emeralds, had been lost until within a few years, but has been 
re-discovered in Mount Zalara, Upper Egypt, in granite and mica- 
slate. 

Uses. Emeralds are cut and polished for the most expensive kind 
of jewelry. Those of the first quality require no foil, but are set on a 
black ground like the diamond ; inferior ones are set with a green 
gold foil, or on green satin. 

Species 69. GADONOLITE." 
Gadonolite, H. Prismatic Gadonolite, J. M. Gadonlite, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish, or brownish black; 
occurs massive, and rarely in crystals which are ten- 
sided prisms ; lustre splendent, or shining resinous ; 
slightly translucent ; scratches glass ; fracture coin 
choidal : sp. gr. 4.20. 

Chcm. Char. Before the blowpipe it intumesces and throws out 
caul i flower-like ramifications. — Phillips. 

Mohs says it decrepitates, but does not melt except in small splin- 
ters. 

Cleveland says that it becomes red as if burning. In nitric acid it 
loses its color, and is converted into a jelly, 

Comp. Ittria 54.75; silex 21.25; glucine 5.5 ; alumina 0.5 ox- 
ide of iron 17.5 ; water 5 ; magnesia, a trace. — Klaproth. 

Local. Sweden, in several places. 

Obs. The new earth ittria, was first discovered in this mineral by 
Dr. Gadolin. 

U. S. Bolton, Mass.— Webster. 

* After Gadolin, who first found it. 



CLASS II. 
ACIDIFEROUS EARTHY MINERALS. 

Under this head are included such minerals as consist of an Earth 
combined with an Acid; some of them contain small portions of metal, 
as iron, manganese, and perhaps chrome, dfe. 

LIME. 

This earth has never been foand pare except in small quantities. 
For the most part it is found combined with carbonic acid, forming 
carbonate of lime ; it also occurs combined with sulphuric acid, form- 
ing sulphate of lime, or gypsum ; with phosphoric acid, forming ph**- 
j) hate of lime ; and with several other substances. 

Pure lime is white, hot to the taste, corrosive to the touch, and ca- 
pable when water is thrown on it by degrees, of consolidating it, and 
extricating a degree of heat which sets wood on fire ; it destroys an- 
imal and vegetable substances, and it turns vegetable blues to 
green. 

The compounds of lime are so abundant in nature, that geologists 
hare estimated one fourth of the crust of the globe to be formed of 
them. 

Species 1. CARBONATE OF UME. 

Chaux carbonatee H. Rhombohedral Lime~Haloide JL Carbonate 
of lime P. C. 

This species includes a great variety of calcareous minerals, many 
of which differ widely from each other in their external characters. 
Some varieties occur in the form of crystals of which there is an mv 
mease number of secondary modifications : some varieties are com- 
pact, some are pulverulent, some are granular. The colors which the 
varieties of this species assume, are so various, as to include nearly 
the whole catalogue ; the prevailing color however is white, or gps-fum 
white. 

Chemical Characters. Infusible, but becomej clastic or fftttik 
lime before the blowpipe ; effervesces with acids. 

Composition. Lime 57 : carbonic acid 4? — Kiemrtdk. 

Variety 1. cjucxmiozt \*k%+ 

Chaux carbonatee IL Galea**** 3e*r J A. F. C **>*«******* 

Iime-BaJoide ML 

External Chara*Uns-4>Af/r%-*i*i&m+z'i^rty wUH*. 



90 



CARBONATE OF LIME. 



yellowish or grey, often red, &c. occurs crystallized; 
forms extremely numerous, amountingto upwards of500 
secondary varieties, all originating from an obtuse rhom- 
boid, the alternate angles of which are 105 deg. 5 min. 
and 74 deg. 55 min. ; fragments rhomboidal ; lustre, 
. more or less shining, often pearly ; fracture uneven, 
but difficult to be obtained on account of the ease with 
which it separates at the natural joints ; cleavage in 
direction of the natural joints, very easy and perfect, 
displaying smooth polished faces, transparent or 
translucent ; the transparent, particularly that from 
Iceland, doubly refractive ; often occurs in hemitrope, 
or macled crystals ; yields to the knife : sp. gr. 2.72. 

Only a few of the most common forms can be illustrated by fig- 
ures. 



(Y^?\ 





Fig. 1. The primitive rhomboidal prism. 

Fig. 2. The acute rhomboid. 

Fig. 3 A six-sided prism. 

Fl*. 4. A hexahedral prism with pentagonal sides, and termina* 
ted by pentagonal faces. 

Fig. 5. A dodecahedron, composed of two six-sided pyramids 
joined base to base ; each face being a scalene triangle. This varie- 
ty at first view appears as two triangular pyramids, but on closer in- 
spection, each of the three larger sides will be found to contain two 
scalene triangular faces. These crystals are commonly grouped, so 
that only one of the pyramids appear distinct. It is a common variety 
and bears the name of hog-tooth spar. 





Fig. 6. The double six-sided pryamid, with the summits trunca- 
ted, and an outline of the primitive form in the centre. 
Fig. 7. The same with truncated summits and solid angles. 
Fig, 8 An elongated, double six-sided pryamid. 



CARBONATE OP LIMP, 91 

Observation. Its localities are exceedingly numerous. Fine 
crystals of some of its varieties being found in almost e?ery lime- , 
stone country. A considerable variety of beautiful specimens are 
found at Lockport, N. Y. 

Phillips says the rarest and most beautiful crystals are found at 
Derbyshire, and the northern parts of England. 

Distinctive Characters. From the carbonates of lead, strontian 
and barytes ; and also from the sulphates of barytes and strontian ; it 
may be distinguished by its burning to quicklime : sulphate of lime- 
does not effervesce with acids. 

Variety 2. argentine. 
Chaux carbonatee nacree argentine H. Slate Spar J. 
External Characters. — Colors, milk white, reddish, 
or greyish white ; lustre, pearly ; occurs in thin 
tabular plates, generally curved, or undulated ; trans- 
lucent, or nearly opake ; structure of the massive, sla- 
ty, presenting curved shining layers ; yields to the 
knife ; easily broken ; phosphorescent on hot coals. 

Chemical Characters. Infusible, but decripitates and separates in- 
to thin plates, and finally becomes caustic quick-lime. Effervesces 
with acids. 

Composition. Lime 56; carbonic acid 39.33 ; silex 1.66 ; oxide 
of iron 1 ; water 2. — Ktaprotk. 

It is found in primitive rocks. 

Localities. Saxony, Norway, Cornwall, Granard in Ireland, &c. 

U. 8. Southampton lead mine, Mass. 

Var. 3. satin spar. 

Chaux carbonated fibreuse H. Satin Spar P: C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish white, white or pale 

red ; occurs massive, consisting of fine delicate fibres 

adhering closely together; lustre, that of satin - y bears 

a fine polish ; often chatoyant ; translucent. 

Composition. Lime 50.8 ; carbonic acid 47.6. — Pepys.. 

Localities. The finest specimens are from Cumberland, Eng. 

U. S. near Baltimore, Md.\ Cumberland Valley, Pa.; Newburyport, 
Mass. 

Observation. Satin Spar when polished is a very beautiful min- 
eral. It is used for inlaying, and for the manufacture of ornaments, 
as necklaces, ear rings, &c. instead of pearl. It is now a scarce 
mineral. 

Far. 4. agaric mineral, rock milk* 
Chaux carbonatee spongreuse H. Agaric mineral A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish or greyish white; occurs 
in soft earthy masses, composed of particles slightly co- 



92 CARBONATE OF LIME. 

hering; soils the fingers ; opake ; tender; spongy ; for a 
moment swims on water ; effervesces with acids. 

Compositon. Nearly pure carbonate of lime. 

Obs. It is disintegrated marble. 

It is found in veins, in calcareous rocks. 

Var. 5. APHRITE.* EARTH FOAM. 

Aphrite A. P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white ; occurs in masses, compos- 
ed of scales, of a shining pearly lustre ; opake ; soft to 
the touch. 

It is found in cavities, or veins in calcareous rocks. 
Subspecies 1. STALACTICAL CARBONATE OF LIME. 
Chaux carbonated concretionne H. Stalactie. Carbonate of lime P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors various, mostly white or yellow- 
ish white, or grey ; occurs in concretions, stalactical, 
botryoidal ; mammellated and in long pendulous con- 
cretions, like icicles ; lustre pearly, or silky. 

Var. 1. — Stalactite. — It occurs in long straight pendu- 
lous masses, or hollow tubes ; or in larger tuberose, ir- 
regular masses, with a rough, warty surface ; sometimes 
several round pieces are joined together, making irreg- 
ular flattened masses ; fracture fibrous, often radia- 
ting from the centre of the mass ; translucent. 

Obs. Stalactites are found attached to the roofs of caverns in lime- 
stone countries, where they are continually forming. 

How formed. The water percolates through the limestone rocks 
where it becomes impregnated with calcareous particles. On expo- 
sure to the air of the cavern, the water evaporates, leaving the par- 
ticles of limestone, which adhere, become solid, or form hollow tubes ; 
probably according to the nature of the surface where the stal- 
actite begins to form. 

Sometimes the branch of a tree, which happens to be in a proper 
situation, serves as a nucleus for the stalactite, and becomes in- 
crusted with the limestone, the wood remaining perfectly preserved. 

Var. 2. — Stalagmite. Alabaster. — Color white or yel- 
lowish, commonly arranged in undulated lines, or in 
concentric circles ; structure foliated, fibrous, or com- 
pact ; translucent. 

Obs. The water which drops from the forming stalactites, or tri- 
cles down from the roof, or the sides of the cavern, forms the stalag- 
mite on its floor. Sometimes the stalactite and the stalagmite meet, 

* From the Greek;— a foam-like substance. 



CARBONATE OF LIME. 93 

forming pillars which rest on the floor, and support the roof. These 
deposites sometimes fill large caverns, producing imitative forms, as 
of altar*, pillars, and with the help of the imagination, of animals, 
priests in their robes, &c. 

Uses. When the stalagmite is compact, of a good color, and trans- 
lucent, it is employed in the manufacture of ornamental and useful 
articles under the name of alabaster. Of this, candlesticks, vases, 
the frames of time-pieces, boxes, &c. are made. 

Remark. Compact gypsum is also worked into articles of orna- 
ment and use, and called alabaster. The two kinds are easily dis- 
tinguished by a drop of sulphuric or nitric acid, which will cause an 
effervescence on the stalagmite, but not on the gypsum. The sta- 
lagmite is also hatder than the gypsum. 

Localities. One of the most famous localities is the grotto of An- 
tiparos ; another is Woodman's cave in the Hartz ; several localities 
exist in Derbyshire, &c. 

U. S. Madison's cave, on the north side of the Blue Ridge, and 
Wier's cave, both in Va. 

Subspecies 2. GRANULA R LIMESTONE. 

Chaux carbonatee saccaroide H. Granular foliated Limestone J. 
Granular Limestone A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, grey, yellowish, bluish 
grey, reddish, greenish ; sometimes these colors run in 
stripes, spots, or clouds; occurs massive, composed of 
minute grains, or crystals of a lamellar structure, and 
brilliant lustre ; fracture splintery, or slaty ; translucent. 

Obs. 1. Some specimens very nearly resemble loaf sugar both in 
texture and color. 

2. It never contains organic remains, as shells, but frequently en- 
closes quartz, garnets, mica, talc, &c. Hence it is a primitive rock. 

3. Primitive limestone forms immense mountains, in many parts 
of the globe. A considerable proportion of the great chain in 
Northern Asia, reaching from the Uralian mountains to the river 
Amur, an extent of more than 1000 leagues, is of this kind of rock. 
The Pyrcnnees are also in part formed of primitive limestone, and 
in the Alps large beds of primitive marble are found. — Pinkerton 

Local. These are so numerous that only such as are quarried can 
be given. 

Statuary Marble. — The finest and most perfect kinds of primi- 
tive limestone, have, from time immemorial, been employed in architec- 
tural decorations, and in statuary Hence it is commonly called 
statuary marble. 

Egyptian Marble. — Colors milk-white, with silvery scales of mi- 
ca ; also, greyish white, passing into blue ; but the most beautiful is 
black. The red marble of Upper Egypt, called the rosso antico, of 
which the Indian Bacchus is made, and other exquisite remains, is 
said to surpass in beauty all other marbles. 



H4 CARBONATE OF LIME. 

Parian Marble. — This was employed by the most aucient Greek 
sculptors ; but being yellowish and coarse grained, it was supplanted 
by that of Etruria, and afterwards by that of Carrara. 

The Venus de Medici, Diana hunting, and Venus leaving the bath, 
are of Parian marble. 

Pentelican Marble. — This comes from the vicinity of Athens. It 
is white, with black crystals of hornblende, and occasionally green 
veins of talc. Of this, some of the noblest Grecian monuments are 
constructed. A Bacchus in repose, a Jason, a Paris, &c. of this 
marble remain at Paris. 

Translucent Marble. — At Venice, and in the different towns of 
Lombardy, arc columns of marble so translucent that the light of a 
candle is visible through pretty thick masses. 

Elastic Marble. — Tables of ancient elastic marble are still extant 
at Rome. Pinkerton supposes that this quality may be imparted by 
certain modifications of heat. Prof. Cleveland states that flexible 
marble is found at Pittsford, Vt. and at Pittsfield, Mass. and that ac- 
cording to the experiments of Dr. Meade, it looses this property on 
being heated, but regains it on being plunged into water. 

The foreign specimens of this kind which I have seen are opake, 
and without polish, resembling fine sandstone. 

Luni Marble. Carrara Marble. — These two kinds come from 
adjacent localities. That of Luni is pure white, and is preferred 
to that of Carrara, which is often stained with veins of grey. 

The quarry of Luni is said to have been opened in the time of Ju- 
lius Caesar. 

Laconian Marble. Verde Antico. — This came from Mount Tay- 
gctus in Laconia, and is among the most celebrated and ancient 
marbles. It is described as being of a most cheerful green, like that 
of tender herbs or grass, variegated with veins of a glassy white, 
winding in a spiral manner. — Pinkerton 1 s Petrology. 

American Marbles. — The United States afford many varieties of 
primitive marble, several of which have been quarried for useful and 
ornamental purposes. 

Philadelphia Maible — Color white, or greyish white, sometimes 
variegated with veins or clouds, of blue. It receives a fine polish, 
and is extensively employed. 

Potowmac Marble. — This is a breccia, and is composed of rounded 
and angular fragments from the size of a pea to that of an ostrich's 
e gg< Colors red, white, grey, and blackish brown intermixed, so as 
to give the whole a highly variegated aspect. It bears a fine polish 
and is a singularly beautiful marble. Of this marble are formed the 
shafts of the columns in the chamber of Representatives at Washing- 
ton. They are about twenty feet high, and two feet in diameter. 
The locality of this marble is about fifty miles above Washington, on 
the banks of the Potowmac, in Md. — See Cleveland. 

New-Haven Marble. — Predominant color, grey, or bluish grey, 
richly variegated with veins, or clouds of white, green, or black ; 
some specimens are clouded with yellow, or orange ; in others the 
prevailing color is green with black clouds of chromate, and magnetic 



CARBONATE OF LIME. 95 

oxide of iron. The principal quarry is seven miles from New-Haven, 
Ct. Prof. Silliman observes, that when this marble contains the 
green colors, it belongs to the variety usually called verde antique. 
Chimney pieces of this marble, of which there are four in the Capitol 
at Washington, cost from $250 to $500 each. 

Vermont Marbles, — The state of Vermont affords several beautiful 
Marbles, viz. 

Middiebury Marble. — Prevailing color, grey, running into dark 
brown of different shades. Some specimens are pure white. This 
marble receives a fine polish, and is sawn for tombstones, chimney 
pieces, &c. Prof. Hall states, that during the years 1809 and 10, 
20,000 feet of slabs were cut by one mill containing sixty-five saws, 
and that the sale of marble during the same period amounted to 
about 11,000 dollars in value. 

Quarries have also been opened at Pittsford, Shaftsbury, and Scran- 
ton, in Vt. — Cleveland. 

Massachusetts affords several quarries of Marble. 

Prof. Dewey states that the annual value of the marble quarried in 
Berkshire county alone, amounts to more than 40,000 dollars The 
localities in this state are Lanesborough ; the color is white and brown- 
ish. Stockbridge, color white, or clouded with dark shades. Sheffield, 
•olor white, or clouded with dark shades. — Robinson. 

Thomaston Marble. — Colors, white or greyish white, diversified 
with veins of a different color. In the finest pieces, the predomi- 
nant color is grey, or bluish grey, interspersed by whitish clouds. 
It is a rich and beautiful marble, receives a fine polish, and is well 
fitted for ornamental purposes. Three mills, containing in all 150 
saws, are employed in sawing and polishing the marble. The price 
of the best slabs is two dollars a square foot, and about 12,000 feet are 
annually sold. — Cleveland. 

Subsp. 3. COMMON LIMESTONE. 

Chaux carbonatee compacte, II. Common Limestone, A. P. 
Compact Limestone, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors white, yellowish white, grey, 
brown, reddish, bluish, black, &c; occurs compact, 
sometimes granular ; fracture large cohchoidal or 
splintery, sometimes earthy ; lustre dull, or glimmer- 
ing; sometimes it is variegated or striped of different 
colors ; translucent on the edges, or opake. Sp. gr. 
2.6 ; yields to the knife. 

Chem Char. It burns to quick lime and effervesces with acids. 

Comp. It is an impure carbonate of lime, and generally contains 
portions of silex, alumine, or oxide of iron. 

Obs. 1. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish secondary or 
compact limestone from primitive marble, without referring to its 
locality. In fact common limestone rune into marl on the one side, 
*nd primitive marble on the other. 



JU) CARBONATE OF L1M12. 

2. Secondary limestone of the oldest formation contains oxide of 
iron, sulplmrct of lead, manganese, sulphuret of zinc, &c. but gen* 
orally no organic remains. 

3. The newer formations are conchitic, or contain shells. Pin* 
kerton says that some of the most compact varieties of marble are of 
this kind. 

4 It is understood that conchitic limestone is of course of secon- 
dary formation. But it is not true that every secondary limestone 
contains shells. 

5. Secondary limestone is sometimes granular, but perhaps only 
when it is passing into the primitive kind. 

Uses When burnt it furnishes quicklime, which when slacked, 
and mixed with a portion of sand forms mortar, an article of indis- 
pensable use in building, plaistcring the walls of houses, &c. It is 
also employed extensively as a building stone and some of the most 
beautiful marbles belong to this species. 

CONXHITIC, OR SECONDARY MARBLES. 

Pinkcrton, in his Petrology, has enumerated a great variety of con- 
chitic marbles. From him tec shall extract an account of some of the 
most singular and beautiful. 

Lumachella Marble. — Color grey or brown ; often deep brown, 
containing shells which form circles or semicircles, of a golden 
color ; also shells, which in certain directions throw oat blood-red 
reflections, similar to the Labrador feldspar. Some specimens also 
reflect the green and blue tints of the opal, and nearly with eqaal 
splendor. 

Obs. 1. This marble was known to the Romans. Its locality, 
formerly unknown, has been re-discovered. It is found in small quan- 
tities at Bleyberg in Carinthia. 

2. From the examination of a specimen of this singular and most 
beautiful marble, in the cabinet of D. Watkinson Esq. of this city, 
it is obvious that the red reflections, spring from the fragments of 
a shell : but which is not discoverable, except on close inspection. 

Panno di morto, — or funeral pall. — Color deep black, sprinkled 
with white shells, like snails, an inch or more in length, at distant 
and rather regular intervals. 

Obs. This kind is sold at Rome and is very scarce and highly es- 
teemed. Its locality is unknown. 

England produces srme beautiful shell marble. 

Pcntworth Marble. — Color grey with a cast of green, and thickly 
set with shells, some of which are rilled with white spar, giving it a va- 
riegated and beautiful appearance. 

Bristol Marble. This is a fine black marble interspersed with white 
shells. 

Yorkshire, produces a grey marble, sprinkled with enthrochites. 

Italy is famous for its beautiful marbles. 

Florenc* , Lucca, and Pisa, are decorated with a brick-red marble, 
containing white ammonites, 

Fiorito Marble. This kind is marked with spots resembling flow- 



CARBONATE QF tlMB. 97 

ors. Two column* of it, very rich in colors; are said to have been 
placed in Napoleon's Museum at Pa?^s. l f hey were ©f Pfliaan WQjfc» 
manship, and were discovered in the. ruins of Gabium, four leagues 
from Rome. 

Ruin Marble or Pictorial Marlitt. This rqarble is found in the 
vicinity of Florence, It presents angular figures of a yellowish 
brown, running into a deep brown color, on a base of light brown, 
and yellow, gradually passing into a light grey. v .^ 

At a certain distance, slabs of this marble so nearly represent 
drawings done in bistre, on a ground of yellowish brown, that it 
would be difficult to convince one to the contrary. 

" One is amused" says Brard, " to observe in it kinds of ruins ; 
there it presents a Gothic castle half destroyed ; here ruined walls ; 
in another place, old bastions; and what still adds to the delusion is, 
that in these natural paintings there exists a kind of atrial perspecU 
ive, very sensibly perceptible. The lower part, or what forms the 
first plane, has a warm, and bold tone ; the second follows it, and 
weakens as it increases in distance ; the third becomes still fainter, 
while the upper part, presents in the distance, a whitish aone, and 
finally, as it reaches the top, blends itself, as it were with the clouds." 

These different colors are produced by the infiltration of different 
colored oxides of iron, into the fissures of this marble. It never 
bears a high polish. 

Fine specimens of this marble of a. foot or two. square, sometimes 
sell for exhorbitant prices.^ cl * ',: < -^. • ■* i" t > v. • C^v . :--^ 

Spain offers the conchmc marbled of Grenada, and Cordova, of a, 
deep red, with white shells. 

France abounds with sheR marbles. 

From Narbonne, comes a deep black kind, with white belemnites. 

From the department of Aube, is brought ft prey marble, made up 
of little shells, with now and then a large ammonite. 

Caen Marble. This beautiful variety comes from Caen, in Nor- 
mandy. It is of a chocolate brown, with white madrepores, of all sizes 
and descriptions, beautifully variegated with blue and red. Of thin 
the tables and chimney pieces of Paris- are made. In most of the 
coffee houses may be seen tables of thia marble. 

Languedoc or St. Bourn Marble. This is of a fiery red color, 
mingled with white and grey shells disposed in convoluted zones. 

The eight columns which decorate Napoleon's triumphal arch is 
the Carousel at Paris, are of this marble. 

The United States as yet presents hut few localities of shell mar" 
Mr. Prof. Cleveland has noticed the following. 

In Pennsylvania, Northumberland Ca. is a black marble contain- 
ing white specks, like the Kilkenny marble. 

In New York near Hudson, is a greyish brown marble, beautifully 
variegated with encrinites and other organic remains. 

Near Seneca Lake is found a variegated marble, which has a fine 
grain, receives an excellent polish, and will probably be much em- 
ployed. 

13 



98 CARBONATE OF LIME. 

Var. 1. FETID CABBONATE Or LIME. 

Chaux carbonatee fetide, H. Swine stone, A. P. Fetid carbonate 

of lime, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, or greyish white ; does not 
differ in external characters from common limestone, 
when scraped with a knife, or struck with a hard body, 
it exhales an offensive odor, resembling that of rotten 

eggs. 

Chcm.Char. Before the blowpipe it loses its odor, and burns to 
quick lime ; effervesces with acids. 

Obs. The offensive odor is owing to the sulphuretted hydrogen, 
which probably comes from a small quantity of bitumen or sulphur, 
included in this variety. This quality is lost on the surface, and in 
small fragments, by exposure to the air. 

It is sometimes found in nodular masses. 

It occurs with common limestone and gypsum, and is said to form 
mountains. 

Local. Germany, France, England, &c. 

U. 8. Allegany Ridge Md. Near Rhinebeck, Hyde Park, near 
Black river, Niagara Falls and Batavia, N. Y. Northfbrd, Conn, 
Stockbridge, Mass. 

Var. 2. bituminous limestone. 

Chaux carbonatee bituminifere, H. Bituminous Carbonate of 
Lime, C. Bituminous Limestone, A. P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brown, passing into dark brown 
or black ; structure compact, or sometimes lamellar ; 
when rubbed, struck, or heated, emits an unpleasant 
bituminous odor. 

Chem. Char. Loses both color and odor by heat, and burns into 
quicklime. 

Camp. Lime 49.65; carbonic acid 40.10; alumine 9.80 ; silex 0. 
60; bitumen 0.60; water 0.25.— Clark. 

It belongs to secondary rocks, and is sometimes found with coal. 

Uses. Phillips says, that in Dalmatia, it is so bituminous that it cuts 
like soap, and is employed in the construction of houses ; when rais- 
ed, they set fire to the walls, the bitumen barns out, and the stone 
becomes white ; the roof is then put on and the house finished. It 
is also polished as a marble. 

Loral. Ireland, Scotland, England, and France. 

{/. 8. Near Middletown, Conn, where it presents distinct impres- 
sions of fish. 

Var. 3 ARGILLO-FERRUG1NOU3 LIMESTONE.. 

Calp, C. Argillo-Ferruginous Limestone, P. 
Ext Char. — Colors, bluish, black, or greyish blue ; 
occurs massive, in beds, and in globular and spheroi- 



CARBONATE OF LIME. 99 

dal pieces ; gives an argillaceous odor when breathed 
on ; when burnt it is of a buff color ; tougher than com- 
mon limestone. 

Chan. Char. Tarns yellowish under the blowpipe ; does not fall to 
powder when slacked ; effervesces with acids. 

Comp. Carbonate of lime 68.0 ; silex 18.0 ; alumine 7.5 ; bitu- 
men 3.0 ; iron 2.0. — Knox. 

Obs Lias limestone, which encloses ammonites and a great vari- 
ety of sea shells, with the bones of unknown animals, is similar to 
calp in composition. Lias is employed as a lithographic stone, and 
occurs at Lyme, in Dorsetshire. 

Uses. CaJp is sometimes used as a building stone. 

Some varieties form a cement which hardens under water. 

Subsp. 4. CONCRETED CARBONATE OF LIME. 

Concreted Carbonate of Lime, C. 
This subspecies contains two varieties, both of which appear to be 
formed by a succession of layers. 

Var. 1. OOLITE. ROESTONE.* 

Chaux carbonated globuliibrme, H. Oolite, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, whitish, yellowish white, or ash 
grey ; occurs in masses composed of globular particles 
of the size of mustard seed, adhering by a calcareous 
cement; the particles are composed of concentric 
layers ; fracture splintery ; opake. 

Obs. 1. It is soft when taken from the quarry, but hardens in the air. 

The houses of Bath are for the most part built of this variety of 
common limestone, which occurs in great beds above the mountain 
lime of England. — Phillips. 

2. This stone is however said to be liable to disintegration, and 
therefore is not the best material for building. 

Var. 2. PEASTONE. PISOLITE. 

Peastone, J. A. P. Pisolite, C. 

Ext Char. — Colors, yellowish white, brownish, or 
reddish ; occurs massive, composed of distinct sphe- 
roidal concretions, which are formed of thin concen- 
tric layers, generally with a grain of sand at the centre 
as a nucleus ; these concretions are about the size of 
a pea, and are united by a calcareous cement ; they 
are often flattened by mutual contact. 

Obs. Pisolite is found among alluvial deposites, particularly at 
Carlsbad in Bohemia, and in the waters that supply the baths of St 
Philip, in Tuscany. It has a singular and interesting appearance. 

'Because it resembles the roe of a fish. 



100 CARBONATE OF LIME. 

Subsp. 5. CHALK. 

Chaux carbonate crayeuse, H. Chalk, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char.- Color, white, or yellowish white 5 occurs 

massive 5 fracture earthy ; meagre to the touch ; dull ; 

opake ; soft ; soils the fingers -, adheres to the toftgiie 5 

gives a white streak. 

Chem. Char. Effervesces with acids ; burns to quicklime. 

Camp. It is nearly a pure carbonate of lime. 

Obs. 1 It is one of the newest secondary formations. It often 
contains shells, and the remains of amphibious and land animals ; 
also nodules of flint, from which gun flints are made. 

2. Chalk sometimes forms beds, rising into hills several hundred 
feet high, and which are remarkable for the smooth regularity of their 
outlines. 

Local. England, particularly in the counties of Kent, Hampshire, 
Berkshire, and Sussex. France, in various places. Poland, and 
Ireland. 

Uses. When compact, it is used as a building stone. It furnishes 
lime for cement and for manure, and is used in polishing metals and 
glass. It is also used by mechanics to mark out their work ; by 
starch makers and chemists to dry precipitates on, and in medicine, 
it is employed as an absorbent. 

Subsp. 6. MARLE. 
Argile calcifere, H. Marl, A. P. Marie C. 
Ext. Char. — Colore, grey, yellowish, or bluish grey, 
and reddish purple ; occurs massive 5 structure com- 
pact, or slaty •, falls in pieces by exposure to the air, 
and is then plastic in water ; soft to the touch ; easily 
cut with a knife ; soils the fingers. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a slag ; effervesces with acids. 

Comp. Carbonate of lime 50 ; silex 12 ; alumine 32 ; iron and 
oxide of manganese 2. — Klaproth 

Obs. Marl is associated with secondary limestone, chalk, and gyp- 
sum. It often contains the remains of birds, the bones of animals 
and fish, and sometimes even wood. It is essentially composed of 
carbonate of lime and clay. 

Uses. It is employed as a manure, and on soils of a certain kind k 
is highly valued. 

Obs. The solid marls, on exposure to the air and moisture, crum- 
ble to dust 

Var. 1. ludus helmontii, septaiua. 
This name is given to nodules, or speroidal masses of calcareous 
marl, usually from one inch, to eighteen inches in diameter, whose 
interior presents numerous fissures, or seams, which divide the mass 
into irregular prisms. These fissures ate generally lined or tiled by 
tf>me crystallized substance, which is usually calcareous spar, some- 



CARBONATE OF LIME. 101 

times quam, o* sulphate of barytes ; thus dividing the mass into dis- 
tinct partitions or septa ; and hence the name Septaria. 

far. 2. bituminous marle. 
Bituminous Marie, J. P. Bituminous Marlite, C. 
Ext. Char.-*- Cplor, greyish, or brownish black ; oc- 
curs massive ; structure slaty, often curved ; lustre 
shining, or glimmering ; soft and meagre to the touch : 
sp. gr. 2.38. 

It occurs in beds with the oldest limestone. 

Obs. 1. It contains fish, sometimes in regular layers, which are 
converted into coal. The scales are often converted into copper ore. 
The bodies of these fish are contorted as though they had died by 
violence. Werner thinks they were killed by the sudden formation 
of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

2. It also contains ores of copper, which are smelted. At Thurin- 
gia extensive works are established for the extraction of copper from 
these ores. 

Subsp. 7. MADREPORITE* 
Chaux carbonates Madreporite, H. Prismatic Lucullite, J. Ma* 
dreporite, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, greyish black; occurs in large 
roundish masses, composed of prismatic diverging con- 
cretions ; fracture lamellar, or curved ; translucent or 
opake; yields to the knife. 

Chem. Char. When, heated, or rubbed, it gives the odor of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen. 

Comp. Carbonate of lime 93 ; with a little magnesia, iron, silex 
and carbon. — Kirwan. 

Local. Norway, Greenland, Salzberg. 

Subsp.S. CALCAREOUS TUFA. 
Calc Tuff, J. Tufa, A. P. Calcareous Tufa, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, grey, or yellowish grey ; occurs 
in light porous, or spongy masses, often containing 
leaves, moss, or other vegetable matter ; also incrust- 
ing other substances : it is soft, opake, and rough ; 
sometimes compact enough for building stone. 

Obs. 1. Tufa is a stone which is gradually formed, and daily increas- 
ing from the depositions of springs and streams impregnated with 
calcareous particles. As the water 'passes along it deposhes this 
limestone mud on whatever happens to be in its way. Hence tufa is 
a very impure carbonate of lime, containing silex, leaves, shells, 
wood &c. 

• Froti its rettmbtame to certain Madrepores. 



102 



ARRAGONITE. 



2. Pinkerton observes, that a fine calcareous tufa is formed in an- 
cient acqueducts, in the same manner as it is in tea-kettles, in lime- 
stone countries, viz. by the deposition of particles of lime from the 
water. 

3. The same author states that the church of St. Peter at Rome, 
is constructed of a tufa daily formed in the waters of the Anio. 

Species. 2. ARRAGONITE .• 

Chaux carbonatee Arragonite, H. Arragonite, J. P. A. C. Pris- 
matic Lirae-Haloide. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, or yellowish white, green- 
ish grey, and pearl grey ; occurs crystallized, in the 
form of six-sided prisms, with equal sides ; also, in six- 
sided prisms, of which the two opposite lateral planes 
are broad, the four others being narrow. These crys- 
tals on close inspection appear to have longitudinal 
joints down each lateral face, as though made up of 
several smaller crystals closely fitting each other. 
Sometimes the prisms are so short as to resemble oc- 
tahedrons, or even tables, and sometimes it forms a 
peculiar kind of twin crystal, or two crystals are seen 
crossing each other, or a small one projecting out of 
the side or summit of the larger. They are often 
deeply striated ; structure coarsely fibrous ; lustre 
shining vitreous; doubly refractive through oblique 
surfaces ; translucent, or transparent ; scratches mar- 
ble. 



jjji 



40 



Fig. 9. a six-sided prism, composed of several small prisms appli- 
ed to each other longitudinally, and appearing striated, or cracked 
down each plane. 

Fig. 10, a crystal, formed of four smaller crystals aggregated, so as 
to leave the half of each distinct. 

Chem. Char. Thin fragments of transparent crystals decrepitate in 
the flame of a candle ; other varieties lose their transparency and be- 
come friable. It phosphoresces on red hot iron, and is soluble in 
nitric and muriatic acid, during which process the carbonic acid is 
disengaged. — Mohs. 



♦ Because first found at Arragon in Spain. 



CARBONATE OF LIME. 103 

Comp. Carbonate of lime 95.2965 ; carbonate of strontian 0.5090 ; 
water 0.1544. — Stromeyer. 

Dist. Char. The chrystalline forms, and the general aspect of 
arragonite will distinguish it from carbonate of lime, and from stron- 
tian. It is also harder than carbonate of lime, and does not like 
strontian tinge flame purple, but burns to quicklime. 

Obs. 1. The phosphorescence takes place, only when the particles 
are small, and at the instant they fall on the hot iron. 

2. In a fine specimen of arragonite before me, from Weir's cave, 
Va. the largest crystals appear to consist of bundles of smaller ones 
adhering together, and terminating in one, two, or three-sided sum- 
mits. Among the smaller ones, some are gradually and finely acu- 
minated, while others are abruptly truncated, and terminate in one, 
or two principal faces. Some appear to be cylindrical, and stand in 
aggregated radiating masses, the points only appearing distinct ; 
others are branched, sending forth smaller crystals under various and 
uncertain angles ; the whole being garnished at every point with fine 
crystals, standing in every direction. 

Remark. The branched variety is often found in the cavities of 
iron ore, and hence has been called Flos Ferri t or Flowers of Iron. 

It was first found at Arragon in Spain, associated with gypsum. 

Local. Hungary, Transylvania, Bohemia, Scotland, Iceland, Si- 
beria, Chimborazo, &c. 

U. S. Weir's cave*, Va. Suckasunny mine, N. J. 

Species 3. MAGNESIAN CARBONATE OF LIME. 

This species has several varieties, which vary considerably in the 

proportion of lime and magnesia. 

Var. 1. DOLOMITE.* 

Chaux carbonate magnesif&re, H. Magnesian Limestone, P. Mag- 
nesian Carbonate of Lime, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, often with a tinge of yel- 
low, or grey ; occurs massive, often of a slaty texture ; 
consists of fine crystalline grains, which are lamellar ; 
lustre glimmering ; translucent on the edges ; when 
struck, or thrown on a hot iron, mostly emits a phos- 
phorescent light, which is visible in the dark ; softer 
than primitive limestone, which it strongly resembles : 
*p. gr. 2.85. 

Chem. Char. Effervesces feebly with acids ; under the blowpipe, 
after the carbonic acid is expelled, it phosphoresces with exceeding 
brightness, turns opake and falls into grains. 

Comp. Carbonate of lime 52.0 ; carbonate of magnesia 46.5 ; ox- 
ide of iron and manganese 0.75. — Klaproth. 

From the c«lebtated Doloaien. 



104 MAGNESIAN CARBONATE OF LIME. 

JDist . Char. Its slow effervescence will distinguish it from primi- 
tive limestone. 

It is found in veins, in primitive rocks, with iron, primitive lime- 
stone, tremolite, lead, zinc, quartz, &c. 

Local. Pyrennees, Saxony, France, Sweden, &c. 

U. 8. Near the city of New York Washington, Milfbrd hills, and 
Litchfield Conn. Great Harrington, Sheffield, Stockbridge, Pittsfleld, 
Williamstown, and Adams, Mass, 

Far. 2. bitter spar. 

Chaux carbonatee magnesifere primitive, H. Rhomb Spar, J. Bit- 
ter Spar, P. Chrystallized Magnesian Carbonate of Lime, G. 

Ext. Char.— Color, greyish or yellowish white ; oc- 
curs in obtuse rhomboidal crystals, the alternate angles 
of which are 106 deg. 15 min. and 73 deg. 45 nun. ; 
structure foliated ; lustre pearly and shining ; cleaves 
into rhomboids ; translucent; brittle; very easily sep- 
arable into rhombs, at the natural joints by a blow. 

Client. Char. Burns to quicklime ; effervesces feebly with acids. 

Camp* Carbonate of lime 52; carbonate of magnesia 45; oxide 
of iron 3. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish this variety 
from calcareous spar. In general, its slow and feeble effervescence 
will distinguish them. A surer method is solution in sulphuric acid, 
which, if magnesia be present, it will be precipitated by carbonate of 
potash, or soda ; the solution also will be bitter. 

It is found in chlorite, steatite, or serpentine ; with talc, asbes- 
tus, &c. 

Local Sweden, Tyrol, Siberia, &c. 

U. 8. Near New Haven, Conn. Williamstown, Middlefield, 
and Southampton, Mass. 

Far. 3. mi e mite.* 

Chaux carbonatee magnesifere lenticulaire, H. Miemite, J. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, green or greenish white : occurs 

massive, and in rhomboidal crystals ; fracture foliated ; 

lustre splendent and pearly ; translucent ; fracture 

foliated and curved ; brittle. 

Camp. Carbonate of lime 53 ; carbonate of magnesia 4&50 ; iroif 
and manganese 3. — Klaproth. 

Local. Tuscany in gypsum. Greenland with wavellite, and ar- 
ragonite. 

Far. 4. GURHOFIAN.t COMPACT DOLOMITE. 

Ext. Char. — Color, snow white ; structure compact ; 

* From Miemo in Tuscany, where it is found, 
t From Gurhoff, where it is found. 



MAGNESftN CARBONATE OF LIME. 106 

fragments sharp ; fracture conchoidal; somewhat re- 
sembling semi-opal 

Chem. Char. Dissolves with effervescence, in hot nitrous acid. 
Comp. Carbonate of lime 70.50 ; carbonate of magnesia 29.50. — 
Klaproth. 
Local. Gurhoff, in Lower Austria. 

Var. 5. MAGNESIAN LIMESTONE. 

Magnesian Limestone, A. P. G. Brown Dolomite, J. Macrotypous 
Lime-Haloide, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellow or buff; occurs in amor- 
phous masses ; lustre glimmering ; texture somewhat 
sandy ; translucent on the edges. ' 

Camp. Carbonate of lime 61.5 ; carbonate of magnesia 44.8 ; inso- 
luble matter 1.6. — Thomson. 

Obs. The great range of hills, extending from Nottingham to 
Sunderland in England, are entirely composed of it. 

The lime obtained from it is greatly esteemed for cements, being 
less subject to decay, owing to its absorbing less carbonic acid from 
the atmosphere than the lime of common limestone. — PhiUips. 

When magnesia exists in considerable quantity in a soil, it wholly 
destroys vegetation. Large tracts in France are barren from this cir- 
cumstance. 

2. A flexible variety of magnesian limestone, is found in Sunder- 
land in England. It is slaty, and fusible. This quality is lost by 
drying. — Phillips. 

Var. 6. FERRO -MAGNESIAN CARBONATE OP LIME. 

Chaux carbonatle ferro-manganesifere, H. Pearl-spar, P. Brown- 
Spar, J. C. 

Ext.Char. — Colors, white or greyish, yellowish, or 
reddish white ; occurs in laminated masses, and ia ob- 
tuse rhomboids, with curved faces ; sometimes only 
the thin edges or angles of the crystal is curved, or 
turned up ; lustre pearly ; structure foliated ; crystals 
often placed partly over each other, so as to give the 
mass a scaly appearance ; also, it occurs of a fibrous 
texture ; translucent ; sp. gr. 2.5. 





Figs. 11 and 12, show the common appearance of these crystals. 
iThey are irregular rhomboids, having their faces curved, or their 
angles contorted in various directions. 

14 



](H> 8ILICIOU8 CARBONATE OF LIME* 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe, decrepitates with violence, and 
turns dark grey, or brown ; with borax it rases with ebulition, ipto a 
yellowish green enamel ; soluble slowly, and with little effervescence 
in nitric acid. 

Comp. Lime 27.97 ; magnesia 21.14 ; carbonic acid 44.6; ox- 
ide of iron 3.4; of manganese 1.5. — Heisinger. 

Dist. Char. Its peculiar contorted crystallization, with its slow ef- 
fervescence, will distinguish it from rhomb-spar, and other carbo- 
nates ; sparry iron ore is darker and heavier. < 

Obs. Phillips thinks it probable that pearl-spar passes into sparryV 
iron ore. 

Pearl-spar is found in metallic mines, with quartz, limestone, iron 
ore, zinc, lead, &c. 

Local. Derbyshire, Devonshire, Cornwall. 

U. 8. Near Lancaster, Penn. Liecester, on the Genesee, Clin- 
ton, and Bethlehem, N. Y. Leverett, and Charlestown, Mass. 

Species 4. SILICIOUS CARBONATE OF LIME. 

Silicious Carbonate of Lime, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, greyish white ; occurs in mam- 
miliary concretions, in amorphous masses, and in 
rhombic crystals ; structure granular ; fracture pre- 
sents small crystalline faces ; often friable ; when solid, 
gives fire with steel; opake ; resembles a sandstone; 
C. ; sp. gr. 2.(>. 

Chem. Char. In nitric acid, its calcareous part, about one third of 
the whole, dissolves with effervescence. C. 

Comp. It sometimes contains 44 per. cent, of carbonate of lime. C: 

Obs. Its crystals are found either solitary, or in groups, in certain 
cavities, existing in beds of calcareous sandstone. When these ca- 
vities, usually filled with sand, are in part empty, it is sometimes the 
case, that one half of the crystal, in the state of a pure carbonate of 
lime, projects into the cavity, while the other half of the same crystal 
is silicious. C. 

It is found only at Fontainbleu and Nemours in France. 

VOT. I. TABULAR SPAR. 

Spatbentable, H. Schaalstein, W. C. Tabular Spar, J. A. P. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish white, often tinged red* 
green, or yellow ; occurs massive, composed of thin 
laminae ; structure imperfectly foliated ; translucent, 
or opake ; phosphorescent when scratched ; cleaves 
into prismatic pieces ; fracture splintery ; yields to the 
knife, and is sometimes friable : sp. gr. 2.8. 

Chem. Char. In nitric, a few bubbles escape and the fragment 
falls into powder. Fusible with ebullition into a white glasa. 



PHOSPHATE Or IitMfc. 107 

Comp. Silex50; lime 45; water 5. — Klaproth. 
It is a rare mineral, and has been found only in Ceylon, and two 
or three other places. 

Var. 2. chelmsfordite — Dana. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, grey, green, and red, of 
various shades ; occurs amorphous and crystallized, in 
rectangular, or slightly rhomboidal pristois, Variously 
truncated ; crystals interlaced ; lustre pearly, glim- 
merings or dull ; fracture! splintery, fine grained, and 
imperfectly foliated; cleavage, either indistinct, or 
parallel to the bases of the prisms ; phosphoresces 
when projected in powder on hot iron : sp. gr. 2.10 to 
2.60. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ebullition into a white porous enamel. 
The amorphous effervesces feebly with nhric acid, and falls in grains. 

Local. Chelmsford, Mass. in a bed of carbonate of lime, and mi- 
caceous schistus. 

Remark. Chelmsfordite was discovered and named by Drs. J. F. 
and S. L. Dana of Boston. , It has not been analyzed, but its general 
characters coincide so nearly with those of schaalstein, as id leave 
little doubt of its being a variety of that mineral, and they have ac- 
cordingly so arranged it. 

In placing Schaalstein and Chelmsfordite, as varieties of the present 
species, I have been guided by the analysis of the former, arid thfe 
probable composition of the latter. 

Species 5. PHOSPHATE OF LIME. 

Chaux phosphate, H. Rhombohedral Apatite, J. Phosphate of 
Lime, P. C. Rhombohedral Fluor-Haloide, M. 

This species embraces several varieties, which vary considerably in 
their external characters, and chemical composition. 
Var. 1. APATITE.* 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, greenish 
yellow, blue, bluish green, and reddish, colors pale ; 
occurs in six-sided prisms, terminated by one or more 
planes, or by a six-sided pyramid, variously trunca- 
ted ; prisms short ; cross fracture conchoidal ; lustre 
vitreous ; translucent ; often longitudinally striated ; 
yields to the knife. 



♦ From the Greek, signifying to deceive, because it resembles other mineral*. 



108 



PHOSPHATE OF LIME. 



IS 



frr— rr 

. 



^s 



x^ 




Fig. 13, the primary form, a short six-sided prism. 

Fig. 14, a six-sided prism, terminated by six-sided pyramids. 

Fig. 15, the same, with the lateral edges and summits truncated. 

Chem. Char. Infusible ; dissolves slowly and without effervescence 
in nitric acid ; or effervesces slightly from foreign matter ; phospho- 
resces on hot iron. 

Comp. Lime 55 ; phosphoric acid 45. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It resembles beryl, and emerald, but wants their hard- 
ness, and is soluble in acids. From carbonate of lime it differs, by 
its slight effervescence ; fluate of lime is fusible. 

It is found in primitive rocks, with garnets, fluor, tin, iron and 
quartz. 

Local Bohemia, Saxony, Moravia, Spain, several parts of Eng- 
land, &c. 

U S. Germantown, and Hamilton, Penn. At the former pjace it 
is in grass-green crystals. 

Several places in New Jersey. Near Wilmington, DeL Near 
Crown Point, color clo\e brown. Near New York, color apple 
green ; and West Farms, white, N. Y. Milford hills, pale green ; 
Conn. Topsham, pale green ; Maine. 

Var. 2. ASPARAGUS STONE. 

Asparagus Stone, J. P. C. 
Ext Char.— Colors, asparagus green, greenish white, 
white and transparent ; occurs in crystals only 5 form, 
six-sided prisms, with six-sided pyramidal terminations; 
planes sometimes striated longitudinally ; angles sub- 
ject to truncation ; does not phosphoresce. 

Chem. Char. Dissolves in nitrous acid without effervescence. 

Comp. Lime 54.28 ; phosphoric acid 45.72. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It has been confounded with apatite, but differs from 
it in color; in the general smooth surface of its planes ; in its acater 
terminations ; in its non-phosphorescence ; and in dissolving in acids 
without effervescence. — Jameson. 

It is found in primitive rocks. 

Local. Grenada in Spain, in abundance ; Vesuvius, Norway, and 
near Havre in France. 

U. 8. Germantown, Penn. Highlands, at Anthony's Nose. Near 
Lake Champlain, and on the island of New York, N. Y. Morris 
county, N. /. 



FLU ATE OP LIME. FLUOR. 109 

Var. 3. massive phosphate of lime. 

Chauz phosphate terreuse, H. Phosphorite, J. P. Massive Phos- 
phate of Lime, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish, reddish, or yellowish 
white ; occurs massive, with a curved lamellar, or gran- 
ular structure ; aspect earthy ; opake ; diversified with 
spots or zones ; phosphoresces by heat and friction. 

Comp. (Hungarian.) Lime 47 ; phosphoric acid 32.25 ; fluoric 
acid 2.5 ; silex 0.5; oxide of iron 0.75 ; water 1 ; sand mixed with 
day 11.5. — Klaprotk. 

Pinkerton says, that it is reported by some to form hills, and by 
others only thick strata, in the province of Estremanda in Spain. 
Phillip's says, that it sometimes contains crystals of apatite. 

Dist. Char. It has much resemblance to curved lammellar bary- 
tes, but it is harder and lighter. — Jameson. 

Var. 4. silicious phosphate of lime. 

Chaux phosphatee silicifere, H. 

Ext. Char.— Color, grey, shaded with violet ; occurs 

in porous masses ; fracture earthy, granular, or a little 

foliated ; phosphoresces strongly ; gives fire with steel 

It is found in Bohemia. 

Species 6. FLUATE OF LIME. FLUOR.* 

Chaux fluatee, H. Octohedral Fluor, J. Fluate of Lime, P. C. 
Octohedral Fluor-Haloide, M. 

This species is found crystallized, nodular, compact, and earthy. It 
therefore comprehends several varieties of which the crystallized is 
by far the most beautiful, and important, 

Var. 1. CRYSTALLIZED FLUATE OF LIME. 

Ext Char. — Colors, purple, red, green, yellow, grey, 
blue, white, and perfectly limpid and transparent; 
occurs in crystals ; form the octohedron, with its vari- 
eties, the cube and rhomboidal dodecahedrons, vari- 
ously truncated ; structure lamellar, or foliated ; 
cleaves into the form of the octohedron, tetrahedron, 
and rhomboid ; lustre, shining vitreous ; crystals gen- 
erally smooth ; yields easily to the knife : sp. gr. 3.10. 



* From the Latin fluo to flow, because it is used as a flax. 



110 



FLU ATE OF LIME. FLUOR. 




Fig. 16, the primary octahedron. 

Fig 17, the cube, a form under which it most frequently occurs. 

Fig. 18. the dodecahedron, with rhombic faces. 

Fig. 19, the cube, with bevelled edges. 

Fig. 20, the cube, with each solid angle bevelled, or replaced 
with six planes. 

Obs. 1. A great variety of other forms are enumerated. Mr. Phil- 
lips states that his collection presents upwards of seventy varieties of 
form. The same author has given a figure of one crystal, bounded 
by fifty-four planes, and another in his possession from Devonshire, 
bounded by three hundred and twenty-two planes. 

2. This mineral is rendered very interesting by the great variety 
and beauty of its colors, and the peculiarly distinct forms in which its 
crystals are often found. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ebullition into an opake globule ; with 
borax into a transparent glass. In powder with warm sulphuric 
acid, emits fluoric acid gas, which is employed in etching on glass ; 
phosphorescent on hot iron. 

Comp. Lime 72.14 ; fluoric acid 27. 86,-^-BerzeUus. 

Dist. Char. Its rich colors and peculiar property of corroding 
glass will distinguish it from other minerals ; from the gems it is 
readily known, by its want of hardness. 

It is found mostly in metallic veins which traverse primitive rocks. 

Local Mount Blanc, St. Gothard, Saxony, Germany. Cornwall 
and Derbyshire, abundant. In the tin mine, St. Agnes, Cornwall, 
are found the most splendid varieties ; also in the lead mines of Der- 
byshire, fine specimens occur. 

U. S. Shenandoah County, and at Sbepherdstown, Va. Peters 
Creek, 17 miles from Shawneetown, Fork of Grand Pierre Creek, 
27 miles from the same place, Illinois. West side of the Blue Ridge, 
Md. Smith County, Ten. Near Franklin Furnace, and near Ham- 
burg, N. J. Near Saratoga Springs, N. Y. At Middletown and 
Huntington, Con. At Thetford, Ft. Southampton lead mine, Mass, 
White Mountains, N. H. 

VOT. 1. NODULAR FtUATE OF LIME. 

Nodular Fluor, P. 
Ext Char. — Colors, blue, brown, purple, grey, red- 
dish, and yellow, variously intermixed with white, and 
transparent; it is the result of imperfect crystalliza- 
tions ; the colors run in zones or bands, often quite 
distinct, or are variously shaded, or intermingled with 



FLUATE OF LIME. FLUOR. Ill 

each other, forming tints of a great variety of colors. 
Some parts of a specimen will be transparent, others 
translucent, or even opake. 

Obs. This variety comes from Derbyshire, and is commonly 
known by the name of Derbyshire-spar. It is called blue John by 
the miners, and is found in veins or detached masses, from three 
inches to a foot in thickness. 

Uses. It is formed into vases, obelisks, candlesticks, &c. for orna- 
mental purposes. It bears a high polish, and its great variety of rich 
colors renders it remarkably beautiful, and in great request. 

Far. 2. compact fluate of lime. 
Chaux fluatee compacte, H. Compact Fluor, J. P. Compact Flu- 
ate of Lime, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, various shades of green, blue, 
violet, and red ; texture granular ; translucent on the 
edges ; phosphorescence chiefly green ; harder than 
common fluor. 

Local Cornwall, Norway, Hartz, &c. 

Var. 3. Earthy Fluate of Lime. — It occurs in friable masses, or 
in the state of powder. 

It is found in several of the mines in England, and in Saxony and 
Norway. 

Var. 4. CHLOROPHANE.* 
Chlorophane, P C. 
Ext. CAar.^-Color, pale violet ; structure imperfect- 
ly lamellar ; does not much resemble the other varie- 
ties ; translucent. 

Obs. It is curious on account of its phosphorescence. When 
placed on hot iron, it does not fly, but gives out the most beautiful 
emerald green light. The experiment may be made on a hot shovel 
carried into the dark. 

Local. Cornwall and Siberia. 

U. 8. New Stratford, Ct. When placed on hot iron in a dark 
room, it emits a very pure emerald green light ; masses even one inch 
in diameter, become illuminated in a few seconds, and continue dis- 
tinctly luminous when removed to a room lighted by candles, or when 
viewed in weak day light — Silliman. 

Var. 5. Fttid fluate of Lime, C. The external characters of this 
mineral do not sensibly differ from those of the common colored va- 
rieties of fluate of lime. But when broken, or scratched by a point 
of steel, it emits a strong fetid odor, resembling that of carburetted 
hydrogen. — Cleveland. 

Local Near Shawneetown, Illinois. First observed by Mr. A. 
E. Jtssup. 

• ■ « ■ ■ ■ »■— ■ ■ ^— ^— i ■ 

* From its green light, when heated. 



112 SULPHATE OP LIME. 

Species 7. SULPHATE OF LIME. 
Chaux sulphatee, H. Gypsum, A. P. Aufrangible Gypsum, J. 

Prismatoidal Gypsum-Haloide, M. 
The varieties of this species differ widely in their external characters, 
but are composed of nearly the scone proportions ofhme and sul- 
phuric acid. 
It occurs crystallized, fibrous, granular, earthy, and compact 

Var. 1 . CRYSTALLIZED SULPHATE OF LIME. 

Chaux sulfatee crystalline, H. Foliated Sulphate of Lime, C. 8e- 

lenite, P. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, either pure, or with 
shades of yellow, violet, brown or red ; occurs in foli- 
ated masses, and in regular crystals ; form of the folia- 
ted, oblique hexahedral tables, each of the lateral fa- 
ces of which is bevelled; or in flat crystals which are 
oblique parallelopipids ; form of the regular crystals, 
hexahedral and octahedral prisms, with oblique ter- 
minations ; crystals often united, somewhat in the stel- 
lular form, or the smaller crystals are attached oblique- 
ly to the larger ones ; structure foliated ; cleavage ve- 
ry perfect in one direction ; lustre shining pearly ; 
transparent or translucent; soft ; yields to the nail; 
inelastic: sp.gr. 2-310. 

Chem. Char. Turns white and opake, swells, and finally, in small 
fragments, melts into a white enamel ; does not effervesce with acids, 
nor burn to lime. 

Comp. Lime 32 ; sulphuric acid 46 ; water 22. — Bergman. 

Dist. Char. It resembles mica and talc ; but mica is elastic, does 
not instantly turn opake on being heated, and is harder than selinite; 
talc is unctuous to the touch, and of a greenish tinge. 

06s. 1. The massive selinite sometimes appears in broad, shining, 
transparent laminae, a foot or more long, and several inches wide, 
without the least appearance of distinct crystals, bat resembling 
plates of mica. 

Beautiful specimens of this kind are occasionally found among the 
gypsum from Nova Scotia. 

2. Selinite often occurs in the form of lenticular crystals, These 
sometimes occur disseminated in the compact, or granular gypsum, 
or are collected into groups in the form of roses, stars, &c 

Var. 2. fibrous gypsum. 
Chaux sulphatee fibreuse, H. Fibrous Gypsum, J; P. C. 
Ext. Char.— Colors, white, grey, reddish, and yellow* 
ish ; occurs in extremely fine, delicate, and nearly sep- 



SULPHATE OF LIME. 113 

arate fibres, of a shining silky lustre, and either 
straight, or gently curved ; sometimes it is nearly com- 
pact, taking the form of a concretion. 

Obs. This beautiful variety is polished for ornamental purposes. 

Far. 3. granular gypsum. 
Foliated Granular Gypsum, J. Granular Gyjssnm, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish, and reddish ; 
occurs in masses composed of small laminated crys- 
tals, which present shining faces, either straight or 
curved ; translucent on the edges ; very soft ; yields 
to the nail. 

Obs. This is a very common variety, and appears to be intermedi- 
ate between selenite and compact gypsum. 

Var. 4. compact gypsum. 
Chaux sulfatee compacte, H. Compact Gypsum, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, reddish, or yellowish, often 
running in veins, or clouds ; occurs massive ; fracture 
compact; lustre glimmering ; translucent, or bpake ; 
easily cut with a knife ; the white often resembles sper- 
maceti. 

Obs. 1. This variety forms the gypse&us alabaster of which cups; 
vases, candlesticks, and other ornaments are made ; some specimens 
after being polished, are translucent, and at a few feet distance can 
hardly be distinguished from spermaceti. Beautiful ornaments of 
this mineral, and in great variety, come from Italy. A manufactbry 
of the same kind is also established at tterby, Eng. 

2. The beautiful white translucent alabaster, of which the Italian' 
ornaments now so common in this country, are made, comes from 
Castelino, in Tuscany, 35 miles from Leghorn. The most perfect hr 
found about 200 feet below the surface of the earth. The yellowish 
variegated kind called alabastro agatafo, or agate alabaster, is found 
at Sienna, from 20 to 30 feet below the surface. 

The bluish variety comes from Guercieto, and is remarkably beau- 
tiful, being elegantly variegated with blue, purple, and red. 

The principal manufactory of these articles is at Volterra, 3G 
miles from Leghorn, where about 5,000 persons live by this kind of 
labor, and from whence these ornaments are transported to all parts 
of the world. 

This information we obtained from one of the proprietors of tkr 
manufactory. 

3. This kind of alabaster may be readily known from the calcart? 
ous kind, by its softness and want of effervescence with acids. 

15 



114 SULPHATE OF LIME. 

VOX. 5. EARTHY GYPSUM. 

Earthy Gypsum, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish white, white or yel- 
lowish grey ; occurs in small scaly or dusty particle s 
dull 5 soils the fingers ; ligjjt ; particles cohere slight- 
ly, or not at all. 

Obs. It is found enclosed in, or lying upon formations of gypsum. 
Jameson says, it is found particularly in wet seasons. Prof. Cleve- 
land thinks that it proceeds from the disintegration of the other vari- 
eties. 

Var. 6. snowy gypsum. 
Chaux sulfatee niviforme, H. Scaly foliated Gypsum, J. Snowy 

Gypsum, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, snow white ; occurs in minute 
scales, having the appearance of newly fallen snow; 
exceedingly delicate and tender ; easily reduced to 
powder. 

It is found in small masses among the other varieties. 

Var. 7. PLAISTER OF PARIS. 

Chaux sulfatee calcarifere, H. Montmatrite, J. Plaister of Paris, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish, or brownish ; occurs 
in masses, composed of small grains, sometimes of a 
crystalline appearance, and sometimes earthy ; frac- 
ture earthy; dull; soft; easily broken; yields to the 
nail. 

Chem. Char. Effervesces slightly with acids, owing to its contain- 
ing a portion of lime. In other respects its chemical characters do 
not differ from the other varieties. 

Camp. That of Montmatre, near Paris, contains about 17 per*< 
cent, of carbonate of lime, and a small portion of the oxide of iron. 

Obs. 1. Plaister of Paris is the name commonly used in com- 
merce for the whole species, probably from the circumstance of its 
having been first exported from the vicinity of Paris. 

2. This variety occurs in great abundance at Montmatre, near Pa- 
ris, and is said to produce the best plaister known in commerce. 

3. Sulphate of lime belongs to transition and secondary formations. 
Its occurrence as a primitive rock has also been asserted. But Saus- 
sure, who observed gypsum in several places on the Alps, mixed 
with layers of mica, has notwithstanding recorded his opinion against 
its primitive origin. The gypsum of Nova Scotia, of which vast 
quantities are employed for manure and other purposes, presents, it 
is btiieved, no organic remains. Having examined great quantities 
of this gypsum, with a view, to determine its geological character,. and 
having interested the workmen, where it is broken and ground, to 



ANHYDROUS GYPSUM. 116 

observe any organic remains that might occur, the writer has never 
been able to detect a single shell, or other organized substance in it. 

The secondary gypsum of Germany, it is believed, sometimes con- 
tains organic remains. 

That of Montmatre contains vast quantities of shells, skeletons of 
birds, quadrupeds, and even vegetable substances. — Cuvier. Pin- 
kerton. 

Uses. Gypsum is ground and spread on certain soils as a manure. 
(For information on this subject, see Davy's Agricultural Chemis- 
try.). 

It is employed when calcined, in ornamenting rooms in stucco, in 
taking the impressions of medals, in casting statues and busts, &c, 
and when mixed with lime, it is used in plaistering the wails of 
houses. 

Casts, busts, &c. of plaister, are easily polished when dry, by rub- 
bing the surface with talc. 

Remark. Broken articles of plaister are mended by first wetting 
the surfaces to be joined, then mixing the calcined plaister with gum 
water, and applying it before it hardens. 

Local. Hungary, Italy, Bohemia, England, and most other coun- 
tries. Nova Scotia, in extensive quarries. 

U. S. Niagara, near the Falls, and at the foot of Goat Island. Onon- 
daga and Madison Counties, near Cayuga Lake, (at the three last 
named places, it is quarried.) Manlius, Lockport, and in several 
other places, N. Y. Martha's Vineyard, and Milton, Mass. Salt- 
vilie, on Holstein river, (quarried,) near Preston's salt works, and at 
the head waters of Staunton river, Va. St. Mary's County, on the 
Patuxet, on the Potomac, near Fort Washington, and near Baltimore, 
Md. It is also found in many other places in the U. States, in small 
quantities. 

Species 8. ANHYDROUS* GYPSUM. 

Chaux anhydro-sulfatle, H. Anhydrite, J. Anhydrous Gypsum, 

A. P. Anhydrous Sulphate of Lime, C. 

This species occurs crystallized, granular, fibrous, and compact . It 
therefore affords several varieties^ 

Var. 1. MURIACITE.t 

Chaux anhydro-sul&tee lamellaire, H. Sparry Anhydrite, J. C. 

Muriacite, P. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, violet, bluish or reddish ; 
occurs crystallized in rectangular prisms, sometimes 
differing little from a cube, and sometimes so short as 
to become tabular ; structure lamellar, with joints par- 
allel to the planes of the prism ; lustre shining pearly 
transparent or translucent ; soft ; yields to the nail. 

* Anhydrous, without water, because it contains no water of crystallization. 
t.Muriaeite, because it sometimes contains muriatic acid. 



116 ANHYDR0U8 GYPSUM. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but is redacad without exfoliation to • 
white friable enamel ; does not effervesce with acids. 

Camp. Lime 40 ; sulphuric acid 60. — VauqueHn. 

Lime 41.75 ; sulphuric acid 55 ; muriate of soda 1.— JOaprota. 

Dist. Char. It does not like the sulphate of lime, exfoliate and 
melt into a hard enamel, but under the blowpipe is converted into a 
friable enamel. 

Local. Switzerland, and Tyrol. 

V. S. Lockport, N. Y. 

Var. 2. GRANULAR ANHYDRITE. 

Scaly Anhydrite, J. Granular Anhydrite, C. Granular Anhydrous 

Gypsum, P. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish, greenish grey, bluish or 
reddish ; occurs in concretions ; structure granular, or 
confusedly foliated, sometimes bladed, or contorted ; 
lustre shining, pearly ; translucent. 

It often contains a little muriate of soda. 

Var. 3. fibrous anhydrite. 
Fibrous Anhydrite, J. C. Fibrous Anhydrous Gypsum, P. 

Ext Char. — Colors, greyish, greenish grey, bluish or 
reddish ; occurs in masses composed of fibres, either 
straight and parallel, or diverging ; translucent on the 
edges ; lustre, shining, pearly. 

Var. 4. compact anhydrite. 
Compact Anhydrite, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, grey, blue and red ; oc- 
curs massive and sometimes contorted ; fracture splin- 
tery, passing into flat conchoidal : translucent on the 
edges ; scratches calcareous spar. 

Comp. Lime 42; sulphuric acid 56.50; muriate of soda 0.35.— 

Klaproth. 
Local. It is found in the salt mines of Poland. 

Var. 5. siliceous anhydrite. 
Chaux anhydro-sulphatle quartzifere, H. Siliciferous Anhydrous 
Gypsum, P. Silico-Aahydrous Sulphate of Lime, (3. Vulpi- 
nite, J. 

Ext Char. — Colors, greyish white, veined with blu> 
ish grey ; occurs in distinct massive concretions ; 
structure laminated ; translucent on the edges ; lustre* 
splendent ; soft ; brittle : 

Comp. It contains 8 per cent of silex.— VauqueHn. 



NITRATE OF LIME. SILICEOUS BORATE OF LIME. 117 

It is found with limestone at Vulpino, in Italy. 

Obs. It takes a fine polish and is employed for ornamental pmv 

poses. 

Specks 9. NITRATE OF LIME. 

Chaux nitratee, H. Nitrate of Lime, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish, or greyish 

white ; occurs in fibrous efflorescences ; often united 

in the form of silken tufts, also in delicate needles, and 

in a state of powder; tastes bitter and disagreeable. 

Chem. Char. On burning coals it slowly melts away, and emits 
slight detonations ; soluble in water and very deliquescent. 

Comp. Lime 32; nitric acid 57.44 ; water 10.57. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its bitter taste, and its ready deliquescence will dis- 
tinguish it from nitrate of potash. ♦ 

It is generally found with the nitrate of potash, and occurs about 
old walls, in caverns, and on calcareous rocks among vegetable re- 
mains. 

Local. U. S. It is abundant in the caverns of Kentucky. 

Species. 10. SILICEOUS BORATE OF LIME. 
Chaux borate silicieuse, H. Prismatic Datolite. J. Datholite, 
Borate of Lime, P. Siliceous Borate of Lime, C. Prismatic Dys- 
thene-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, greyish or greenish white ; occurs 
massive and crystallized ; form, the rhombic prism, 
with the lateral edges, and solid angles, vanously 
truncated ; sometimes the two opposite angles, and 
sometimes all the angles are truncated, or bevelled ; 
the two opposite angles are often replaced by three 

}>lanes, forming a prism of ten sides; fracture imper- 
fectly conchoidal ; lustre shining between vitreous and 
resinous ; translucent ; yields to the knife ; sp. gr. 
about 3. 

Chem. Char. Intumesces into a white mass, and then melts into 
a globule of a pale rose color ; forms a jelly with acids ; in the flame 
of a candle, turns white, opake, and becomes friable. 

Comp. Lime 84; boracic acid 21.67; silex 37.66; water 55. — 
Vauquelin. 

Dist Char. It sometimes resembles prehnite ; but is not electric 
by heat, and its hardness is sensibly inferior.— Cleveland. 

Var. BOTRYOLITE.* 

Botryolite, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, greyish, and red in concen- 

* From the Greek, resembling grapes. 



118 BUBSULPHATE OF LIME* 

trie circles; externally yellowish grey; occurs in bo- 
tryoidal masses, and in mamillary concretions, formed 
of concentric layers ; texture fibrous or earthy ; sp. 
gr. 2.8. 

Comp. Lime 39.5 ; silex 36 ; boracic acid 13.5 ; water 6.5; oxide 
of iron 1. — Klaproth. 

'1 his species is fo»»nd at Arcndal in Norway. 

V. 8. Near Passaic Falls, N. J. It was discovered by J. Pierce, 
Esq. and is well characterized. 

Species 11. ARSENIATE OF LIME. 

Chaux arseniate, II. Pharmacol ite, P. J. M. Arseniate of 

Lime, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, or greyish white ; surface 
often tinged red, or violet by arseniate of cobalt; oc- 
curs in minute fibres, or in acicular crystals, commonly 
aggregated into botryoidal masses; lustre silky, or dull; 
sp. gr. 2.6. 

Chcm. Char. Evaporates in dense white vapor, with the odor of 
arsenic, leaving the lime. Soluble in nitric acid without efferves- 
cence. 

Comp. Lime 25 ; arsenic acid 50.54 ; water 24,46. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Cltar. Its chemical characters will distinguish it from the 
minerals it most resembles. 

Local. Andreasburg in the II art z. Near Furstemburg in Ger- 
many, with cobalt and sulphate of lime. 

Genus 2— ALUMINE. 

This earth derives its name from alum, of which it is the base. It 
never occurs pure, but may be obtained so by chemical means, 
when it is of a clear white. It occurs very universally in argillaceous 
soils, and enters into the composition of several gems, as the sap* 
phire and ruby. In the species belonging to this genus, it is com- 
bined with acids, and forms the basis of several salts. 

Species 1. SUBSULPHATE OF ALUMINE. 
Aluminite, J. M. Sub-sulphate of Alumine, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, or yellowish white ; oc- 
curs massive in small round or reniform pieces ; trans* 
lucent, or opake ; fracture earthy ; yields to the nail ; 
adheres to the tongue ; light. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but loses more than half its weight by the 
heat. 

Comp. Alumine 30.2 ; sulphuric acid 23.4 ; water 46.4.— Stro* 
meyer. 

Local Newhaven, Sussex, Eng. Halle, in Saxony. 



SUBPHOSPHATE OF ALUMINE. 119 

Var. 1. siliceous subsulphate of aluminb. 
Siliciferous Sub-sulphate of Alumine, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, between milk, and snow white ; 
occurs of the consistence of hogs lard ; smooth to the 
touch; translucent, except in patches, where it is 
opake and granular; on exposure to the air, it dries and 
splits into masses like starch, some of which effer- 
vesce on the surface, while others, are translucent, and 
resemble the finest pieces of gum arabic. — Phillips. 

Chem. Char. By ignition it loses 90 per cent, of its weight. 

Comp. Alumine 6.5 ; sulphuric acid 3.0 ; water 88 ; silex 2.4.— 
Henry. 

Local. This singular mineral was found in the old workings of a 
coal mine near Oldham in Lancashire. 

Species 2. SUBPHOSPHATE OF ALUMINE. 

Hydrargillite, — Davy. Wavelite.* Sub-phosphate of Alumine, P. 
Phosphate of Alumine, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, greenish 
or bluish ; occurs in minute crystals in the form of 
rhombic prisms, with dihedral terminations ; these 
are grouped, or collected into hemispherical, or glob- 
ular concretions ; sometimes appearing like down, but 
more commonly radiating from a centre, with a pearly 
or silken lustre. It is often attached to other minerals, 
in distinct, round, stellular spots, presenting, when the 
mineral is of a different color, a singular and beautiful 
appearance ; translucent. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but becomes white and opake, and loses 
its crystalline form : gives a greenish tinge to the flame ; Aikin 
says, that with sulphuric acid it corrodes glass. 

Comp. Alumine 35.35 ; phosphoric acid 33.40 ; fluoric acid 2.06 ; 
time 0.50; water 26.90 ; oxides of iron and manganese 1.25.— Ber- 
zelius. 

Dist. Char. It resembles zeolite, but this is fusible. Its property of 
corroding glass, is not constant, but may sometimes be seen by 
placing a little of it in powder with sulphuric acid on a piece of 
glass and warming it over a lamp. 

Local. Barnstable in Devonshire ; Cornwall ; New Castle, and 
other places in England. Brazil, Bohemia, and the Hebrides. First 
discovered at Barnstable by Dr. Wavel. 

Ob$. A mineral found at Richmond, Berkshire county, Mass. is 
supposed to belong to the present species. It occurs stalactical ot 
in concre ions composed of minute radiating fibres ; color greenish 
or greyish* white ; scratches carbonate of lime. Infusible. 

* AtierDr.tVtvel, its discoverer. 



120 CARBONATE OF MAGNftfiU. 

Genus 3.— MAGNESIA. 

Like the other earths, magnesia when pare, is perfectly white. 
That sold by apothecaries, is obtained by the decomposition of the 
sulphate of magnesia. It is also found native in small quantities. It 
enters into the composition of a considerable variety of minerals. It 
forms the basis of several native salts, being found combined with the 
carbonic, sulphuric, and boracic acids. 

Species 1. CARBONATE OF MAGNESIA. 
Magnesite, J M. Carbonate of Magnesia, P. C. 
Of this species there are four varieties, viz. crystallized, compact, 
earthy, and pulverulent. 

Var. 1 . CRYSTALLIZED CARBONATE OF MAGNESIA. 

Crystallized Carbonate of Magnesia, C. P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white ; occurs in delicate acicu- 
lar crystals, radiating, or diverging, and possessing the 
lustre of satin ; also in flesh colored crusts, not more 
than two lines thick, having a polished, or sparry struc- 
ture. It is totally soluble in sulphuric acid.— Cfeueiam/. 

Local. Staten Island, N. Y. Discovered by James Pierce, Esq. in 
veins, or cavities in magnesite and steatite. 

Var. 2. compact carbonate or-fe^E -P-* fupt* 3kt> 

Magnesia carbonatee, H. Magnesite, J. A. Carbonate ofMagne- 

■ia, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, or yellowish ; occurs amor- 
phous, tuberous, and spongiform ; fracture, dull* splin- 
tery, and flat conchoidal ; nearly opake ; yields to the 
nail externally; internally harder than calcareous spar; 
adheres to the tongue ; absorbs from 9 to 10 per cent 
of water, and becomes translucent on the edges. 

Chem. Char. Soluble with effervescence, but slowly, in muriatic 
and sulphuric acids ; infusible,but hardens under the blowpipe so is 
to scratch glass. — Aikin. 

Camp. Magnesia 58 ; carbonic acid 49 ; water 3. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. The bitter solution which it forms when dissolved is 
sulphuric acid, and its not burning to quicklime, will distinguish it 
from chalk, and other forms of carbonate of lime. It does not, like 
clay, become plastic with water. 

Local. Upper Stiria, Moravia, Italy, Spain, and Silesia. 

V. S. Bare Hills, near Baltimore. 



SULPHATE OF MAGNESIA. BORATE OF MAGNESIA. 121 
Vat. 3. EARTHY CARBONATE OF MAONE8IA. 

Ext. Char. — Color, whitish or yellowish white; oc- 
curs in porous masses ; fracture earthy ; yields easily 
to the nail ; adheres to the tongue ; sometimes swims 
on water. 

Local Samos, Negropont, Moravia, and Cornwall, 
Obs. It is called Meerschaum in the east, and is used for the same 
purposes as Fullers earth is with us. 

Var. 4. PULVERULENT CARBONATE OF MAGNESIA. 

Pulverulent Carbonate of Magnesia. — Pierce. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish white ; occurs in small 
masses, which fall to powder on drying ; soft to the 
touch ; soils the fingers ; soluble in sulphuric acid. 

Local. India. 

U. 8. Hoboken, N. J. Discovered by James Pierce Esq. Sta- 
ten Island, N. Y. Roxborough, Penn. 

Species 2. SULPHATE OF MAGNESIA. 

Prismatic Epsom Salt, J. M. Magnesie sulfated, H. Sulphate of 
Magnesia, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, or greyish white ; occurs 
in crystalline fibres, adhering together longitudi- 
nally ; lustre silky or pearly; translucent; not very 
brittle ; taste, bitter and nauseous. 

Chem. Char. Soluble in water, from which it is precipitated by the 
carbonate of potash or soda. Unjder the blowpipe, it boils, gives off 
its water of crystallization, and remains a white, infusible, spongy 
mass. 

It is found on the surface of decomposing gypsum, or schistus, 09 
the surface of particular soils, and in mineral waters. 

Local. Epsom,* in England, and Sedlitz, in Bohemia. At these 
places, it is abundant in mineral springs. 

U. 8. Mammoth Cave, Ky. Greenbriar and Monroe counties, 
Va. Near Corydon, In. in abundance. Coeymans, N. Y. 

Species 3. BORATE OF MAGNESIA. 
Magnesie borate, C. Hexahedral Boracite, J. Boracite, P, Bo- 
rate of Magnesia, C. Octahedral Boracite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish, greyish, or greenish 
white ; occurs crystallized in the form of a cube, va- 
riously modified by truncation ; sometimes all the 
edges are truncated, but in every case the diagonally 

• Whence Epsom salt, the common name of 4he species. 
16 



122 CARBOIf ATE OF BARYTES. 

opposite angles are differently modified, sometimes by 
simple truncation, and sometimes by bevelment; the 
solid angles are subject to the same diversity : fracture 
uneven, passing into flat conchoidal ; lustre glistening ; 
transparent or translucent ; sometimes gives sparks 
with steel ; pyro-electric, the opposite angles being ip 
opposite electrical states. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into an opake white glass. 

Comp. Magnesia 16.6 ; boracie acid 83.4^— VauqueSm. 

Dist. Char. Its peculiar character of possessing opposite electrici- 
ties at its opposite angles, and the dissimilar opposite modifications of 
its angles, will distinguish it from all other minerals which it resem- 
bles. 

Local. Lower Saxony, embedded in gypsum ; near Kiel, in HoW 
stein, embedded in anhydrous gypsum. 

Genus 4.— BARYTES. 

When pure, barytes is white, has a caustic, somewhat alkaline 
taste, and by the chemists is placed among the alkaline earths. It is a 
strong poison. It never occurs pure in nature, but is (band combin- 
ed with the carbonic and sulphuric acids, forming carbonate of bary-' 
tes, and sulphate of barytes. 

Species. 1. CARBONATE OF BARYTES. 
Baryte carbonatee, H. Rhomboid a 1 Baryte, J. Carbonate of Bary- 
tes, P. C. Di-Prismatic, Hal-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, • or greyish white, or yel- 
lowish, bluish, or greenish ; occurs massive, stalactical, 
and in crystals; form, resembling closely the common 
crystals of quartz, viz- six-sided prisms, terminated by 
six-sided pyramids ; sometimes with the apices trun- 
cated ; fracture of the massive undulated ; structure 
fibrous or bladed ; lustre glistening; translucent or 
opake ; scratches carbonate of lime : sp. gr. 4.4. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a white enamel ; soluble with efferves- 
cence, in dilute nitric, or muriatac acid, a little of which tinges burn* 
ing alcohol yellow. 

Comp. Barytes 78 ; carbonic acid 2$. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its weight will distinguish it from the minerals it re- 
sembles, except strontian and the sulphate of barytes. The sulphate 
does not effervesce ; and carbonate of strontian, when dissolved in an 
acid, and mixed with alcohol, tinges the flame purple, instead of yel* 
low. 

Obs. 1. The cells of the massive variety of this substance, often 
contain the crystallized variety. 



SULPHATE OP BARYTB&V MSf 

2. When reduced to thin plates, it gives by refracted light, two 
images, one bright, and the other nebulous.-^Cleveland. 

3. The native carbonate of barytes, is next to arsenic, one of the 
strongest of mineral poisons. When dissolved in muriatic acid, it is 
employed in minute doses, as a remedy in certain diseases . 

Lwal. It was first discovered by Dr. Withering in Lancashire, Eng- 
land, hence Witherite, one of its names. It has since been found in 
several other places in England, in Hungary, Stiria, and Siberia. 

U. 8. Near Lexington, Ky. 

Species 2. SULPHATE OF BARYTES. 

Prismatic Baryte, or Heavy Spar, J. • Sulphate of Barytes, P. C. 

Prismatic Hal-Baryte, M. Baryte Sulfate, H. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, flesh red, 
greenish white, and bluish;* occurs crystallized and 
massive; primitive form, a right four-sided prism, whose 
bases are rhombs; subject to a variety of modifications 
by truncation ; structure lamellar, with cleavage in 
three directions ; crystals sometimes curved ; lustre 
shining, between pearly and vitreous ; yields easily to 
the knife ; translucent : sp. gr. 4.446.— *Mohs. 

Obs. These crystals are generally so short, as to take the tabular 
form. 




Fisr. 21. The primary form, a right prism, with rhombic bases. 

Chan. Char. Decrepitates, becomes vitrified on the outside, and 
finally melts into an opake white enamel. If colored with oxide of 
copper, the flame, on its first application, is tinged green, otherwise 
not ; if the enamel be applied to the tongue, it tastes like rotten eggs ; 
it does not effervesce with acids. 

Camp. Barytes 67; sulphuric acid 23.~KIaprotk. 

Dist. Char. Its specific gravity will distinguish it from the mine- 
rals it most resembles, except strontian, carbonate offearytes, and car- 
bonate of lead. Strontian after fusion never gives tne fetid taste of 
barytes ; it gives a purple flame, when dissolved in an acid, and burn- 
ed with alcohol ; carbonate of strontian effervesces ; carbonate of 
lead effervesces, and is reduced to the metallic state under the blow- 
pipe. 

Sulphate of barytes is found in considerable variety of form and 
structure, and therefore admits of a number of sub-dirisions. 

Obs. Among the more remarkable tints which occur in this 
species, Mohs, has noticed the following, viz. smalt-blue, pale sky- 
blue, almost indigo blue, woad-brown, and hair brown, bright red 
aud yellow. 



124 SULPHATE OF BARYTES. 

Var. 1. LAMELLAE SULPHATE OF BARTTES. 

Straight lamellar and prismatic heavy-spar, J. Lamellar Sulphate of 

Barytes, C. 
Ext Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, grey, 
reddish, bluish, or greenish; occurs crystallized, 
sometimes distinct, but commonly in foliated masses ; 
form, the right rhombic prism, subject to a great varie- 
ty of truncations, or bevelments ; crystals compressed 
into a tabular form ; generally aggregated into masses, 
so as to present, when broken, longish granular parti- 
cles, of various sizes ; translucent ; lustre shining ; 
pearly ; fragments rhomboidal ; easily broken. 



cS? 





Fig. 22. A four-sided table, a common form. 

Fig. 23. A right prism with rhombic bases, modified by the trun- 
cation of its alternate solid angles. 

Fig. 24. A four-sided table with truncated terminal, or narrow 
faces, and solid angles. 

Fig 25. The same, with the narrow faces modified by bevelment, 
and its angles by truncation. 

Obs. 1 . The crystals are often colorless and transparent, and al- 
though generally small, Lowry mentions one, six inches long. 

2. The laminae of this variety are often curved, and sometimes 
unite in a point like the petals of a flower. 

3 Sometimes the folia are set on their edges, forming thin crystals 
called cockscomb spar. 

Var. 2. columnar heavy spar. 
Baryte sulphate barillaire, H. Columnar' Heavy-Spar, J. Colum- 
nar Sulphate of Barytes, C. 
It consists of very thin crystals, which are aggregated longitudi- 
nally, or are collected into bundles, or columnar groups ; structure 
foliated ; the columns striated ; lustre pearly ; translucent. 

Var. 3. fibrous heavy-spar. 

I&ryte sulphatee concretionee-fibreuse, H. Fibrous Sulphate of 

Barytes, C. 

Ext Char.-— Color, chesnut brown ; occurs in botry- 
oidal, or reniform masses ; structure fibrous ; lustre, 
shining resinous ; transparent ; brittle. 

Comp. Sulpb. barytes 99 ; with a trace of iron.— -KJaproth. 



SULPHATE OF BARYTES. 126 

V<tr. 4. RADIATED HEAVY-SPAR. 

Baryte sulphate radile, H. Bolognian Stone, P. Radiated Sul- 
phate of Barytes, C. 

Ext. Char.— Color, grey, or yellowish grey; occurs 
in roundish masses, composed of radiating minute crys- 
tals, which appear to come from the centre, and to 
project unequally on the surface, giving it a rough ex- 
terior 5 fracture foliated ; translucent 

Obs. This variety being calcined, then mixed with mucilage of 

Sim arabic, and formed into small pieces, and again heated, has 
e property, after exposure to light, of shining in the dark. It is 
then called Bolognian phosphorus. 

It is found at Bologna, in Italy, hence the name. 

Var. 5. GRANULAR HEAVY-SPAR. 

Baryte sulphatle granulaire, H. Granular Heavy-Spar, P. Granu- 
lar Sulphate of Barytes, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish, or greyish 
white ; occurs massive ; structure finely granular ; 
grains, crystalline and lamellar ; lustre shining ; feebly 
translucent. 

Comp. It contains 10 per cent of silex. — Klaproth. 
Var. 6. compact heavy-spar. 

Baryte sulphatle compaote, H. Compact Heavy-Spar, J. Com- 
pact Sulphate of Barytes, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish, or reddish white ; 
occurs massive $ fracture coarse, earthy, dull, soit, and 
brittle. 

Local. It is found in Bohemia, Saxony, and in the mines of Der- 
byshire. 

Var. 7. EARTHY HEAVY-SPAR. 

Earthy Sulphate of Barytes, C. 

It occurs in earthy particles slightly cohering; lustre glimmering, 
or dull ; heavy. 

Local. It is found near Freyberg, Saxony, also in Bohemia, Der- 
byshire, &c. 

Subsp. 1. FETID SULPHATE OF BARYTES. 

Baryte sulfate fetide. Hepatite, J. A. P. M. Fetid Sulphate of 

Barytes, C. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, yellowish, brownish, or blackish ; 
occurs in globular masses ; structure foliated 5 gives 



126 CARBONATE OF STRONTIAN. 

a sulphureous odor when rubbed, or heated ; in other 
respects it resembles the common varieties. 

Comp. Sulphate of barytes 85.2 ; sulphate of lime 6 ; alumine 1 ; 
oxide of iron 5 ; carbon 0.5 — Klaproth. 

Uses. The pure white varieties are ground and used as a white 
paint, either alone or mixed with white lead, which cannot be con- 
sidered as an imposition. — Mohs. 

Obs. Crystals of the present species have been artificially obtain- 
ed by dissolving sulpho-cyanuret of barium in sulphuric acid, and 
allowing this solution to be slowly decomposed by the influence of 
the atmosphere. — Mohs. 

Sulphate of barytes is found in veins, in primitive transition and se- 
condary rocks. Its localities are numerous, though it seldom occurs 
in large quantities. It is commonly found with the ores of lead, 
copper, zinc, &c. 

Local Its foreign localities are numerous, being found in almost 
every country where mines are explored. 

U. S. Cheshire, Berlin, Farming ton, Hartford, and Southington, 
Con. — Silliman. Hatfield. — G or ham. Southampton. — Eaton. Mid- 
dlefield and Greenfield, Mass. — Hitchcock. Livingston's lead mine. 
— Shaeffer. Little Palls, on the Mohawk. — Eaton. The High- 
lands, near the Hudson, N. Y. — Pierce and Torrey, Near New- 
ton, Sussex County. — Chilton. On the west side of Paulin's Kin, 
and near Scotch Plains, N. J. — Pierce and Torrey. Perikomen 
lead mine. — Wetherill Buck's County, 3 miles west of New Hope. 
— Lea, Bedford County, at the foot of Blue Ridge, Penn. — Wistcr. 
Liberty, Frederic County, and Washington County, Md. — Hayden. 
Near Lexington, Ken. — Jesmp. Several of the lead mines in Mis- 
souri. — Schoolcraft. 

Genus 5.-STRONTIAN.* 

This earth in many respects resembles that of barytes. It is white 
and fuses with difficulty. It is never found pure in nature, bnt is 
combined with the carbonic and sulphuric acids, forming a carbo- 
nate and sulphate of strontian. 

Species I. CARBONATE OF STRONTIAN. 

Strontiane carbonatee, H. Carbonate of Strontian, P. C. Di-pris- 
matic Baryte, or Strontianite, J. Peritomous Hal-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish, or greenish 
white ; occurs crystallized, fibrous, massive, and stel- 
lated ; form, the hexahedral prism, modified by trun- 
cation, or terminated by pyramids ; structure diverg- 
ingly fibrous, or bladed; lustre, shining pearly; 

• From its having been first observed at Strontiaa, in Scotland. 



BARTTIC CARBONATE AND SULPHATE OF STRONTIAN. 127 

fracture, fine grained, uneven ; crystals small or acicu- 
lar, often attached to the massive ; yields to the knife ; 
brittle : sp. gr. nearly 4. 

Chem. Char. Becomes glazed on the outside, but does not melt ; 
tinges the flame purplish red ; effervesces with nitric, or muriatic 
acid, and a paper dipped in the solution, burns with a purple flame ; 
with borax dissolves into a clear globule. 

Cemp. htrontian 69.5 ; carbonic acid 3().—Klaprotk 
. Dist. Char. It resembles carbonate of barytes, but the carbonate 
melts without tinging the flame. It is found in primitive rocks, 
with the ores of lead, zinc, and copper, and often accompanied by 
sulphate of barytes, and calcareous spar. 

It has not been discovered in the U. States. 

Species 2. FARYTIC CARBONATE OP STRONTIAN. 
Barystrontianite, Train, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, internally, yellowish white, ex- 
ternally, greyish white 5 lustre, when broken, weakly 
shining, and pearly ; cross fracture, uneven or splinte- 
ry ; transparent on the edges ; soil ; brittle : sp. gr. 
3.7. 

Chem. Char. Infusible ; effervesces with acids. 
Camp. Carbonate of strontian 68.6; sulphate of barytes 27.5; 
carbonate of lime 2.6 ; oxide of iron 0.1. — Traill. 
Local. Stromnes, in one of the Orkney islands. 

Species 3. "SULPHATE OP STRONTIAN. CELESTINE.* 

Strontiane sulphatee, H. Celestine, Sulphate of Strontian, P. Sul- 
phate of Strontian, C. . Pi ismatoidal Hal-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors* white, greyish white, yellowish 
white, or reddish, and more rarely light blue ; occurs 
fibrous, massive, stellated, and crystallized ; form, the 
primitive, a right rhombic prism, the alternate angles 
of which, according to Phillips, are 104 deg. and 76 
deg. ; structure lamellar, witn joints parallel to the 
faces of the prism, that parallel to the base being par- 
ticularly distinct ; lustre shining, between pearly and 
resinous ; translucent or transparent • yields to the 
knife ; brittle : sp. gr. 3.6. 

Chem. Char. Melts before the blowpipe into a white friable ena- 
mel, without very sensibly tinging the flame ; after a short exposure 

1 . ., — . . „ . 1 ip 1 > 

* Sky blue, from its color. 



128 SULPHATE OF STRONTIAN 

to heal, it becomes opake, and then acquires a somewhat caustic, 
acrid flavor, very different from that of sulphuretted hydrogen, which 
heavy-spar acquires in similar circumstances. — Aiken. Phosphores- 
ces on hot iron. 

Comp. Strontian 58 ; sulphuric acid 42. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It resembles the carbonates of strontian and barytes, 
and the sulphate of barytes. But the distinctive characters given un- 
der each of those species, will distinguish this, from them. 

Obs. Werner divided this species in the fibrous and foliated. 
Jameson says, it may be divided into compact, fibrous, radiated, 
and foliated ; but besides the crystallized, he has described only the 
fibrous and foliated varieties, with distinctness. 

Var. 1. fibrous celbstine. 

Strontiane sulfatee fibreuse, H. Fibrous Celestine, J. Fibrous 
Sulphate of Strontian, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, milk white, passing into blue, or 
sky blue ; occurs massive, in plates and in fibrous crys- 
tals; lustre of the longitudinal fracture, shining; cross 
fracture glistening and pearly ; fracture in one direc- 
tion foliated ; translucent ; loses its color in keeping ; 
easily broken : sp. gr. 3.8, 

This variety is rare. It sometimes occurs in thin beds or layers 
like gypsum, its fibres being perpendicular to the sides of the bed.— 
Cleveland. 

Local. Montmatre, near Paris, Switzerland, Sicily, and in several 
places in England and Scotland. 

U. S. Frankstown, in the Bald Eagle mountain, Penn. 

Var. 2. FOLIATED CELESTINE. 

Foliated Celestine, J. Foliated Sulphate of Strontian, C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, ^rey, bluish, or sky blue ; 
occurs massive, and crystallized, in four or sis-sided 
prisms, variously modified ; sometimes the four-sided 
prism is terminated by four-sided pyramids-; and some- 
times the termination is dihedral ; often this form is 
deeply truncated on its lateral edges, so as to produce 
a six-sided prism, crystals often flat or tabular ; frac- 
ture imperfectly foliated ; strongly translucent; crys- 
tals sometimes transparent. 



SULPHATE OP STRONTIAN. 129 



M 





Fig. 26. A four-sided prism, terminated by a two-sided summit, 
standing, no the obtuse lateral angle of the prism. 

Fig. 27. A four-sided tabular prism, terminated by a four-sided 
summit, standing on the obtuse lateral edge of the crystal, and partly 
on its broad plane. 

Local Bristol and Yorkshire, England. Edingburg, the Tyrol, and 
near Cadiz. Sicily presents fine crystals. 

U. S. Lockport, {SiUiman,) and Moss Island, N. Y. The latter 
discovered by Prof. Douglass. Near Baltimore, Md. — Cleveland. 
Presque Isle, on the Maumee river, Ohio. — SiUiman. Grose Island, 
in Lake Huron, Mich. — Cleveland. Magnificent crystals have been 
brought from Strontian Island, in Lake Erie. — Mohs. 



17 



CLASS Jil. 
ACrDIFEROUS ALKALINE MINERALS. 

This Class includes such minerals as consist chiefly of an atkaU, unit- 
ed with an acid. Some of the species contain foreign matter, re»» 
dering them very impure. This division includes "but a few arti- 



cles. 



Genm ].— POTASH. 



This Genus contains only one sprcies. 

Species 1. NITRATE OF POTASH. NITRE. 

Potasse nitratee, H. Nitrate of Potash, P. C. Prismatic Nitre, J.. 

Prismatic Nitre-Salt, M. 

The well known salt, nitre, or saltpetre, often occurs native, in 
greater or less quantities. It is found in capillary crystals, and crusts, 
of a saline cooling taste ; transparent or translucent ; deflagrates 
when thrown on burning charcoal, and dissolves in water. 

It is particularly found on old walls, and in the earth, and decayed 
substances of ancient buildings. It is also found in some calcareous 
countries, and in ancient situations, once inhabited, but now lying 
waste. 

Local. Several plains in Spain ; on the chalk formations in some 
parts of France, in the Grottos of Mount Hamberg, in Germany. In 
Hungary, Arabia, Italy, Persia, and other countries. 

In many of these countries, nitre is extracted from the earth in 
particular places by lixiviation, and after being purified and crystal- 
lized, is fitted for commerce. 

U. S. Rackoon Mountain, Geo. abundant in a cavern, the earth 
of which contains from 3 to lOlbs of salts to the bushel. It is partly 
nitrate of lime, which is decomposed by wood ashes. — Cornelius. 
Madison County, Ken. in a cave 646 yards long, and about 40 feet 
broad. The earth contains both nitrate of potash, and nitrate of 
lime. It is lixiviated, and the nitrate of lime decomposed by wood 
ashes. Kentucky furnishes large quantities of nitre, from this and 
other localities. — Cleveland. In some parts of the state of Kentucky, 
it is said that masses of native nitre are found weighing several 
pounds. 

Nitre is also obtained from earth found in sheltered places, in sev- 
eral parts of Ohio. — Atwater. 



CARBONATE OP SODA. 131 

Uses. Its principal employment is in the manufacture of gun pow- 
der, and the nitric acid. \% is also used in the curing of meat ; for 
the purpose of obtaining oxygen for chemical experiments, for medi- 
cinal purposes, for fluxes, &c. 

Genus 2.— SODA. 

Soda is found combined with carbonic, sulphuric, nitric, boracic, 
and muriatic-acids, forming sulphate, carbonate, nitrate, borate, and 
muriate of soda. 

fyeciesl. CARBONATE OF SODA. 

Soude Carbonatee, H. Prismatic Natron, J. Carbonate of Soda, P. C. 

Hemi-Prismatic Natron-Salt, M. 

Ext Char.— -Colors, greyish, or yellowish white ; oc- 
curs crystallized, massive, fibrous, encrusting, and ef- 
florescent ; the massive is compact or granular ; the 
fibrous, often radiated ; lustre glistening ; translucent ; 

taste, urinous and saline. 

Chem. Char. It effervesces with acids, and when dissolved in mu- 
riatic acid, forms common salt ; in sulphuric apid, forms glauber's 
salt, 

Comp. (When pure,) soda 22 ; carbonic acid 15 ; water 62. 

Obs. It is always impure in the natural atate, being mixed witb 
various portions of muriate, and sulphate of soda, or muriate of lime. 

This salt is found in many parts of the world in crusts, on certain 
decomposing rocks, in lakes, on the surface of the soil, or in the wa- 
ters of certain springs. 

Local. Bohemia, dissolved in the hot springs of Carlsbad. Egypt, 
in the Natron Lakes. These are six in number, situated in a barren 
valley westward of the Delta. The edges of these lakes in the hot 
and dry season, are surrounded by a band of white salt, several yards 
in breadth It consists chiefly of natron, but is mixed with common 
salt. Hungary contains several lakes, which in winter are full of 
water, but in summer when the water evaporates, saline efflores- 
cences appear, consisting of natron with a little glauber's salt, and 
epsom salt. One crop being gathered, another appears in a few 
days, and this harvest continues until fall. Africa, between Tripoli 
and Fezzan, contains large quantities of the radiated variety, called 
trona. It lies in a thin stratum, in a bed of common salt From 
this place it is said hundreds of tons are annually collected. 

Uses. It is principally employed in the manufacture of soap and 
glass. It is also used in the Levant to give a sharper taste, to smok- 
ing tobacco, by mixing a little with it. The ancient Egyptians are 
said to have made use of natron, in preparing the bodies of their dead 
for mummies. 



132 SULPHATE, NITRATE, AND BORATE OF SODA. 



Species 2. SULPHATE OF SODA. GLAUBER SALT. 

Soude sulfatee, P. Prismatic Glauber-Salt, J. Sulphate of Sod*. 
Glauber's Salt, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish, or yellowish white; 
occurs in efflorescences and in an earthy form, but is 
more commonly dissolved in certain mineral waters. 
When water containing it, is evaporated, it yields pris- 
matic crystals with dihedral summits ; when exposed 
to the air, they soon effloresce, or lose their water of 
crystallization, and fall into a white powder. It rarely 
if ever is found in native crystals ; taste, saline and 
nauseously bitter. 

Comp. (When pure.) Soda 15 ; sulphuric acid 27 ; water 58. 

It is found in many mineral waters, generally with other salts, as 
epsom and common salt, and perhaps, is the result of the mutual de- 
composition of these two salts. 

Local It is found in the lakes of Austria, Lower Hungary, Sibe- 
ria, and Russia. Near Madrid, it is said to occur in efflorescences 
at the bottom of a ravine. Indeed, small quantities of it are found in 
most countries. 

The glauber's salt, generally used in medicine, is prepared from 
bittern, the liquor which remains after the extraction of common salt 
from sea-water. 

Species 3. NITRATE OF SODA. 
Soude Nitratee, H. Nitrate of Soda, P. M. 
This salt is described by Mariano de Rivero, in the Ann. des 
Mines for 1821, p. 596, as occurring in immense quantity in the dis- 
trict of Tarapaca, in Peru, near the frontiers of Chili, and three day's 
journey from La Conception. It there forms a bed many feet thick, 
which in many places appears on the surface, and occupies an ex* 
tent of more than forty leagues. The salt appears occasionally as an 
efflorescence, sometimes crystallized, but more often mixed with clay 
or sand ; to the taste it is cool and bitter ; it is deliquescent, and 
when exposed to heat, it behaves like nitrate of potash ; it contains 
a little sulphate of soda. Very large quantities of this sak purified 
by solution and crystallization, have already been imported into Eu- 
rope. — Phillips. 



Species 4. BORATE OF SODA. BORAX. 

>ratee, H. Prismatic Borax, J. Borate of Soda, 
matic Borax-Salt, M. Tincal. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, sometimes with a tinge of 



Soude Borate, H. Prismatic Borax, J. Borate of Soda, P. C. Pris- 
matic Borax-Salt, M. Tincal. 



MURIATE OF SODA. 133 

blue or green ; occurs in prismatic crystals, variously 
terminated, and yielding to cleavage parallel to the 
sides of the primitive form, which is an oblique rhom- 
bic prism ; translucent or transparent ;_ sometimes 
opake. 

Chem. Char. Intumesces largely, gives somewhat of a crackling 
noise, and fuses into a transparent globule, which is unalterable by 
the heat of the blowpipe. 

Comp. Soda 17 ; boracic acid 36 ; water 47. — Berzelius. 

This salt is supposed to have been known to the ancients, and to 
be the substance called crysocolla, by Pliny. It is brought from the 
East Indies, in an impure state, and in commerce is denominated tin* 
col. After being purified, which is done by the Dutch and British, it is 
called borax. — Thompson. 

Tincal is brought chiefly, if not only, from Thibet, where it is pro- 
cured from a lake which is entirely supplied by springs. The edges 
and shallows of the lake are covered with a stratum of borax, which 
is dug up in considerable masses, and the holes thus made, are gra- 
dually filled by a fresh deposition. — Phillips. 

It is said also to be met with in Ceylon, and in considerable quan- 
tity in Potosi. — Mohs. 

'Uses. Borax is made use of as a flux, and is especially useful in 
testing mineralogical specimens, and particularly ores. It enters 
into the composition of artificial gems, and is used in soldering, and 
in medicine. 

Obs. The purification of tincal is an art confined to a few chem- 
ists, and the process is kept a secret. 

Speed* 6. MURIATE OP SODA. COMMON SALT. 

Sonde Muriatee, H. Hexahedral Rock-Salt, J. Muriate of 
Soda, P. C. 

Pure rock salt is so universally known as to require Ho description. 
Its primitive form is a cube, and into this it may readily be cleaved ; 
structure lamellar ; translucent, or transparent. 

Chem. Char. It decrepitates violently, but, between two pieces of 
charcoal, may be fused ; when it tinges the flame yellow, diffuses it- 
self over the surface of the charcoal, and sinks into its substance. 
Heat does not increase its solubility in water. 

Comp. Soda 53.44 ; muriatic acid 46.55. — Berzelius. 

Obs. In its impure state, as it is commonly raised from the mine, 
rock salt is in large and solid masses of a crystalline structure, and of 
a reddish or bluish color ; translucent, presenting impurities to the 
eye in spots, or veins. 

It is almost always associated with gypsum, which either lies above, 
or below it, or both, or is intermixed with it. Sometimes the gyp- 
sum is so impregnated with the salt, as to be worth working on that 
account. 



134 MURIATE OF SODA. 

Common salt is one of the most abundant productions of nature. 
Besides the immense beds of it, which are known to exist in different 
parts of the world, together with inland springs, which contain it in 
large quantities, the ocean contains about a thirtieth part by weight, 
of common salt, and may be considered its greatest repository. 

Local. Spain, contains vast quantities of rock salt. In Spanish 
Navarre, between Caparosa, and the river Ebro, is a hill of consider- 
able elevation, and about four hundred paces long, by eighty wide, 
composed of rock salt, with interposing layers of gypsum. — Bowles. 

But a much more remarkable deposit of the same kind exists at 
Cordova, sixteen miles from Barcelona in Spain. This is a moun- 
tain of massive rock salt, about four or five hundred feet high, and a 
league in circumference. It is without chasms, crevices, or layers. 
The color of this salt is white, sometimes red or blue. — Bowles. 

Obs. 1 . Ulloa, mentions the vast deposites of rock salt which ex- 
ist in Peru, and says the mountains of salt are equally as high as 
those which yield silex and mercury. These mines of salt form a 
part of the grand chain of the Andes, and are situated ten or twelve 
thousand feet above the level of the sea. 

2. In Siberia, there is said to be a mountain of rock salt, one hun- 
dred and eighty feet high, and one hundred and twenty feet in length. 
— Pinkerton. 

3. Poland and Hungary afford immense quantities of common 
salt. The celebrated mines near Cracow, have been wrought since 
1251. One of the shafts of this mine is more than a thousand feet 
deep. 

In descending to the bottom, says Shaw, the visitor with surprise, 
finds a subterraneous commonwealth of families, who have tbeir pe- 
culiar laws and polity. They have public roads, horses and carriages. 
These horses when once immured in this destination, never more 
see the light of day, and many of the people are buried alive in this 
abyss, having been born there, without ever having made a journey 
to the surface of the earth. This subterraneous community have 
several chapels hewn out of the rock salt, and many crucifixes and 
images of saints, before which lights are constantly burning. 

4. Germany, Italy, Russia, Sweden, Norway, and almost every 
other country possess either mines of salt, or springs from which it is 
produced by evaporation. 

5. England yearly exports great quantities of salt. From the 
springs in Worcestershire, 16,000 tons are annually produced ; and 
156,000 tons of rock salt are annually raised from the great deposit, 
near Norwich, in Cheshire. 

U. S. The United States are well supplied with the means of man- 
ufacturing this indispensible article. Salt springs are numerous, 
and most of them situated far inland, thus preventing the necessity in 
many instances, of transporting so heavy an article to any great dis- 
tance by land. 

Salt springs exist in Arkansas, Missouri, in several places at the 
head waters of the Ohio, in Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, New- York, 
4*c. 



SULPHATE OF AMMONIA. 135 

Near Shawneetown, UUnois, is a spring which yields aimufclly 
150,000 bushels of salt. It sells at 70 cts. per bushel.— Schoolcraft. 

Near the Muskingum, in Ohio, is a salt spring, which famishes 
80 bushels of salt daily. — Atwater. 

The state of New* York furnishes more than 500,000 bushels of 
salt yearly. — Gibbs. 

The whole quantity of salt annually extracted from saline springs 
in the United States, was several years ago estimated at one million 
of bushels.— -Cleveland. 



Genus 3.— AMMONIA. 

Ammonia, or Volatile Alkali, when pure, exists only in a gaseous 
form. It is composed of about 98.24 nitrogen, and 1.76 hydrogen. 
Sir Humphrey Davy, from his experiments, was led to suppose that 
its base was a metal, but this requires further proof. 

It is found combined with the sulphuric and muriatic acids, forming 
sulphate, and muriate of ammonia. 

Species 1. SULPHATE OP AMMONIA. 
Ammonique sulfated, H. Sulphate of Ammonia, J. C. P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greyish or yellowish ; occurs in 
stalactities and crusts ; externally it is usually covered 
with a whitish dust ; taste acrid and bitter. 

Comp. Ammonia 40 ; sulphuric acid 42 ; water 18. — Phillips. 
Local Sienna, in Tuscany, surrounding certain small lakes ; also 
in the lavas of Etna and Vesuvius. 

Species 2. MURIATE OF AMMONIA. 

Ammonique muriat£e, H. Octohedral Sal Ammoniac, J. Muriate 
of Ammonia, C. P. Octohedral Ammoniac-Salt, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish white, white, yellow, 
green, and brownish black; occurs massive, with a 
fibrous structure, plumose, in crusts, and in angular 
crystals, of which the cube is the primary form ; taste, 
pungent and saline ; externally, dull ; internally, shin- 
ing and vitreous. 

Comp. (That of Vesuvius,) muriate of ammonia 99.5 ; muriate of 
soda 0.5. — Klaproth. 

Obs. 1 . The crystals are small, and intersect each other. 

2. Jameson, from Estner, enumerates the following forms, be- 
sides the cube under which it appears. Complete rhomboid. Rec- 
tangular four-sided prism, accuminated by four planes. Garnet do- 
decahedron, sometimes truncated on all the edges. 



136 MURIATE OF AMMONIA. 

3. When rubbed with quicklime, it emits the odor of ammonia. 

It is the product of volcanoes, or of art. 

Local. Etna, Solfatera, Vesuvius, Lipari, Hecla, and other volca- 
nic countries. 

The sal ammoniac of commerce, was formerly brought from Egypt, 
but is now prepared in large quantities in several parts of Europe, 
and particularly at Paris. Different processes are employed in its 
manufacture. At Paris, two separate kilns are constructed, into one 
of which are put a mixture of common salt and sulphuric acid, and 
into the other animal matters, as parings of hides, horns, hoofs, &c. 
On the application of heat, muriatic acid gas, is extricated from one 
kiln, and ammonia from the other. These two gases are conveyed 
in pipes to a chamber lined with lead, where they combine and form 
muriate of ammonia. In England, a process somewhat different is 
employed. 



CLASS fV. 

ACIDIFEROUS ALKALINO-EARTHY 
MINERALS. 



The minerals arranged under this Class, contain an alkali and an 
earth, acidified by the sulphuric, or fluoric acids, forming salts of 
different characters. The species art few in number, and some of 
them but little known. 

Species 1.— SULPHATE OF ALUMINE AND POTASH. 

Alumine sulfatee alkaline, H. Octahedral Alum, J. Alum, P. Oc- 
tahedral Alum-Salt, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish, or greyish 
white ; occurs in efflorescences on argillaceous mine- 
rals, chiefly on alum slate, or alum stone ; also in crusts 
and stalactites, or massive, with a fibrous texture ; 
taste, sweetish and astringent 

Comp. Alumine 15.25 ; oxide of iron 7.50 ; potash 0.25 ; sulphuric 
acid and water 77. — Klaproth. 

(Artificial Alum.) Alumine 10.50 ; potash 10.40 ; sulphuric acid 
30.52 ; water 48.58.— Vauquelin. 

Obs. Native alum is found in volcanic countries, but more com- 
monly on alum slate, where it is formed by the combination of the 
alumine, potash, and sulphuric acid, which the stone contains. 

Local Scotland, in the coal mines near Paisley. Bohemia, in 
many places on alum slate. In the vicinity of volcauoes, as Strom* 
boli, Solfatera, Vesuvius, &c. 

U. 8. Catskill Mountain, and twelve miles from Cattskill, N. Y. 
Navesink Hills, N. J. Several places in Ohio. Pownal, Vt. Ley- 
den, Mass. Bolton, Conn. 

Mode of making Alum. — Ferber says, that the rocks which yield 
the Roman alum, are situated at Tolfa, in Italy. In color, they are 
white, or whitish grey. They are considerably elevated, and full of 
large excavations made by the workmen, who descend by ropes, and 
procure the kind proper for use, by blasting. 

Having raised the alum stone to the surface of the earth, it is first 
calcined in a wood fire, and then, while hot, thrown into reservoirs of 
water, where it remains until the alum is extracted by the water. 

18 



138 ALUM-STONE. ALKALINE FLUATB OF LIME. 

The liquor is then drawn off and boiled in brass pans, until it is in a 
proper state for the alum to crystallize, when it is removed into 
wooden coolers, and allowed to shoot into crystals. While boiling, 
a quantity of lime is mixed with the lixivium. 

Obs. The alum rock contains sulphate of iron, alumine, and pot- 
ash. The calcination converts the sulphnr to sulphuric acid, which 
uniting to the alumine and potash, forms sulphate ofalumine and pot- 
ash, or alum. When the rock contains no alkali, a little is added, 
and for this purpose, wood ashes is commonly used. 

At Cape Sable, Md. is a manufactory of alum. The ore consist! 
of earthy lignite, mixed with pyrites. This is piled in heaps and su£ 
fered to remain in that state for about a year, when the sulphur is acid- 
ified by the action of the atmosphere. It is then lixiviated, and the 
liquor concentrated by boiling, when crystals of alum are formed. — 
Cleveland's Mineralogy. 

Species 2. ALUM-STONE. 

. Lave alteree alunifere, H. Rhomboidal Alum-stone, J. Alum-stone, 
P. C. Rhombohedral Alum-Haloide, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish white, brownish, or red- 
dish ; occurs massive and crystallized ; form the obtuse 
rhomboid, variously modified by truncation, one or 
more of the solid angles being commonly replaced ; 
crystals very minute, and generally found in the cavi- 
ties of the massive ; massive, translucent ; yields to 
the knife ; fracture conchoidal, splintery, or sometimes 
earthy : sp. gr. from 2.42 to 2.77. 

Chem. Char. Decrepitates, emits a sulphureous gas, and afterwards 
absorbs moisture from the tongue, and gnres the taste of alum ; inso- 
luble in water. 

Comp. Alumine 43.92 ; silex 24 ; sulphuric acid 25 ; potash 3.06; 
water 4. — Vauquelin. 

Obs. Prof Mohs says, that on charcoal, by itself, it does not meh, 
but is fusible with borax into a colorless glass, and that when reduced 
to powder, it is soluble in sulphuric acid. 

Local Tolfa, near Rome ; also in Tuscany, and Hungary, and in 
the vicinity of several burning mountains. According to Cordier, as 
quoted by Phillips, it exists in almost all burning mountains. 

Uses. It is used in the manufacture of alum, and the superior qual- 
ity of that produced at Tolfa, is ascribed to the employment of this 
mineral. — Mohs. 

Species 3. ALKALINE FLUATE OF LIME. 

Alumine fluatee alkaline, H. Pyramidal Cryolite. Cryolite, P. 

Fluate of Soda and Alumine, €. Prismatic Crayone-Haloide, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish white, or brown- 



AMBLYGONITE. A NHTOROVS SULPHATE OP LIME. 139 

ish; occurs massive; structure perfectly lamellar, 
with joints parallel to all the planes of a rectangular 
prism > translucent ; becomes transparent by immer- 
sion in water ; not so hard as fluor : sp. gr. 2.94. 

Chem. Char. Fuses into a transparent globule, which becomes 
©pake on cooling. 

Comp. Alumine 2) ; soda 32; fluoric acid and waller 47. — Vqq- 
qutlin. 

Local. West Greenland, in two small layers in gneiss, one of which 
contains the white variety, and the other those that are colored. 

Species 4. AMBLYGONITE. 
Amblygonite, J. C. P. M. 
Ext. Cfiar. — Colors, greenish white, or sea green ; 
occurs in rhombic prisms, which are rough external- 
ly ; cleavage parallel to the sides of the prism ; lustre 
brilliant; transparent, or translucent when in thin la- 
minae ; hardness equal to feldspar ; sp. gr. 3.00. 

Chem. Char. Easily fusible, with intumescence into a white ena- 
mel. 

Comp. Alumine, lithia, phosphoric, and fluoric acids. 

Berzelius considers it as a double sub-phosphate of alumine and 
lithia, containing fluoric acid. 

Local. Near Penig, iu Saxony, where it occurs in granite along 
with tourmaline and topaz. 

Species 5. ANHYDROUS SULPHATE OF SODA AND LIME. 
Glauberite, H. Glauberite, J. P. C. Prismatic Brithyne-Spar, M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish or greyish white ; oc- 
curs massive, and in the form of flat rhombic prisms ; 
lateral planes striated transversly ; the terminal ones 
smooth ; structure foliated ; lustre vitreous ; streak 
white ; semi-transparent • yields to the knife : sp. gr. 
2.7. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with decrepitation, into a white enamel. If 
thrown into water it becomes opakc, and is partly dissolved. The 
same happens if exposed to a moist atmosphere. 
Comp. Sulphate of soda 51.0 ; sulphate of lime 49.0. — Brongniart 
Local. Near Ocana, in New Castle, also in Upper Austria. 

Species 6. POLYHALLITE *—Stromeyer. 
Polyhallite, P. C. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, brick red or colorless ; occurs 



* From the Greek, tigaifyiBf tftOM ofmanynltt. 



140 POLYHAL1TE. 

in amorphous masses, partly compact and partly 
fibrous ; fibres, parallel or curved ; transparent or 
translucent ; the compact yields to cleavage parallel 
to all the planes of the cube ; brittle ; scratches cal- 
careous spar ; sp. gr about 2.77. 

Chem. Char. In the flame of a candle becomes an opake mass of a 
brownish color ; melts instantly before the blowpipe. 

Gomp. Sulphate of lime 28.25 ; anhydrous sulphate of lime 28.42 ; 
anhydrous sulphate of magnesia 20.03 ; sulphate of potash 27.70 ; 
muriate of soda 0.19 ; red oxide of iron 0.34. — Stromeyer. 

Local lschel, in Upper Austria ; also at Vic, in Lorraine ; in both 
places among rock salt. 



class r. 

ALKALINO-EARTHY MINERALS. 

The Minerals belonging to this Class, consist of Earths in various 
proportions ; including generally, in their composition, one or more 
of the alkalies. Many of them also contain small quantities of the 
oxides of one or more metals, as iron t or manganese, from which they 
derive their colors ; but these are not considered essential ingredints. 

Species 1. MICA* 

Mica, H. K. A. P. C. Glimmer, W. Rhomboidal Mica, J. Rhom- 
bohedral Talc-Mica, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, green, brown, black, red, 
yellowish, and bluish; occurs crystallized, massive, and 
disseminated ; form, six-sided tables, and oblique 
rhombic prisms; structure perfectly foliated; lustre 
glittering, or somewhat metallic ; translucent ; the 
white variety in thin pieces, transparent ; easily sepa- 
rable into thin plates, which are flexible and elastic to 
a high degree ; yields easily to the knife ; sp. gr. about 
2.7. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into an enamel of different colors, depending 
on that of the mica. 

Comp. (From Siberia.) Silex 48 ; alumine 34.25 ; potash 8.75 ; 
oxide of iron 4.5 ; of manganese 0.5 ; water 1.25. — Klaproth. 

Obs. There is much difference in the composition of the several 
colored varieties. 

Dist. Char. Talc, which it most resembles, is unctuous to the 
touch, and inelastic. Foliated gypsum, which it also resembles, is in- 
elastic, and in the heat of a candle, instantly turns white and opake. 
Cyanite is harder, inelastic, and infusible. 

Var. 1. Plumose Mica. — The most common color is greyish white, 
but it may assume any of the colors of the species. It occurs in fine 
delicate crystals, diverging from a central line, so as to imitate the 
feathers of a quill, or plume, whence the name. 



' Vulgarly called isinglass. Its Dame comes from the Latin mieo f to shtn#> 
or glitter. 



142 LEUCITE. 

Var. 2. LAMINATED MICA. 

Mica foliace, H. Laminated Mica, C. Muscovy Glass. 
It occurs in large plates, which, according to Hauy, 
are sometimes found in Russia a yard in extent It is 
easily separated into thin shining laminae. 

Mica, although it does not form beds alone, is a very abundant min- 
eral, being universally distributed among primitive rocks, and form* 
ing an essential ingredient in granite, gneiss, and mica slate. 

Hence its localities are in every primitive country, and only a few 
where fine specimens occur, will be mentioned. 

Local V. S. Germantown, Penn. in six-sided tables and prisms. — 
Wister. In the Highlands, at Muno iron works, N. Y. in black six- 
sided tables, six inches in diameter. — Pierce. Woodbury, Conn, vi- 
olet colored ; also at Watertown, occurs the plumose variety) and 
near Hartford, in small crystalline masses resembling the garnet 
Bellows Falls, Ver. rose colored. — Silliman. Brunswick, Maine t of 
a beautiful green. — Cleveland. 

Uses. It was formerly employed for the windows of houses instead 
of glass, and until lately, was used in the Russian ships of war, it be- 
ing not so liable as glass to be broken, by the discharge of cannon. 
At the present time, it is used instead of horn or glass, in lanterns, 
and for enclosing objects for the microscope. 

Lowry says, that in Siberia, mica is quarried, and employed for the 
purposes to which glass is applied in Europe. 

Species*. LEUCITE.* 

Amphigene, H. Dodecahedral Zeolite or Leucite, J. Leucite, A. 
P. C. Trapezoidal Kouphone-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish white, white, and red- 
dish white ; occurs in small angular masses, apparent- 
ly rounded by attrition ; also in crystals, whose aides 
are bounded by twenty-four equal and similar trape- 
ziums ; crystals sometimes elongated ; angles often 
rounded; transparent, passing into opake; lustre, 
shining vitreous; structure obscurely lamellar; scratch- 
es glass with difficulty : sp. gr. 2.47. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, slowly dissolve* into a 
diaphinous glass. 

Vomp. Silex 53.75 ; alumine 24.62 ; potash 24.35.— Xfaprotil. 

It is found in the products of volcanoes, which circumstance will 
serve to distinguish it from the minerals it most resembles. 

Local. Italy and Bohemia, in basalt and lava. The road from 
Rome to Frascati, is said in many places to be covered with it 



• Signifying a white stou* 



ANDALUCITE. BUCHOLZITE. ICHTHYOPHTHALMITE. 14d 

SpecitsS. ANDALUCITE* 
Feldspath apyre, H. Prismatic Andalusite, J. M. Andalnmte, 

A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color* reddish, or purplish red ; occurs 
massive and in rectangular* or slightly rhombic prisms ; 
structure lamellar, w^th joints parallel to the sides of a 
rhombic prism; ti^sluceijt or opake; easily frangi- 
ble ; sp. gr. about .^jc^^bes quartz, and sometimes 
spinelle. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, with borax, melts into a limpid 
glass. 

Comp. Alumine 52; silex 38 ; potash 8 ; oxide of iron 2. — Van- 
quelin. 

Dist. Char. It is distinguished from felspar, by its greater hard- 
ness and higher specific gravity, and from corundum by its inferior 
specific gravity and its form.— Jameson. 

It is found in primitive rocks only. 

Local. Andalusia, in Spain. Forez, in France, in a vein of fel- 
spar. Near Freyberg, and at Penig, in Saxony. Wicklow and Kil- 
kenny, in Ireland. 

U. S. Readfield, in Maine, — Cleveland. East Bradford, Penn. 

Species 4. BUCHOLZITE.t 
Bucholzite, Brandes. Bucholzite, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, black, and white, arranged in 
spots ; occurs amorphous ; lustre glittering, and glassy, 
or sometimes waxy; the black part separates ihto 
fibres ; cross fracture conchoidal ; structure indistinct- 
ly lamellar ; fragments wedge-shaped ; opake or 
translucent on the edges ; scratches glass. 

Comp. Alumine 50 ; silex 4ft ; potash 1.5 ; oxide of iron 2.5.— 
Brandes. 

Local. The Tyrol. First noticed by Dr. Brandes. 
U. S. Brandy wine Creek, Del. — Nuttall. 

Species 5. ICHTHYOPHTHALMITE.J 

Apophyllite, H. J. P. C. Ichthyophthalmite, A. Axtomatous Kou> 
phone-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish white, greenish, 
or rose red ; occurs in square prismatic crystals, and 
in laminated masses ; crystals often truncated on the 
solid angles, by triangular planes, so as to give them a 

* From Andalusia, in Spain, where it was first found. 

f After Bueholz, the chemist. 

$ From the Greek, meaning fisheye-stoue, owing to its peculiar lustre. 



144 NACRITE. HAUYNE. 

four-sided pyramidal termination ; lustre glistening 
and pearly ; structure foliated and easily separable 
into thin shining plates, like those of selenite ; brittle 5 
translucent, or nearly transparent : sp. gr. about 2.5* 

Chem. Char. Exfoliates, and finally melts into a blebby glass. In 
nitric acid, divides into (lakes. 

Comp. Silex51 ; lime 28 ; potash 4 ; water 17. — VauqueHn. 

Dist. Char. It resembles adularia, sulphate of strontian, and ba- 
rytes. It is much softer than the first, and does not like barytes give 
a fetid taste when melted, nor like strontian, a sour one. Neither of 
these substances form flakes in nitric acid. 

Local. Utoe, in Sweden, in a lamellar limestone. Arendal, in 
Norway. East Gothland. Fassa, in the Tyrol, and in the isle of 
Sky. 

U. 8. Near Lake Champlain, N. Y. — Cleveland. Near Saybrook, 
Conn. — Gibbs.. 

Var. 1. albin.* 

Albin,W.P. 0. 
Ext. Char. — Color, opake white ; occurs in crystal- 
line and laminated masses ; forms a jelly with nitric 
3cid ; found in Bohemia. 

Species 6. NACRITE.t 
Talc granuleu*, H. Nacrite, Bt. J. Scaly Talc, P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, pearl white, greenish, or grey; 
occurs in minute aggregated scales; lustre pearly; 
friable ; unctuous to the touch ; adheres to the fingers ; 
gives out an argillaceous odor when breathed on; 
swells on being moistened. 

Chem. Char. Swells; and melts with ease. 

Comp. Silex 50 ; alumine 26 ; lime 1.5 ; potash 17.5 ; oxide of 
iron 5 ; and a trace of muriatic acid. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. Lepidolite, which it resembles, is of a lilac color! and 
not so unctuous. It is more easily fused than talc, and never is of so 
dark a color as chlorite. 

Obs. It is met with in small masses in the cavities of primitive 
rocks, and particularly in quartz. 

Local. Near Freyberg, in Saxony. At Piedmou, and in Bohe- 
mia. 

U. S. Farmington, Conn. Smithfield, R. I. 

Species 7. HAUYNE.J 
HAuyne, J. A. P. C. Latialite, H. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, indigo blue, and opake, or blue. 

* From the Latin albus, white. 
f From the French, nacre, pearl. 
X In honor of the celebrated Hauy. 



OBSIDIAN. 145 

or bluish green, and translucent ; occurs in grains, in 
crystals, and massive ; form the dodecahedron, with 
brilliant faces ; harder than quartz; very brittle; struc- 
ture imperfectly foliated ; lustre vitreous : sp. gr. 3. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with loss of color, into a porous glass ; with 
borax into a diaphanous glass, which turns yellow on cooling. In 
powder, it forms a jelly with acids. 

Comp. Silex 30 ; alumine 15 ; sulphate of lime 20.5 ; lime 5 ; 
potash 11 ; oxide of iron 1 ; water 17.5. — Phillips. 

Local. In the vicinity of Nemi, Albano, and Frascati, in Italy, as- 
sociated with mica, leucite, and augite. Also near Vesuvius, and Ti- 
ree, one of the Scottish Isles, in limestone. 

Species 8. OBSIDIAN. 

Lave Vitreuse Obsidienne, H. Indivisible Quartz, J. Obsidian, W. 

P. C. Empyrodox Quartz, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, black, greyish, or brownish 
black ; also, greenish, bluish, or yellow : occurs in 
roundish, or angular masses; fracture large conchoidal, 
with round circular lines, increasing in dimensions 
from the point of fracture ; lustre splendent and vitre- 
ous ; translucent on the edges, or opake ; scratches 
glass ; easily broken, and flies like glass : sp. gr. about 
2.35. 

Chem. Char. Swells, and finally melts into a spongy mass. It does 
not melt into a solid glass even at a white heat. 

Comp. (That of Hecla.) Silex 78; alumine 10; potash 6; lime 
1 ; oxide of iron and manganese 3.6. — Vauquelin. 

Obs. 1. Obsidian in ^ts aspect, fracture, and lustre, very much re- 
sembles colored glass, as the thick part of a broken junk bottle. It 
also may resemble pitchstone. 

2. Sometimes it is variegated, presenting several colors in the 
same specimen, and some pieces exhibit a play of colors, with a 
pearly lustre. 

3. The origin of obsidian has been a subject of considerable doubt 
and dispute among mineralogists. Some supposed from the circum- 
stance of its being commonly found in the vicinity of volcanoes, that 
it is of igneous origin, and that, indeed it is only a mixture of sili- 
ceous and alkaline substances reduced to glassjby volcanic fire, hence 
it is often called volcanic glass. 

4. On the contrary, obsidian has occasionally been found with the 
remains of decomposed granite, gneiss, and porphyry, and even al- 
ternating with beds of the latter. Other mineralogists, therefore sup- 
pose that it is of aqueous origin. — See Pinkertows Petrology. 

5. But it is said, that wherever obsidian has been found, there al- 
ways exists marks of volcanic agency in the neighborhood ; so that 
on the whole, there is little doubt but this substance owes its origin 
to volcanic heat 

19 



146 GIESECKITE. FELSPAR. 

Local. Hecla, and in almost every part of Iceland. Also in the 
Lipari Islands, in Teneriffe, Peru, Mexico, &c. 

Var. 1. pearlstobte * 
Lave Vitreuse Perl6e, H. Pearlstone, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, greyish black, brownish, 
reddish, or yellowish ; occurs in large, coarse, angular 
Concretions, consisting of grains or smaller concretions 
composed of lamellae; concretions often embrace a 
neucleus of obsidian; surface smooth and 6hining; 
lustre pearly ; translucent on the edges, or opake; 
scratches glass ; very fragile ; gives an argillaceous 
odor, when breathed on : sp. gr. 2.34. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with intumescence into a white frothy glass. 

Comp. Silex 75.585 ; alumine 12 ; lime 0.5 ; potash 4.5 ; oxide of 
iron 1.6 ; water 4.5. — Klaproth. 

Obs. Pearlstone occurs in the same geological situations with obsi- 
dian, and the same arguments and objections are brought lor, and 
against its igneous and aqueous origin. 

Local. Tokay, in Hungary, where it is found enclosing black 
masses of obsidian. Cape de Gatt, in Spain. Antrim, in Ireland, 
&c. 

Species 9. GIESECKITE.— Stromeyer. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, externally brownish, internally 
greenish, intermixed with black ; occurs in six-sided 
prisms ; fracture uneven, splintery ; cleavage not per- 
ceptible ; lustre waxy ; has the appearance of soajn 
stone, more than of a crystalline mineral ; opake or 
translucent on the edges ; yields to the knife ; streak 
whitish ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 2.7 to 2.9. 

Comp. Silex 46.27 ; alumine 33.82 ; magnesia 1.2 ; potash 6.2 ; 
oxide of iron 3.35 ; water 4.8. — Stromeyer. 

Local Greenland, from whence it was brought by Sir C Giuttk. 

Hence the name. 

Species 10. FELSPAR.f 
Feldspath, H. Prismatic Feld-Spar, J. M. Felspar, A. P. C. 
Few minerals are more widely diffused than this. It forms a ne- 
cessary part of most primitive and many secondary rocks Its colon 
are various, but it has a peculiar lustre, and a foliated structure, by 
which it is easy to distinguish it from other minerals. 

It has several varieties which all agree in respect to structure and 
peculiarity of lustre. 

* From its pearly lustre, 
t From the German, signifying field-spar, from its being often found loose in fields'- 



FELSPAR. 



147 



Var. ]. common felspar. 
Common Felspar, K. J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish, grey, brown, 
bluish, red, and green ; occurs massive, disseminated, 
and crystallized ; form, an oblique prism, the sides of 
which are unequal, and vary from four to ten in num- 
ber ; primitive form, the oblique parallelopiped j com- 
mon forms, a broad six-sided prism, terminated by 
dihedral summits, the planes of which stand on the 
narrow faces of the prism ; an oblique four-sided 
prism, flatly bevelled on the extremities ; a six-sided 
prism, terminated by five unequal faces; structure 
foliated ; cleavage in two directions ; lustre shining, 
and often pearly ; translucent ; the dark varieties 
nearly opake ; cross fracture conchoidal ; fragments 
rhomboidal; crystals generally indistinct, and closely 
aggregated, crossing each other, or forming hemi- 
tropes ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 2,54. 





Fig. 1. An oblique parallelopiped, the primitive form. 

Fig. 2. A short six-sided prism, truncated on four of its lateral 
edges, forming a ten-sided crystal with alternate broad and narrow 
faces, and terminated by four unequal planes. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a white translucent enamel. 

Camp. Silex 62.83 ; alnmine 17 ; potash 13 ; lime 3 ; oxide of 
iron 1.— Vauquelin. 

Remark. There is considerable difference in composition, of the 
different varieties of this species, and particularly in respect to the 
quantity of alumine, and potash which they contain. 

Obs. 1. This variety is very generally diffused, and perhaps is 
more common than any other mineral, with the exception of quartz, 
the ores of iron, and carbonate of lime. 

2. It forms a constituent part of gneiss, granite, and mica-slate, 
among primitive rocks ; and of greenstone, and most volcanic sub- 
stances, among those of secondary formations. It also occurs in por- 
phyry and sienite. 

3. Felspar, according to Pinkerton, intermixed with small quanti- 
ties of other minerals, forms entire mountains in several parts of the 
globe. 



148 FELSPAR. 

4. Felspar with garnets, forms a mountain in the west of Scotland. 
In Siberia, the common foliated felspar, forms entire mountains. In 
the north of Scotland, there are mountains, and large strata of the 
same mineral. 

Var. 2. ADULARIA. MOON-STONE. 

Felspath Adulaire, Bt. Felspath Nacre, H. Adularia, J. A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, bluish white, sometimes 
with tints of green, yellow or red ; occurs in rolled mass- 
es, in crystals of the forms above described, and dissem- 
inated in granite ; lustre peafly, and especially when 
cut and polished, it throws out greenish and bluish 
white chatoyant reflections from the interior ; fracture 
uneven ; cleavage in two directions ; crystals often 
present the hemitrope arrangement, which in polished 
specimens becomes obvious from the different direc- 
tions of the grain, or laminae : sp. gr. 2.54. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a transparent glass. 

Comp. Silex 64 ; alumine 30 ; lime 2 ; potash 14.—Vauque8n. 

Dist. Char. From common felspar into which it passes, it differs 
in being more translucent, and in displaying strong pearly reflections. 
Cat's-eye is harder, and has not its foliated structure ; it is harder 
than ichthyophthalmite, strontian or barytes, the two last also possess 
peculiar chemical properties. Spodumene splits, and flies when 
heated. 

Adularia is found in cavities of granite, gneiss, clay-slate, and 
limestone. 

. Local. St. Gothard yields the finest specimens, sometimes a foot in 
thickness. Beautiful specimens also come from Ceylon. 

U. S. Ticonderoga, N. Y. of a milk white color, also on the margin 
of Lake Champlain, at a place called Split-rock. — HaU. Near Bal- 
timore, Md. — Oilmor. Germantown and Conestoga creek, Perm* 
Haddam, Conn. Near the city of New York. Southampton, Oak- 
ham, and West Springfield, Mass. 

Obs. 1. According to Jameson, the water opal, and the fine opal of 
the Italians, as well as the sun-stone, which is distinguished by its 
red color and beautiful silvery reflections, are varieties of adularia. 

Uses. Adularia is sometimes polished for jewelry. It is common- 
ly cut with a convex surface like the cat's-eye, but is easily distin- 
guished from it, by observing that the reflections proceed from par- 
ticular points on a plane surface, whereas in the cat's-eye, the 
pearly light is obvious in every direction. 

Var. 3. glassy felspar. 

Glassy Felspar, J. A. P. C. 

Ext. Cliar. — Colors, greyish, or yellowish white; oc- 



FELSPAR. 



149 



curs commonly in broad four-sided crystals, terminat- 
ed by two planes ; lustre vitreous, or glassy ; crystals 
cracked in various directions ; transparent or translu- 
cent. 

Local. Solfatera, Bohemia, and Hungary, in pumice. Isle of Ar- 
ran, in Scotland, in pitchstone. 

Var. 4. LABRADOR OPAL. 

Feldspath Opalin, H. Labrador Felspar, A. P. Opalescent Fels- 
par, C, 

Ext. Char. — Colors, stfioke grey, with spots of opales- 
cent, or irridescent, variable tints, consisting ol blue, 
fire red, green, brown, yellow, or orange, according to 
the direction in which the light falls upon it ; some- 
times several of these colors are perceptible at the 
same instant, but more commonly they appear in suc- 
cession, as the stone is turned towards the light ; oc- 
curs massive ; structure like that of common felspar, 
and easily recognised as one of that family, 

Obs 1. This most beautiful variety was discovered by the Mora- 
vian Missionaries, on the Island of St Paul, situated on the coast of 
Labrador. 

2. Dr. Anderson, who gave an account of this mineral soon after 
its discovery, describes it as displaying all the variegated tints of co- 
lor that are to be seen in the plumage of the peacock, pigeon, or most 
delicate humming-bird. 

3. Specimens of it being sent to England, they were bought with 
great avidity, and the desire among the collectors, all over Europe, to 
possess specimens was so great, that single pieces were sold at £20 
sterling. 

Local. Near Petersburg, Russia. Near Laurwig, in Norway. Bo- 
hemia, Saxony, and Labrador. 

U. S. Near l^ake Champlain, N. Y. in an iron mine. — Gibbs. 
Near Pompton Hills, N. J. in a large rounded mass. 

Remark That of Labrador often contains magnetic oxide of iron. 

Uses. It is highly valued as a curiosity, and is cnt and polished 
for ring stones, and breast-pins. When cnt in an oblong convex 
shape, or en cabochon, as the French term h, most of the colors are 
apparent at the same instant When held between the eye and the 
light, it appears of a dingy grey color, and without the least beauty, 
and one is the more astonished after viewing it in this manner, to 
witness the beautiful display of colors which it exhibits by the re- 
flected light. 

Var. 5. 6REES filstar. 
Ext. Char. — Color, apple green ; oceor* in fb#? mm* 
mon form of the specie*. It i* called Jlmxz'm SUm~ 



150 FELSPAR. 

Local. Uralian Mountains. 

U. S. Near Baltimore, Md. in granite. At Cow Bay, on Long 
Island, N. Y. color apple geen. — Pierce and Torrey. Topsham, 
Maine, in imperfect crystals. — Cleveland. 

Var. 6. compact felspar. 
Fcldspath Compacte, H. Compact Felspar, A. C. P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, bluish white, greenish, red- 
dish, brown and flesh red, colors sometimes arranged 
in spots or stripes ; occurs massive, disseminated, and 
in crystals ; texture compact, or minutely foliated ; frac- 
ture conchoidal; lustre glimmering; translucent on 
the edges ; sp. gr. from* 2.60 to 2.74. 

Chem. Char. Fusible alone into a white porous enamel. 

Comp. Silex51 ; alumine30 ; lime 11.25 ; soda 4 ; oxide of iron 
1.75 ; water 1.26.— Klaprotk. 

It is one of the constituent parts of primitive, transition,*and secon- 
dary rocks. It sometimes occurs in large beds, or even forms hills. 

Local Saxony, Tyrol, Scotland, &c. 

U. S In the Fishkill Mountains, N. Y. in gneiss. Maiden, Dor- 
chester, and Milton, Mass. Colors, sometimes red and white, arran- 
ged in veins. 

Obs. 1. This variety resembles horn stone, and sometimes jasper. 

2. According to M. Godon, as quoted by Cleveland, the vicinity of 
Boston furnishes compact felspar perfectly analagous to the Turkey 
stone, (hone) ; and also a veined variety, which strongly resembles 
certain antique engraved stones wrought by the Greeks and Romans 
in basso-relievo. 

Var. 7. FETID FELSPAR. 

Fetid Felspar, C. Necronite.*— Hayden. Sill. Jour. Sci. Vol. 2. 

Ext. Char. — Color, clear white, or bluish white ; oc- 
curs amorphous, and crystallized in hexahedral prisms, 
resembling the beryl, and in rhomboids similar to 
the form of felspar ; structure lamellar ; transparent, 
passing into opake ; scratches glass, and even felspar 
in a slight degree ; when struck, or pounded emits a 
most noisome cadaverous smell. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, and unalterable even with borax in the 
strongest heat of a smith's furnace. Acids do not effect it, either 
cold or hot. 

Local. This mineral appears to have been first described by Dr. 
Hayden, of Baltimore, who discovered it in 1819, about 21 miles 
from that city. It occurs in primitive marble, associated with brown 
mica, sulphuret of iron, and tremolite. 

* From the Greek, in allusion to its cadaverous satell. 



TALC. 151 

Var. 10. anorthite. — Rose. 
Anorthite, M. 

Ext. CAar.— Color, and streak, white ; occurs massive, 
composed of rhomboidalprismatic,aggregated crystals, 
resembling those of albite ; cleavage perfect in two di- 
rections ; fracture conchoidal ; lustre upon the planes 
of cleavage, pearly; in other directions vitreous ; trans- 
lucent or transparent ; hardness, that of felspar: sp. 
gr. 2.65 to 2.76. 

Chem. Char. Fusible like the other varieties of the species, the 
globule being turbid. 

Comp. Silex 4449 ; alumine 34.46; oxide of iron 0.74 ; Erne 
15.68 ; magnesia 5.26. — Rose. 

Dist. Char. It is entirely decomposed by concentrated mriatk 
acid. 

Local. Mount Vesuvius, lining the cavities of limestone, and asso- 
ciated with augite. 

Obs. This mineral has recently been discovered. 

Species 11. TALC. 
Talc, Bt. A. P. C. Rhomboidal Mica, J. Prismatic Tale-Mica, M. 
Ext. Char. — Colore green of various shades, as emer- 
ald, or apple green, or greenish white ; occurs massive, 
consisting of thin folia easilj separable with the fin- 
gers, also indurated and in crystals ; lustre shining; 
translucent ; in thin plates transparent; soft and very 
unctuous to the touch ; yields easily to the nail ; folia 
curved, undulated, or straight; lustre shining, pearij ; 
color of the thin lamina white. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe it turns white, the Umhut sep- 
arate, and the thin fibres become glazed. With borax it melts with 
effervescence into a greenish transparent glass. 

Comp. Silex 61 ; magnesia 30*5 ; potash 2.75 ; oxide of iron 2J>; 
water 0.5. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It resembles mica, but this is both flexible and elastic. 
while talc is elastic bat not flexible. Chlorite and naerite are fatLfe 
without difficulty. Its nnctoosity wiU also distinguish it from ttase 
substances, and from sefenhe, and erantte. 

It occurs in primitive rocks, as granite and serpentine, and ttoogb 
common in small quantities, is nerer rery abundant 

Local. V. 8 Grafton, Windham, Careodfsa, LodJow, hi* Ver.~ 
HaU. Smithfield, sdrerj wfth>, with rhomb tpar, — WM. tfw 
Baltimore, Md. fibrous, lignrfornr and Misted, — f1*i<Um. Delaware 
County, Venn, sometimes err«taJJized ; also on tin? fcrhnrfkilJ, ten 
miles from Pbiladelohia, of a fine green cotor with rt**»b «par — 
Lea. Haddam and Litchfield. €W Votubunptm, i'snMmm&m 



152 STEATITE. SOAPSTONE. 

and Middlefield, Mass. Brunswick, Maine, in limestone with acti- 
nolite ; colors, silver white, and apple green. — Cleveland. 

Var. 1. INDURATED TALC. 

Indurated Talc, J. A. P. C. 
Ext Char. — Color, greenish grey ; occurs massive; 
texture compact ; structure slaty ; lustre a little pearly ; 
less soil and unctuous than common talc ; translucent 
on the edges ; insensibly passes into stealite. It is 
found in primitive mountains, in clay-slate and serpen- 
tine. 

Local. Austria, the Tyrol, Switzerland, Scotland, &c. 

Dist. Char. It has a strong resemblance to potstone, but is more 
unctuous, and less hard. 

Uses. This variety is employed by Tailor's, to trace out their work 
*n woolen cloth. 

Species 12. STEATITE. SOAPSTONE. 

Talc Steatite, H. Steatite, J. A. M. P. Common Steatite, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, various shades of green, grey, 
white, yellow, and red, and always dull ; grey and 
white are the most common; colors commonly arrang- 
ed in spots, veins, or clouds ; occurs massive, forming 
large beds, or hills ; fracture splintery, or uneven, witn 
marks of confused crystallization on close inspection; 
yields easily to the knife, and may be cut when first 
taken from the quarry ; unctuous to the touch ; trans- 
lucent on the edges ; leaves a shining streak ; sp. gr. 
about 2.50. 

Chem. Char. Hardens, turns black, but is hardly fusible. 

Comp. Silex 64 ; magnesia 22 ; oxide of iron 3 ; water 5. — Vau* 
quelin. 

Obs. Soapstone sometimes presents pseudo-morphous crystals, in 
the form of carbonate of lime or quartz, which appear to have been 
moulded into cavities once occupied by true crystals. 

Dist . Char. It is less unctuous to the touch than indurated talc, 
into which it passes. Jameson observes, that the white variety ap» 
proaches to lithomarge, and the green to fuller's earth, but both of 
these are softer and adhere to the tongue. Serpentine is harder than 
steatite, and not so unctuous. 

Steatite occurs in masses, and in beds of considerable extent, in 
primitive mountains. Sometimes according to Pinkerton, it forms 
mountains or hills of considerable dimensions. 

Local. Cornwall, in England. Bohemia, Scotland, Spain, He- 
brides, &c. 

U. S. New Haven, Litchfield, and Somers, Conn. At the latter 



STEATITE. SOAPS TONE. 153 

place it is quarried extensively. On the Schuylkill, ten miles > from 
Philadelphia, Penn. It is extensively employed. Staten Island, N. Y. 
in abundance. Smithfield, R. I. It is employed in the arts.~-£to» 
ton. Grafton, Ver. This steatite is employed in the construction of 
aqueducts —Hall. Orford, N. H. It occurs in large quantities, and 
is extensively employed. — Hall. Near the Falls of fit. Anthony, 
Louisiana. 

Obs. 1. According to Pinkerton, the Arabs made use of soapstone 
instead of soap. 

2. The inhabitants of New Caledonia, it is confidently said> cither 
eat a soft kind of soapstone alone, or mix it with their food. 

3. Humboldt says, that a certain race of inhabitants on the Oro- 
noko, are almost entirely supported by a kind of soapstone, for three 
months in the year. 

Uses. Soapstone is extensively employed in the arts of life, for va- 
rious purposes. It is soft and well fitted Tor turning, cutting, or 
sawing. It is bored for aqueducts, and will probably come into gen- 
eral use for this purpose, being much cheaper than lead, and without 
the least deleterious property. It resists the fire, and is well calculat- 
ed for the backs of chimneys, and the sides of fire places, &c. Af- 
ter being heated, it wit] receive a tolerable polish, and might be em- 
ployed for jambs instead of marble. 

Var. 1. potstone. 
Talc ollaire, H. Potstone, K. J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish grey, passing into leek 
green, often spotted ; occurs massive ; texture com- 
pact ; structure slaty ; unctuous to the touch ; often 
yields to the nail ; not easily broken ; lustre glisten- 
ing ; opake ; fracture earthy, or uneven ; odor argilla- 
ceous ; sp. gr. nearly 3. 

Camp. Silex 38 ; magnesia 35 ; iron 15 ; ajumine 7 ; with a little 
lime and fluoric acid. — Wtiglib. 

It is found with serpentine, argillite, and soapstone. * 

Local Como, in Lombardy, where it has been quarried more or 
less, ever since the days of Pliny, and turned into culinary vessels — 
hence the name potstone. 

Remark. It is often difficult to distinguish potstone, from indurat- 
ed talc and soapstone. It is, however, commonly less unctuous than 
the former, and more compact and finer grained than the latter. 

Var. 2. AGALMAT0LITE. 

Talc Graphique, H. Steatite Pagodite, Bt. Agalmatolite, P. Chi- 
nese Figure Stone. 

Ext. Char. — Color, greenish, or yellowish green; 
sometimes with veins of lilac, or brown ; occurs mas- 
sive ; greasy to the touch ; translucent ; texture com- 

20 



154 CHLORITE. 

pact; easily cut with the knife; receives a polish: 
sp. gr. 2.8. 

Chem. Char. Whitens and becomes opake, but does not melt 

Comp. Silex 56 ; alumine29 ; lime 2 ; potash 7 ; oxide of iron 1; 
water 5.— Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. It resembles nephrite in color* translucency, and tex- 
ture, bat is much softer. 

Obs. It comes from China, carved into the form of grotesque ima- 
ges, and chimney ornaments. It is also found in Nagyag, in Tran« 
sylvania, and in Wales. 

Species 13. CHLORITE. 
Talc Chlorite, H. Chlorite, J. A. P. C. 
Chlorite occurs crystallized, compact, slaty, and earthy. As its name 
signifies, it is always of a green color, usually dark ; it is slightly 
unctuous to the touch, but much less so than talc. When moistened 
it commonly yields the odor of clay. Most varieties yield to the 
nail. 

Far. 1. CRYSTALLIZED CHLORITE. 

Crystallized Chlorite, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, dark leek green; occurs in flat six- 
sided crystals ; structure foliated, and readily dividi- 
ble into thin layers ; lustre shining ; crystals occur 
separate and intersecting each other, in small masses, 
or investing other minerals. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty into an ash-grey scoria. With 
borax forms a green glass. 

It is found in the veins and cavities of primitive rocks, with chal- 
cedony, axinite, felspar, &c. 

Far. 2. common chlorite. 
Chlorite Compacte, EL, Common Chlorite, J. A. C. Compact Chlo- 
rite, P. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, leek green, or blackish green ; 
occurs massive, composed of minute scales, or of an 
earthy texture ; lustre shining, or glimmering ; slightly 
unctuous : yields to the nail : sp. gr. from 2.6 to 2.9. 

Chem. Char. The same as above. 

Comp. Silex 26; magnesia 8 ; alumine 18.5; oxide of iron 43; 
muriate of soda and potash 2.0 ; water 2. — Vauquelin. 

Remark. There is much difference in the proportions of these in- 
gredients. Lampidius obtained only 9.7 oxide of iron, and Hoepfner 
obtained magnesia 39.47. 

Dist. Char. It is of a darker green than talc, or epidote. Nacrite 
to easily fusible, and potstone is of a more compact textuie. 



CHLORITE. 155 

Local St. Gothard, England, Scotland, Saxony, &c. It is a com- 
mon mineral. 

U. 8. Harper's Ferry, Vir. Chester County, Penn. Rye, N. Y. 
containing long and slender crystals of schorl. New Haven, Brook- 
field, and Saybrook, Conn at the latter place, in small crystals. — 
Porter.- Charlestown, Brighton, Bridgewater, and West Stock- 
bridge, Mass. Topsham, Maine. 

Var. 3. CHLORITE SLATE. 

Chlorite Fissile, H. Chlorite Slate, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, green, blackish green, or green- 
ish grey ; structure slaty, or foliated ; layers often 
curved ; opake ; occurs massive ; appears on inspec- 
tion to be composed of minute scales ; lustre glisten- 
ing ; easily cut with a knife ; slightly unctuous to the 
touch. 

Dist. Char. From mica slate, it is known by its unctuosity and 
color, and from argil] ite and greenstone slate, by its softness, as well 
as the above named qualities. Talc and soapstone are more unctu- 
ous to the touch than chlorite. 

This variety is found in beds, in primitive mountains, and often 
contains crystals of mica, magnetic iron, garnets, &c. 

Local U. S. Williamstown Mass. also at Westfield, containing 
crystals of mica. — Dewey. Near 'New Haven and West Haven, Conn. 
the latter abounding with magnetic iron. — Siiiiman. 

Var. 4. GREEN EARTH. 

Talc Zographique, H. Green Earth, K. J. A, P. €. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, green of various shades, some- 
times bluish or greyish green ; occurs in small amor- 
phous masses, or lining the cavities of amygdaloid or 
porphyry ; fracture earthy ; yields to the nail ; adheres 
to the tongue ; slightly unctuous : sp. gr. about 2.5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a brownish black slag. 

Comp. (From Verona.) Silex 53 ; magnesia 2 ; potash 10 ; ox- 
ide of iron 28 ; water 6. — Klaproth. 

Local. Bohemia, forming beds. Mount Pazza, where it occurs in 
pseudomorphous crystals, of the form of augite. Near Verona, where 
it has been long explored. 

U. S. Near Imlaytown, in Patterson, N. J. On the Hudson, iV. F. 
Near Boston, and at Deerfield, Mass. in amygdaloid. 

Uses. Green earth is used both raw as a green color, and burnt 
as a reddish brown color, for painting houses, &c— » Mohs. 



156 TOURMALINE. 

Species 14. TOURMALINE. 

Tourmaline, H. Rhomboidal Tourmaline, J. Schorl, C Tour* 
maline, A. P. Rhombohedral Tourmaline, H. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, blue, yellow, black, and 
white ; occurs in crystals and crystalline masses ; 
form, six, nine, or twelve-sided prisms, or six-sided 
prisms so truncated as to appear under six, nine, twelve 
or even twenty-four faces. The terminations are vari- 
ous, and commonly differ in the number and size of 
the faces at the two ends ; crystals long, striated, and 
complete, or aggregated into irregular masses, their 
terminations not being obvious *, translucent or opake ; 
scratches glass ; electric when heated ; the end having 
the greatest number of faces being positive ; the other 
negative : sp. gr. about 3. 

m rf 

■U LUj 

Fig. 3. A nine-sided prism, obtusely terminated by five planes. 
Only four of the sides and two of the planes are obvious hi the figure. 

Fig . 4. A three-sided prism, truncated on its lateral edges so as 
to present nine unequal sides, and terminated by three principal fa- 
ces, to which a fourth is added by the truncation of one of the solid 
angles. 

Var. 1. BLACK TOURMALINE. 

Tourmaline Noir, H. Common Schorl, J. A. C. Schorl, P. 

Ext Char. — Colors, velvet black, or brownish black; 
occurs massive, disseminated and crystallized, in three, 
six, or nine-sided prisms, variously bevelled or trun- 
cated, and obtusely terminated by an uncertain num- 
ber of planes; crystal striated; opake ; lustre shining, 
or nearly glistening ; brittle : sp. gr, 3. 

Chem. Char. "Fusible with ease into a brownish slag- With bo- 
rax, it is singular that so deep a colored mineral, should form a near- 
ly colorless and transparent glass. 

Comp. Silex 38 ; alnmine 34 ; magnesia I ; potash 6 ; oxide of 
iron 21 ; manganese, a trace. — Klaproth. 

Obs. 1 . Schorl is a very common mineral, but it never occurs in 
such quantities as to form the principal part of rocks. It is dissem? 



TOURMALINE. 157 

inated in crystals, and in small masses, in primitive rocks, as granite, 
and quartz. 

2. The crystals, though described as six, nine, or twelve-sided 
prisms, are commonly triangular, having three principal sides, which 
oft inspection will be found to contain several plane faces each. 

3. Black tourmaline is often a very beautiful mineral. The crys- 
tals are oft all sizes, from that of a small needle, to several inches in 
diameter. These are often long, straight, and perfect, and when. oc- 
curring in milk white quartz, produce a very handsome effect, by the 
contrast of color. 

Dist. Cuar. Schorl resembles hornblende ; but schorl has a vitre- 
ous lustre, a conchoidal or uneven fracture, and is electric by neat. 
Hornblende has a splintery fracture, a laminated structure, is softer 
than schorl, and is non-electric. 

Schorl is found chiefly in granite and quartz, sometimes in gneiss 
and mica-slate. 

Local. Schorlaw, in Saxony, where it was first found, and hence 
its name. Bohemia, Bavaria, Switzerland, Spain, Hungary, &c. 

U. S. Grafton Brat tie borough, and Stafford, Ver. Near Balti- 
more, Md. crystals sometimes more than three inches in circumfer- 
ence — Gilmor. Rhinebeck and Kingsbridge, N. Y. Haddam and 
Litchfield, Conn. Hallowell, Litchfield, Bowdoin, Maine. 

Var. 2. GREEN TOURMALINE. 

Tourmaline Verte, H. Green Tourmaline, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, bluish green, passing into dark 
leek green ; occurs under the forms above described ; 
translucent or opake ; electric by heat. 

Local. Ceylon, Brazil, St. Gothard, in Switzerland, and in Swe- 
den. 

U. 8. Chesterfield, Mass. in a vein of quartz and felspar, travers- 
ing graafe* The green tourmaline often encloses a prism of rose 
colored rubeUite running through its axis. The crystals of tourma- 
line are sometimes four inches long. The same granite contains the 
blue tourmaline and emerald.— Gibbs. Also at Paris, in Maine. 

Var. 3. yellow tourmalins. 
Yellow Tourmaline, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, honey, or orange yellow ; trans- 
lucent or transparent ; other characters common to 
the species. 

h&cmk. Ceylon. 

U. S. Near Baltimore, Md. in primitive limestone. Chester Coun- 
ty, Perm, in transparent crystals with oxide of titanium. Dalton, 
Mags, color, straw yellow,, and from one to two inches long. 



158 TOURMALINE. 

Var. 4. indicolite.* 
Tourmaline Indigo, H. TourmaJine Indicolite, Bt 
Ext. Char. — Color, indigo blue, often very dark ; oc- 
curs crystallized in the form of the species, but com- 
monly less perfectly. 

Local. Utoe, in Sweden, of an indeterminate form. 

U. 8. Harlaem Heights, N. Y. Goshen and Chesterfield, Mass. 
crystals often of so deep a color as to appear black. Bellows Falls, 
Ver. in primitive rocks. Hinsdale, N. H. in large crystals. — SilR* 
man. 

Var. 5. White Tourmaline. — Local. This rare variety occurs at 
St. Gothard, Elba, and Siberia. 

U. S. Paris, Maine. 

Var. 6. RUBELLITE.t 

Tourmaline Apyre, H. Tourmaline Rubellite, Bt. Rubellite, K. 
A. P. C. Red Tourmaline. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, red, pink, crimson, violet, or rose 
red; occurs under the same forms as the species; 
crystals not often distinct, being closely aggregated 
into groups, or variously crossing and intersecting each 
other ; translucent or transparent ; harder than the 
other varieties. 

Chem. Char. Splits, intumesces, turns white, does not fuse, but 
vitrifies on the edges ; with borax affords a transparent glass. 

Comp. Silex 42 ; alumine 40 ; soda 10 ; oxide of manganese and 
iron 7. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. Its fine color and its form will distinguish it, from all 
other minerals. 

Local. Ceylon, with lepidolite. Moravia, Uralian Mountains, Ava, 
and Sweden. 

U. S. Chesterfield, Mass. in red crystals, often surrounded, or em- 
braced, by crystals of green tourmaline ; also in Goshen, Man. with 
lepidolite, or rose red mica. Kingsbridge, 15 miles from the city of 
New York. Paris, Maine. 

Obs. 1. It is sometimes cut and polished, and worn as a jewel, but 
is not highly esteemed. 

2. Fine specimens of rubellite, on account of their fariety and 
beauty, sometimes sell at great prices. Thus Jameson saw a three- 
sided prism of rubellite, of an inch in diameter, at Dresden, which 
cost 400 rubles, and in the collection of Mr. Greville, which he sold 
to the British Government, there was a specimen of the same mineral 
valued at ,£1000 sterling. 

* From its color, being that of indigo, 
t From its being of a ruby red color/ 



SODALITE. SPINELLANE. LYTHRODES. 159 

Species 15. SODALITE.*— Thomson. 
Sodalite, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, light green, or bluish green ; 
occurs massive, but more commonly crystallized in 
rhombic dodecahedrons ; cleavage parallel to the 
planes of the cube ; structure foliated ; cross fracture 
conchoidal ; lustre vitreous ; translucent ; sp. gr. about 
2.37. ; hardness equal to that of felspar. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but the edges become rounded. 

Comp. Silex 38.42 ; alumine 27.48 ; lime 2.70; soda 23.5; mu- 
riatic acid 3 ; oxide of iron 1 ; volatile matter 2.1. — Thomson. 

Local. Greenland, with sahlite, augite, and garnet. Vesuvius, 
with augite, and ice-spar. 

Spec4es 16. SPINELLANE. 
Spiriellane, H. J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, bluish yellow, or brownish blue ; 
occurs in crystalline masses, and in minute six-sided 
prisms, with three-sided terminations ; the faces of the 
terminations are rhombic, and stand on- alternate late- 
ral edges of the prism, at each extremity ; cleavage, 
parallel to the planes of the prism ; scratches glass ; 
brittle, sp, gr. 2.28. 

Chem. Char. Whitens, and readily melts into a porous enamel. 

Comp. Silex 43.10 ; alumine 29.5 ; lime 1.5 ; soda 19 ; oxide of 
iron 2 ; water 2.5. — Klaproth. 

Local. Lake Laach, in the department of the Rhine, in a rock of 
felspar, mica, quartz, hornblende, and iron ore. 

Species 17 LYTHRODES. 
Lythrodes, Karsten. P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, red, brownish red, or yellowish, 
occasionally with spots of green ; occurs massive and 
disseminated ; structure imperfectly foliated ; yields 
to cleavage, apparently parallel to the planes of a 
slightly rhombic prism; lustre glimmering, or resinous; 
cross fracture splintery and dull; slightly translucent 
on the edges ; yields with difficulty to the knife ; sp. 
gr. 2.5. 

Comp. Silex 44 ; alumine 37 ; soda 8 ; water 6 ; lime 2.7 ; ox- 
ide of iron 1 — Karsten. 
Local. Norway 

* From its containing soda. 



160 KILMNITE. EUDYALITE. 80MMITS. 

Species 18. KILLINITE— Taykr. 
Killioite, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, light green, sometimes tinged 
with brown, or yellow ; often coated externally of a 
ferruginous color from disintegration ; occurs massive, 
with the occasional appearance of prisms ; structure 
lamellar ; cleavage parallel to the lateral planes of a 
rhombic prism ; cross fracture fine grained ; translu- 
cent ; yields to the knife ; easily frangible ; external 
coat yields an argillaceous odor when breathed on ; 
sp. gr. 2.69 ; lustre glimmering. 

Chem. Char. Becomes white, swells, and fuses into a white ena- 
mel. 

Comp. Silex 52.49 ; alumine 24 50 ; potash 5 ; oxide of iron 
249; oxide of manganese 0.75 ; water & ; with traces of lime and 
magnesia. — Barker. 

Remark. Phillips says, that it greatly resembles spodamene, and 
that it is probable future analysis will prove the alkali it contains to 
be, not potash, but lithia. 

Local. At Killiney,* near Dublin, in Ireland, in granite. 

Species 19. EUDYALITE.t 

Eudyalite, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, red, or brownish red? occurs 

massive and crystallized in irregular, and unknown 

forms ; may be cleaved into regular hexahedral prisms; 

translucent. 

Comp. Silex 53.925; zircon 11.102 ; lime 9.735 ; soda 13.822; 
oxide of iron 7.754 ; oxide of manganese 2.002 ; muriatic acid 
1.034; water 1.801. — Stromeyer. 

Local. Greenland, with sodalite. 

Species 20. SOMMITE.f 
Nepheline, H. J. C. Sommite, P. A. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish, or greenish white ; oc- 
curs in small crystal and crystalline grains; form, a 
regular six-sided prism, with the lateral edges and ter- 
minal angles often replaced ; cleavage parallel to the 
planes of the prism ; cross fracture conchoidal ; lustre 
shining, vitreous ; scratches glass : sp. gr. about 3.2. 

* Hence the name. 

t From the Greek, in allusion to its solubility in acids. 

$ From its occurring on Monte Somma. 



4PALCIty!5. 1Q1 

Chem. Char. Fusible ipto a blpbby colorless glass. Renders ni- 
trous acid cloudy, when immersed in if. 

Comp. Silex 44.11; alumine 33.^3 ; soda 20.46; loss 0.62.— 
4rfwed$on. 

tytit. Char. It resembles phosphate of lime, but is harder and does 
ml phosphoresce qu hot coals. 

Local. Mount Somraa, near Vesuvius, with mica and idocrase. 
Near Rome, in lava. 

Species 21. ANALCIMK* 

Analcime, H. A. P. C. Hexahedral Zeolite, or Analcime, J. Hex- 
ahedral Kouphone-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, grey, yellowish, or deep 
red ; occurs crystallized in pubes, either perfect, or 
having its solid angles replaced by three places ; also, 
in twenty-four-sided crystals, the faces of which pre- 
sent trapezoidal figures, lifcp those jbqunding the sides 
of the garnet ; scratpfrps glass ,• transparent or trans- 
lucent ajul sometimes opake ; crystals often implanted 
and gfOfipefi ; Ipstre, shining and pearly; by friction 
acquires 3 ifeak electricity : sp. gr. about 2.25. 

C^am, Char. Fusible without intumescence into a diaphanous 
glass. 

Camp. Silex 58 ; alumine 18 ; lime 2 ; soda 10 ; water 8.5.— 
VauqueUn. 

Dist. Char. The leucite, which it resembles, commonly occurs 
in distinct crystals, or small masses, and never in implanted 
groups like the present species ; leucite is also infusible. The gar- 
net, which the red variety resembles, is much harder and heavier. 
Fluor-spar melts into a white globule, carbooate of lime effervesces, 
and from stilbite, and zeolite, it differs in crystalline form. 

It occurs in primitive rocks, and in trap, and lava. 

Local. Bohemia, in the Hartz, Iceland, Faroe Islands, near Edin- 
burgh, and in several other parts of ScoUand, Ireland, &c. 

U. 8. Patterson, N. J. in greenstone. East Haven, Conn, with 
•gates and chalcedony. Deerfield, Mass. in greenstone. 

Var. 1. bacolitmA 

Ext. Char. — Color, flesh red ; occurs in cubes with 

the solid angles truncated ; nearly transparent. 

Local. Mount Somma, in Italy, and Carlton Hill, near Edin- 
burgh. 

* Fran UW Greek, m iDmmi t* '*» week «leetrfc yvmtrt. 
t Yum k* Wnf U a fktk r*4 pAur. 
21 



162 CLINKSTONE. PITCHSTONE, 

Species 22. CUNKSTONRt 
Clinkstone, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, smoke grey, greenish grey, grey- 
ish brown, or yellowish ; occurs massive ; structure 
imperfectly slaty ; fracture splintery, passing into con- 
choidal ; lustre glimmering or dull ; translucent on the 
edges 5 yields to the knife ; harsh and rough to the 
touch ; gives a ringing metallic sound when struck 
with a hard body ; brittle ; sp gr. 2.57. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ease, into a glass slightly colored. 

Comp. Silex 57.25 ; aluraine 25.50 ; lime 2.75 ; soda 8.1 ; oxide 
of iron 3.25 ; oxide of manganese 0.25; water 3. — Klaproth. 

It frequently rests on basalt 

Local. Bohemia, Upper Lusace, South America, Scotland, in se?- 
eral places. Antrim, in Ireland, &c. 

Species 23. PITCHSTONE. 
Pitchstone, K. J. A. P. C. 
Exl. Char. — Colors, grey, blue, green, yellow, red, 
brown and black of various shades, but always dull ; 
occurs massive, and in prismatic concretions ; struc- 
ture slaty, sometimes curved ; lustre, resino- vitreous; 
fracture imperfectly conchoidal ; opake or translucent; 
scratches glass ; sp. gr. from 2.32 to 2.64, 

Chem. Char. Some few varieties are infusible, others melt into Ml 
enamel, the color of which depends on that of the specimen. 

Comp. Silex 73 ; alumine 14.5 ; lime 1 ; soda 1.75 ; oxide of iron 
1 ; oxide of manganese 0.1 ; water 8.5. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its imperfectly conchoidal fracture will distinguish it 
from obsidian, which also has a more vitreous lustre than pitchstone. 
Its fusibility will distinguish it from flint, jasper, semi-opal, and hem- 
stone. 

It is found in primitive countries, also in trap rocks, in lava, and in 
formations of doubtful origin. Though generally found in veins and 
small masses, it sometimes forms whole mountains, as Kir wan states 
to be the case in Misnia ; Pinkerton states the same fact in regard to 
certain mountains in Germany and New Spain. 

Local Cairngorum, in Scotland. Germany, in many places. Ire- 
land, near Dublin. Mexico, Teneriffe, &c. 

U. S. Bare Hills, near Baltimore, Md. in serpentine. 

Obs. Pinkerton mentions a pitchstone porphyry which occurs at 
Auvergne, in France. The base is dark bottle green, with lighter 
green crystals of felspar. In a specimen of this kind before me, the 
crystals of felspar often cross each other, or are set in the form of 
stars, and being of a light apple green, contrasted with the dark 
ground, forms a beautiful mineral. 

t Because it rings when struck. 



LAVA. PUMICE. 163 

Species 24. LAVA. 
Lava, J. A. PC. 
Ext. Char.— Colors, yellowish, or greenish grey, 
greyish black, or greenish black, sometimes sulphur 
yellow, and often spotted with red ; occurs massive, 
with internal marks of fusion, being vesicular, or porous, 
the vesicles being empty ; fracture more or less con- 
choidal, or fibrous; lustre glistening or shining ; opake, 
or feebly translucent on the edges ; also compact, with 
a dull earthy fracture, and often containing crystals of 
felspar, leucite, hornblende, 1 &c. ; brittle ; often attracts 
the magnet. 

Chem Char. Fusible into a dark colored glass. 

Comp. (Compact lava.) Silex51 ; alumine 19 ; lime 10; soda 4 ; 
iron 14 ; water I.— Phillips 

Dist. Char. Lava is heavier than pumice, and does not possess its 
fibrous aspect, nor its silky lustre. 

It is found in volcanic countries only, and is the product of the ac- 
tion of volcanic fire on earthy minerals. 

Local Etna, Vesuvius, Hecla, and most other volcanoes. 

Obs. 1. Werner and Jameson notice two kinds of lava, slag lava, 
and foam lava. Hauy enumerates six species, and Karsten nine. 
Many mineralogists, however, believe that some substances formerly 
included among the lavas, are not volcanic products, and consequent- 
ly not true lavas. 

2. Lava frequently includes crystals and other substances which 
ire easily fusible, but which in appearance have not been altered by 
the fire ; such are felspar and hornblende. On this account some 
mineralogists have doubted its volcanic origin. 

3. The above description is intended to embrace only such sub- 
stances as are undoubted lavas. 

Species 25. PUMICE. 
Pumice, C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish or yellowish brown, or 
light smoke grey ; occurs massive ; structure fibrous ; 
texture extremely porous ; pores round, or elongated ; 
lustre shining, pearly ; very brittle ; opake, or trans- 
lucent on the edges ; scratches glass and steel ; frao 
ture fibrous, or imperfectly conchoidal ; yields to the 
knife ; sp. gr. 1.4, but is sometimes so light as to swim 
on water. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a yellowish green glass full of bubbles. 
Comp. Silex 77.5 ; alumine 17.5; oxide of iron 1.75; potash and 
soda 3. — Klaproth. 



164 BASALT. 

Obs. 1. Pumice is generally considered a volcanic product, though 
some geologists consider it an aqueous deposite. That it is some- 
times of volcanic origin, there cannot be a doubt, as in some cases of 
submarine volcanoes, pumice has been formed, and floated onshore; 
but all volcanoes do not seem to produce it, as it is but sparingly 
found at Vesuvius, and not at all at Etna. 

2 Pumice often contains crystals of hornblende, felspar, quarts, 
mica &c. 

Local. Auvergne, in France. Iceland, Teneriffe, Lipari, Hunga- 
ry, &c. 

The pumice of commerce comes chiefly from Lipari. 

Uses. It is used under the name of pumice-stone, for scouring 
brass, polishing certain metals and glass, and by cabinet makers for 
smxrthing wood and varnish. In the countries where it is found, it is 
sometimes employed as a building stone. 

Species 26. BASALT. 
Lave Lithoide B saltique, II. Basalt, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish blatk, brownish grey, 
or bluish black ; occurs in large amorphous ifiaSses, 
or in globular, columnar, or tabular forms ; fracture 
splintery, or coarse grained, uneven ; sometimes cdn- 
choidal ; lustre feebly glimmeritig, prdufl; 6pftfce ; 
streak, ash grey ; often porous, or vefeifcular j V&vifie* 
sometimes of considerable size, of a flat, oblong, or 
round shape ; often, also, porphyrinic : sp. gr. from 
2. ; to 3. 

Chem. Char, fusible into ah opake black glass. tfath borak it 
slowly dissolves into a greenish transparent glass. 

Comp. (From Saxony.) Silex 44.5; alumine V8.75 ; lime §.5; 
magnesia 225 ; soda 2.6 ; oxide of iron £6 ; oxide of manganese 
0.12; water 2. — Phillips. 

Dist Char. It is of a darker color, and wants the greenish tinge 
of greenstone. It seldom rings like clinkstone ; and from indurated 
clay and argillite, it may generally be known from the difference of 
lustre and fracture, as well as from the vesicles and imbedded min- 
erals which it contains. 

Obs 1 Basalt is often porphyritic, containing embedded crystals, 
as hornblende, olivine, felspar, quartz, mica, analcime, clay, &c 
Sometimes its cavities are lined with incrustations of lime, steatite, 
and zeolite. 

2. It frequently attracts the magnet, and is subject to decomposi- 
tion, in consequence of the quantity of iron it contains. 

Var. 1. COLUMNAR BASALT. 

Figurate Trap, K. Columnar Basalt, C. 
It occurs in columns of a prismatic form, having frbni 



BASALT. 165 

three, to nine planfe sides, or fa£es, but more commonly 
only five or six. These columns are of all sizes, from 
a few inches to several feet in diameter, and sometimes 
nfearly An hundred feet high, occasionally straight 
but dftfciifer curved. The columns are jointed, or com- 
posed of many pieces of the same shape and dimen- 
sions, lying one on the other.* 

Local Giant's Causeway, north of Ireland, 

Var. 2. GLOBULAR BASALT. 

Globular Basalt, Bakewell. 
Ext. Char. — This variety occurs in tabular masses, 
from a few inches to several feet in diameter. They 
are composed of concentric spheres, or layers, one 
without the other, forming globes, which are filled with 
lesserglobes, gradually diminishing in size to the cen- 
tre. These spheres are cross-cracked so as to give 
the mass a radiated structure. 

Sometimes, says Mr. Bakewell in his geology, these spheres ap- 
pear compressed against each other, so as to flatten their sides. At 
the centre they often contain a fragment of compact basalt, or some 
other substance, as a piece of shell limestone, as a nucleus. 

Obs. 1. Basalt is undoubtedly a secondary rock, but mineralogists 
disagree as to the mode of its formation. Some contend that nothing 
but fusion could have produced the crystalline form, and the vesicu- 
lar structure of this rock; while others see no difficulty in account- 
ing for these and other peculiarities, on the supposition of its aque- 
ous origin, and contend that basalt is a deposit from water. 

2. Notwithstanding the strong marks of fire which basalt seems to 
bear, there are many circumstances which discountenance its volca- 
nic origin. It often contains substances apparently unaltered, which 
are easily fusible, as hornblende, felspar, and clay. It also embraces 
organic remains, both of animals and vegetables, and sometimes rests 
on coal, or bituminous wood without leaving any marks of fire on 
these substances. Another strong argument against its volcanie ori- 
gin is that it frequently alternates with limestone, and sandstone. 

3. On the whole, it is most probable that some basalts have origin- 
ated from fire, and others from water. According to Phillips, the ba- 
salt of Germany is believed by most geologists, to be of Neptunian or 
aqueous origin, while that of France is universally acknowledged to 
be volcanic. 

4 Probably the most remarkable locality of this rock existing, is 
that called the Giant's Causeway, in the north of Ireland. At this 

* See BtkcwtlPi Oeolegy. 



166 JADE NEPHRITE. 

place, a vast number of basaltic columns 6tand side by side, forming 
the walls of a gap, from the sea into the side of the mountain. The 
area of this pap is about 6U0 feet long by 30 wide. The columns are 
mostly straight, and about 40 feet high. 

5. Another very interesting locality of this mineral, is at Cader 
Idris, in North Wales, where a vast number of these columns are 
lying in confusion on each other, as though they had been thrown 
down by some terrible convulsion. Bakewell has given a drawing of 
this scene. 

Species 27. JADE. NEPHRITE. 
Jade Nephritique, II. Jade, A. P. C. Nephrite, J. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, mountain green, passing into 
dark grass green, sometimes light sea green ; occurs 
massive, and in rolled pebbles ; fracture splintery-; 
lustre glimmering, and greasy, when polished ; trans- 
lucent, sometimes only on the edges ; unctuous to the 
touch ; strongly coherent, and very difficult to break ; 
scratches glass ; structure compact ; cleavage, none. . 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a greenish glass. 

Obs. 1. The descriptions of this mineral by different authors, are 
quite discordant. Kirwan says, jade is infusible by the strongest 
heat of a furnace. Hauy and Cleveland say, it is easily fusible by 
the blowpipe. Aikin says, that it yields to the knife. Phillips, that 
it scratches quartz, &c. 

2. In respect to composition, Kirwan gives, silex 47 ; magnesia 
38 ; clay 4 ; lime 2 ; iron 9. 

Saussure, silex 57.75 ; lime 12.75 ; alumine 1.5 ; oxide of iron 5; 
oxide of manganese 2 ; soda 10.75 ; potash 8.5 ; water 2.25. 

3. These characters and compositions are so widely different, as to 
render it impossible that they should belong to the same species. It 
is most probable, therefore, that the same name has been applied to 
minerals of entirely distinct species. 

4. The above specific description, applies to what the writer has 
considered undoubted specimens of jade. 

Var. 1. AXE-STOKE. 
Jade ascien, H. Slaty Jade, A. Axe-stone, J. P. C. 
Ext Char. — Color, somewhat darker than that of 
jade; fracture obscurely slaty ; slightly translucent; 
occurs amorphous and in rolled pebbles. 

Chem. Char. Fusible by the blowpipe. 

Local New Zealand, North and South America, Corsica, Switzer- 
land, Saxony, &c. 

Uses. It is the stone of which the Aborigines chiefly made their 
axes, gouges, and other such like instruments ; hence the name. 

Local. Bohemia, Faroe Islands, Iceland, north of Ireland, near 



CHABAISE. . 167 

' Var. 2. SAUSSUREITE.* 

Jade de Saussure, Bt. Saussureite, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, deep green, greenish grey, or 
greenish white ; occurs amorphous, and in rolled 
masses ; scratches quartz ; translucent on the edge* ; 
extremely tough ; texture compact ; fracture splinte- 
ry ; a little unctuous. 

Chem. Char. Fusible before the blowpipe into a greenish glass. 

Dist. Char. Jade may be known from serpentine by its toughness 
and greasy aspect. From jasper, pitchstone, horn stone, and com- 
pact felspar, by its want of the conchoidal fracture, great tenacity , 
and oily aspect. 

Local. Jade or nephrite is found in China, the East Indies, Mora- 
via, Tyrol, Switzerland, Austria, &c. 

U. S. Ten miles from Philadelphia. Smithfield, R. I. 

Obs. It was anciently considered a remedy for nephritic com- 
plaints, when worn ; hence the name, nephrite. 

Uses. Its great tenacity, observes Jameson, enables the artist to 
execute on it beautifully delicate figures without the risk of breaking. 
The Turks cut it into handles for sabres and daggers, which they 
prize highly. It is said even to have been wrought into chains. 

Species 28. CHABAISE.t 

Shabasit, W. Chabasite, J. Chabaise, A. P. C. Rhombohedral 
Kouphone-Spar, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, greyish, 
or pale red ; occurs in crystals only ; form, an obtuse 
rhomboid, scarcely to be distinguished from a cube, its 
alternate angles being 94 deg. and 86 deg. ; subject to 
various modifications ; cleavage parallel to the planes 
of the rhomboid ; scarcely scratches glass ; translucent 
or transparent ; structure lamellar ; crystals often im- 
planted, or set on other minerals ; lustre vitreous : sp. 
gr. 2.7. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with slight swelling into a white spongy 
mass. Acids do not act on it. 

Comp. Silex 43.33 ; alumine 22.66 ; soda and potash 9.34 ; wa- 
ter 21 ; lime 3 34. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. From carbonate of lime and zeolite, it differs in re- 
sisting the action of acids ; fluor-spar, which it also resembles, is act- 
ed on by acids, phosphoresces when heated, and decrepitates, neither 
of which characters belong to chabaise. 

It is found chiefly in amygdaloid, basalt, and greenstone. 

* In honor of M. Saussure. 
t From tfre Greek, signifying a particular species of stone; 



It)8 GaRBONITE. lepidolite. 

Oberstein, in Germany. Fassa. Island of Sky. The finest spe- 
cimens come from the three first named places. 

U. S. Deerfield, Mass. in greenstone, and balls of zeolite. — Hitch 
cock. 

Var. 1. mesoline. 
Mesoline, Berzelius. Ed. Phil. Jour. Vol. VII. 
Ext. Char. — Color, whitish; occurs in crystalline 
coats, investing the surface of amygdaloid, or lining its 
cavities. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with intumescence into a spongy mass. 

Comp. Silex 47.50 ; alumine 21.40 ; soda 4.80 ; lime 7.90 ; wa- 
ter 18.19— Berzelius. 

Obs. A substance found with the mesoline, and which Berzelius 
has ascertained to contain the same constituents, but in somewhat 
different proportions, he has named mesole. It occurs in reniform 
shapes composed of crystalline fibres radiating from the centre ; color, 
white, or yellowish. 

Local Faroe, lining the cavities of amygdaloid. 

Species 29. GABRONITE. 
Gabronite, H. Bt P. C. Compact Scapolite, J. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, bluish, or greenish grey, or red ; 
occurs in compact masses ; said also to occur in four- 
sided prisms, terminated by four-sided pyramids; 
structure lameller; lustre glistening, and resinous; 
fracture uneven and splintery ; translucent on the 
edges ; scratches glass : sp. gr. nearly 3, 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty into an opake globule. 
Comp. Silex 54 ; alumine 24 ; magnesia 1.5 ; potash and soda 
17.25 ; oxides of iron and manganese 1.25 ; water 2. — John. 
Local. Arendal, in Norway, in titaniferous iron ore. 

Species SO. LEPIDOLITE.* 
Lepidolithe, H. Lepidolite, J. A. P. C. Rhombohedral Talc- 
Mica, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, lilac red, rose red, or pearl grey ; 
occurs massive, presenting an aggregate of minute, 
shining, flexible scales, or hexagonal plates ; fracture 
fine grained, splintery ; lustre, glistening and pearly; 
yields to the knife with ease ; in powder, unctuous to 
the touch : sp. gr. 2.8. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ease into a transparent globule, at the 
same time says Aikin, tinging the flame purplish red. 

* Proa the Greek, signifying a scaly stone* 



PETALITE. 169 

Comp. Silex 54; alumine 20.61; potash 0.6; oxide of manga- 

&se 0.5; lime 16 ; water 1.86. — Vauquelin. 

Another variety yielded, says Prof. Gmelin. Silex 52.254 ; alumine 
28.345 ; oxide of manganese 3.602 ; potash 6.903 ; lithion 4.792 ; 
fluoric acid 3.609. 

Prof. Gtnelin, before the analysis, supposed the mineral td have 
been mica, crystallized in large laminae. — Silliman's Journal, 

Dist Chat 1 . Its appearance much resembles an aggregation of 
small scales of mica, but mica melts into a greyish or black enamel, 
and is not unctuous to the touch. 

Obs. Lepidolite is often a very handsome mineral. Its color, ap- 
proaching to that of peach blossom, in some instances, is remarkably 
soft and pleasant to the eye, while its scales are so disposed as to give 
it a glittering and brilliant lustre in whatever direction it is held. 

Uses. It is cut into snuff-boxes, and various other ornaments. 

Far. 1. CKYSTALLIZED LEPIDOLITE. 

Ext. Char. — Color, green ; resembles tourmaline, but 
is much softer, and easily fusible. 

Local. Lepidolite occurs in Moravia, in a bed of gneiss. In Swe- 
den, in 4 quattose rock. It is also found in France, Elba, and in 
several parts of Scotland, and Norway. 

V. 8. Paris, Maine, of great beauty. Middletown, Conn. 

Species 31. PETALITE. 

Petalite, H. Prismatic Petalite, J. Petalite, P. C. Prismatic-Pe* 

taline-Spar, M. 

Ext. CAar.— Colors, greyish tvhite, greenish, or red- 
dish, and sometimes white; occurs in masses; structure 
foliated ; cleavage parallel to the planes of A four- 
sided prism; laminae, sometimes undulated, or scaly; 
lustre glistening, and sometimes pearly ; rather brittle ; 
scratches glass : sp. gr. about 2.5. 

Chem. Char. Fuses with difficulty into a porous translucent glass. 
Sometimes the surface only is a little glazed. With borax, melts into 
a limpid glass. 

Comp. Silex 80 ; alumine 15 ; lithia 1.75 ; manganese 2.50 ; wa- 
ter 0.25.— Clarke. 

Dist Char. It sometimes resembles white quartz, but is easily 
distinguished from it, by the foregoing characters. — Cleveland. 

Local. L'toe and Sahla, in Sweden, associated with quartz and 
felspar. It is a very rare mineral. 

V. 8. Bolton, Mass. associated with nuttalite 

22 



170 SFODUMENE. MEION1TE. 

Species 32. SPODUHENE. 

Triphane, H. Prismatic Spodumene, J. Spodomene, A. P. C. 

Prismatic Triphane-Spar, M. 

Ext Char. — Colors, greyish, or greenish white ; 
occurs massive, and in crystals ; structure laminated; 
cleavage parallel to the sides, and shorter diagonal of 
a rhombic prism ; lustre shining, and somewhat pearly ; 
translucent ; scratches glass ; cross fracture uneven 
and splintery: sp. gr. 3.19. 

Chem. Char. Exfoliates a little, and then melts into a nearly limpid 
glass. 

. Comp. Silex 64.4 ; alumine 24.4 ; potash 5 ; lime 3 ; oxide of 
iron 2.2. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. From adularia, which it most resembles, it differs in 
the shape of its rhomboidal fragments, and in not emitting the pe- 
uliar moon-stone reflections. It is harder than carbonate of lime. Zoi- 
site is commonly of a darker color, and melts into a porous glass. It 
is harder than ichth vopnthalmite, which separates into flakes in nitric 
acid. 

Local. Utoe, in Sweden, in a matrix of red felspar, quartz, and 
mica. Tyrol, in a granite rock. 

U. S. Goshen, Chester, Conway, Lancaster, and Sterling, Mass. 
At Goshen, it is abundant. — Robinson. At Sterling/ it fills the place 
of felspar in a granite rock. — SilUman. 

Species 33. MEIONITE. 
Meionite, H. J. A. P. C. Pyramidal Feld-Spar, M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, whitish, or greyish white ; occurs 
in grains, or small four, or eight-sided prisms, termi- 
nated by four-sided pyramids, sometimes modified by 
truncation ; primary form, a right prism, with square 
bases ; structure foliated ; cleavage parallel to the 
planes of the prismatic form; cross fracture, flat con- 
choidal ; lustre shining, vitreous ; translucent or trans- 
parent ; scratches glass : sp. gr. from 2.6 to 3.1. 

Chem. Char. Melts with ebullition, into a porous transparent glass. 

Comp. Silex 40.8; alumine 30.6; lime 22,1; soda and Uthia 
02.4 ; oxide of iron 01.0. - Gmelin. 

Remark. The analysis of different specimens, differs considera- 
bly. 

Dist. Char. It is more transparent than scopolite. Dipyre is red- 
dish, the present species is always whitish. It will be remembered 
that zeolite forms a jelly with acids. 

Local. Mount Somma, near Vesuvius, from which it is ejected 
with other volcanic matter. It often adheres to fragments of lime- 
stone, unaltered by the heat. 



ACHMITE. CLEVELANDITE. 171 

Species 34. ACHMITE* 
Achmite, Stromeyer. Mohs. 
Ext. Char. — Color, brownish black*; occurs in pris- 
matic crystals, with two broad, and several narrow 
faces, with accuminated terminations; cleavage dis- 
tinct in four directions ; fracture imperfect conchoidal ; 
lustre vitreous ; opake, or translucent on the cjdges ; 
streak, a powder yellowish grey ; brittle ; hardness 
about that of felspar; sometimes occurs in twin crys- 
tals: sp. gr. 3.24. 

Chem Ckar. Fusible with ease into a black globule. 

Camp. Silex 55.25 ; oxide of iron 31.25 ; oxide of manganese 
1.08 ; lime 0.72 ; soda 10.40.— Berzelius. 

Obs. This newly discovered mineral is described in the Edinb. 
Philo. Jour. Vol IX Also in Mohs' Min. Vol. 3. Appendix. 

Local. Eger, in Norway, imbedded in granite. 

Sjecies 35. CLEVEL ANDITE.t 
Siliceous Felspar, Gibbs. C. Clevelandite, Brooke. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish white, bluish, and 
reddish, or red ; occurs massive and crystallized in 
rhombic tabular crystals, of which the lateral edges 
are so netimes truncated ; crystals often aggregated, 
so as to present stellular groups ; structure laminated ; 
cleavage, perfect iu two directions ; texture of the 
missive, approaching fibrous, being composed of slen- 
der crystals, diverging in rows from straight or curv- 
ed line?, and producing a feathery aspect ; translucent 
or semi-transparent ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 2.50. 

Obs. According to Phillips, some specimens afford distinct clea- 
vage parallel to all the planes of a doubly oblique prism, yielding to 
the reflective goniometer, in one direction, alternate angles of 93? 
30', and 86° 30'> in another direction, 119* 30', and 60° 30', and 
in another of H5 Q 65'. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a white translucent glass. 

Comp. Silex 70.7 ; alumine 19.8 ; soda 9.0 ; lime 0.2 ; oxide of 
manganese 0. 1 . — Stromeyer. 

Obs. Mr. Levy, (Ann. Philo.) has examined Clevelandite with 
much attention. Its primitive form, he finds, as the result of various 
observations, to differ from that of felspar. 

The primitive of the present species, is a doubly oblique prism, 

* From the Greek, signifying a point, because the crystals are pointed at their ter- 
minations. 

f In honor of Prof, Cleveland, of JBowdoin University, Maine. 



172 SILLIMANITE. 

while that of felspar is an obUque rhombic prim. These forms are 
incompatible, notwithstanding their great analogy. The two species 
very nearly resemble each other in every respect, and often occur in 
the same specimen. Clevelandite, however, Mr. Levy observes, has 
a certain brilliancy which does not belong to felspar. On re-exam- 
ination of many specimens, heretofore considered frfcpur, they 
hate been found to be Clevelandite, either entirely, or in part. l|r. 
Levy, indeed, considers the varieties of the present species, to be at 
least as numerous, as those of felspar. 

Local. Mr. Turner, of Edinburgh, from whose coHeotioa Mr. Levy 
has made the above observations, has specimens from Daupjuny, St 
Gothard, Tyrol, Piedmont, Baveno, Elba, Vesuvius, Saxony, Sweden, 
Norway, Siberia, Greenland, United States, and South America. 

U. 8. Haddam, Conn. Chesterfield and Goshen, Mass. At Ches- 
terfield, it contains rubellite, green tourmaline, and indicoKte. 

Var. 1. ABiprE. 
Albite, A. C. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color white, greyish white, or reddish ; 
occurs in the forms of the species, but is peculiar on 
account of the diverging striae with which the crystals 
are marked ; translucent ; occurs in small crystals on- 
ly : lustre similar to that of the species ; sp, gr. %&. 

Obs. This variety does not differ in composition from Pleve- 
landite. 

Local. Finbo and Broddo, in Sweden, with quartz and mica. 

Obs. The other varieties of this species, have not yet been named, 
and arranged in any publication. 

Species 96. SILLIMANITE.* 
Sillimanite, Bowen. Jour. Acad. Sci. Phila. Sillimanite, M. 

Ext Char. — Color, dark grey, inclining to clove 
brown ; occurs crystallized in four-sided momboidal 
prisms, whose alternate angles are 106 deg. 30 min. and 
73 deg. 70 min. ; the inclination of the ba$e to the 4?is 
of the prism being 113 deg. ; cleayage parallel to the 
longer diagonal of the prism : cross fracture uneven, 
splintery; structure lamellar ; lustre of the cleavage, 
brilliant; of the cross fracture, vitreous; translucent on 
the edges ; angles, and sides of the cr^tals vften round- 
ed ; hardness greater than that of qqartz ; sometimes 
scratches topaz ; brittle, and reducible 4o powder ; sp. 
gr. 3.41. 

Client. Char. Infusible, even with borax. Insoluble in acids. 

* In honor of Benjamin SUliuian, LL. D. of Connecticut, 



SILLIMANITE. 173 

Camp. Alumine 54.111 ; silex 42.666 ; oxide of iron 1.999 ; wa- 
ter 0.510. — Bowen. 

Dist Char. It somewhat resembles zoisite, but the infusibility 
and great hardness, as well as the crystalline form, and especially the 
peculiar cleavage of Sillimanite, will distinguish it from this, and per- 
haps every other mineral. 

Obs. The analysis of this species, and the quantity of several of 
its angles, has induced Prof. Mohs, to conclude that it may be a vari- 
ety ofdisthene-spar, (Gyanite.) But we may remark, that minerals 
composed of entirely different constituents, are' found to crystallize 
under nearly the same angles, and that the hardness and composition 
of Sillimanite, indicate a distinct species. The varieties of cyanite 
yield to the knife, while the present species scratches quartz, and 
even topaz, tifenssure and Laugier, both found cyanite to contain 
lime. Saussuce, found also 2.30, of magnesia. Klaproth found the 
same mineral to contain a little potash, neither of which belong to 
Sillimanite. 
t Local Saybrook, Conn, in a vein of quartz, penetrating gneiss. 



CLASS VI. 

NATIVE METALS AND METALIPE- 
ROUS MINERALS. 

This Class includes the native metals, together with the ores, or metals 
combined with other substances, as oxygen, sulphur, or acids. 

Remark. In some instances, the quantity of metal does not amount 
to more than one third of the whole weight ot the ore, with which it 
is arranged, the remainder being either some other metallic sab- 
stance, or clay, sulphur, or silex, &c. 

Genus 1.— PLATINA. 

This metal is found in its native state, and also combined with the 
metals, iridium, palladium, and rhodium. 

Species 1. NATIVE PLATINA. 
Native Platina, J. P. C. A. M. Platina Natif Ferrif&re, H. 
Ext. Char. — Color, steel grey, approaching to silver 
white ; occurs in grains, seldom exceeding the size of 
a pea ; hardness nearly equal to that of iron ; malle- 
able,, and may, like iron be welded; structure some- 
times lameller; but more often not obvious ; streak 
unchanged, sp. gr. 17.33. 

Chem. Char Infusible by the blowpipe. By the compound blow- 
pipe, slowly fusible. Soluble in aqua regia only. Not oxidated by 
exposure to the air. 

Nothing is known of the geological situation of this metal, it being 
found only in small grains in alluvia] deposits. 

Local. South America, and St. Domingo, but chiefly in the former, 
where it occurs with zircon, iron ore, and native gold. 

Obs. 1/ Native platina is not perfectly pure, but is mixed with the 
metals palladium, iridium, and rhodium, together with a little iron. 

2. In a single instance, a mass of platina has been found weighing 
lib. 9oz. Idr. Its diameter is about two inches, and its shape nearly 
round. It was found in Choco, South America, and is preserved in 
the royal museum at Madrid. — Phillips. 

Uses. The infusibility of this metal and its insolubility in most of 
the acids, renders it extremely valuable in the construction of many 
useful instruments. In chemistry it is used for spoons, forceps, 



NATIVE GOLD. 175 

evaporating dishes, &c. It is also employed in the construction 
of philosophical instruments, for naval uses, for the covering of other 
metals to prevent their rusting, for painting porcelain ware, &c. 

Genus 2.— GOLD. 

Gold, like plat ina, is found only in the native state, though often alloy* 
ed with other metals 

Species I. NATIVE GOLD. 
Native Gold, A. P. C. Hexahedral Gold, J. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, golden, or orange yellow, passing 
into greyish yellow ; occurs massive, capillary, amor- 
phous, dentritic, and crystallized, in cubes, and oc- 
tahedrons with various modifications ; fracture hackly ; 
lustre metallic; soft and malleable, sp. gr. 14.85 to 19, 
25. 






Fig. 1. The octohedron. 

Fie. 2 The same with the edges truncated. 

Fig. 3. The rhombic dodecahedron. 

Obs. These are some of the common forms under which crystalliz- 
ed gold appears ; but in many instances, the crystals are very irregu- 
lar, and their geometrical forms difficult to determine. The crystals 
are generally minute. 

Chem. Char. It is soluble in nitro-muriatic acid, which solution 
will tinge the skin of an indelible purple. Fusible with the blow- 
pipe. 

Dist Char. The malleability of native gold will distinguish it from 
iron and copper pyrites, and from yellow mica, for each of which it 
is often foolishly mistaken. 

Obs. 1. Gold is found in rocks, and in alluvial soils. The rocks, ac- 
cording to Kirwan, in which it most often occurs, are granite, or 
quartz, slate, hornstone, sandstone, and limestone. It also occurs in 
veins of iron ore, antimony ore, barytes, blende, &c. 

2. The gold of commerce, is however, almost exclusively (bund in 
alluvial deposits, wheie it occurs in small particles, or grains called 
gold dust. 

3. According to Mawe, the gold mines of Brazil and Africa, are 
entirely on the surface, the gold being separated from the sand and 
gravel, among which it is found, by the simple act of washing. 

3. In Brazil, alone, according to the same author, above twenty 



176 NATIVE GOLD. 

Iocs weight of gold, are annually procured, which forms a large share 
of the circulating medium of Europe. 

4. In Africa, gold dust is an article of commerce, and considera- 
ble quantities are exposed for sale, or to exchange for commodi- 
ties. 

5. The gold of Africa, is often adulterated with those varieties of 
pyrites, which are nearest its color, and also with brass filings. 

This fraud might easily be detected, by throwing the dust into ni- 
tric acid, which would dissolve the other substances, leaving the gold 
untouched. 

6. Gold is found in greater or less abundance, in almost every 
part of the globe. Jameson observes, that although in comparison 
with iron, gold occurs in very small quantities, yet it is nearly as 
widely distributed in nature. 

7. In some rare instances considerable masses of gold have been 
found. In 1730 a mass was found in Peru weighing 451b. In Par- 
aguay, several masses are said to have occurred weighing from 30 to 
501b. — Cleaveland mentions a mass found on Meadow Creek, If. Car- 
olina, which weighed 281b, and Phillips mentions one which occurred 
in Wicklow, Ireland, weighing 22 ounces. 

8. In the viceroyalty of La Plata in South America, there are 
thirty gold mines, or workings. 

9. The mines of Hungary are said to be the most valuable in 
Europe. 

10. The gold mines of the United States, are confined to the state 
of North Carolina. According to the statement of Prof. Olmsted, 
(Sill. Jour, vol. 9.) the gold country is spread over a space of not 
less than a thousand square miles, in that state. 

Reed's Mine, in Cabarras County, where the large mass above 
mentioned was found, has also afforded many smaller pieces weigh- 
ing from four to six hundred penny weights. 

Anson Mine, is situated in the county of Anson, on the waters of 
Richardson's creek. This locality was discovered three years since. 

Parker's Mine, is situated on a small stream, near the Yadkin riv- 
er. 

These three mines are regularly wrought, by making excavations 
a few feet below the surface, and washing the earth in a manner simi- 
lar to the process used in South America for the same purpose. The 
prevailing rock in the gold country is argil iite. The country fa of a 
diluvial formation, consisting of clay and sand, generally barren and 
the inhabitants poor. 

it is not easy, observes Prof. Olmsted, to ascertain the precise 
amount of gold which these mines have afforded, as it is sold to mer- 
chants»and others, in small quantities, by individuals. 

In 1820, the mint of the United States had received to the amount 
of forty-three thousand six hundred eighty -nine dollars of this gold. 

Var. 1. ARGENTIFEROUS GOLD. 

Argentiferous Cold, P. 
Ext Char.— Color, brass yellow, passing into silver 
white ; occurs in tabular crystals, and in cubes. 



MERCURY. AMALGAM. 177 

Ckem. Char. Fusible into a pale yellow globule. Neither nitric, 
nor nitro-muriaticacid has the least effect on it. — Phillips. 
Comp. Gold 64; silver 36.— Klaproth. 
Local. Siberia, with hornstone and sulphate of barytes. 

Genus 3.— MERCURY. 

Mercury is found native, also combined with sulphur, forming a 
sulphuret of mercury : with muriatic acid forming a muriate of mer- 
cury ; and with silver, forming a native amalgam. 

Species 1. NATIVE MERCURY. 
Native Mercury, J. Native Quicksilver, A. P. C. Dodecahedral 
Mercury. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, silver white ; occurs in small glo- 
bules ; perfectly fluid ; feels cold to the touch 5 lustre 
splendent ; sp. gr. 13. 

Chem. Char. Becomes volatile when heated, and flies off in white 
vapor. 

Comp. Mercury, nearly or quite pure. 

It is (bond in small quantities among the ores of mercury. In 
Idria, it occurs in limestone and sandstone. 

Species 2. NATIVE AMALGAM. 

Native Amalgam. P. Silver Amalgam, A. Argental Mercury, C. 
Dodecahedral Mercury, M. Mercure Argental, H. 

Ext. Char. — Color, silver white, or greyish, often tar- 
nished externally ; occurs massive lamelliform, in 
plates, and in crystals ; form the octohedron, and rhom- 
bic dodecahedron ; fracture flat conchoidal ; lustre 
shining ; sometimes semi-fluid ; cleavage none ; whi- 
tens the surface of polished copper, when rubbed on 
it : sp. gr. 10.5. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe the mercury flies off in white 
smoke, leaving a globule of pure silver. 

Camp. Mercury 64 ; silver 36. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its want of ductility will distinguish it from native 
silver. 

Local. Hungary, Siberia, and Sweden. It is found with native 
mercury, and cinnabar. 

Species 3. SULPHURET OF MERCURY. CINNABAR. 

Cinnabar, J. A. P. Mercure Sulphur^, H. Sulphuret of Mercury, 

C. Pentomous Ruby-Blende, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, scarlet or carmine, passing into 
cochineal red, and lead grey ; occurs massive and crys- 

23 



178 SULPHURET OF MERCURY. CINNABAR. 

tallized in acute rhomboids, variously modified ; trans- 
lucent, or opake ; streak scarlet red ; lustre adaman- 
tine, inclining to metallic ; fracture granular, or fibrous ; 
sp. gr. 8. 

Obs. It sometimes occurs in thin plates, or tabular crystals, and 
rarely in imitative shapes. 

Chem. Char. It is volatile before the blowpipe, with the odor of 
sulphur. 

Comp Mercury 84.5 ; sulphur 14.75. — Kiaproth. 

Dist. Char. From red silver ore, sulphuret of arsenic, red oxide of 
copper, and arseniate of cobalt, it is distinguished by entirely disap- 
pearing before the blowpipe, without the odor of garlic, or without 
leaving a metallic globule. 

Var. 1. nEPATic cinnabar. 

Hepatic Cinnabar, A. P. Compact Sulphuret of Mercury, or Cinna- 
bar, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark red, passing into lead grey ; 
occurs in compact masses ; fracture compact, fine 
grained ; receives a polish by friction ; lustre glimmer- 
ing ; easily broken ; opake ; sp. gr. about 7. 

Chem. Char. It gives a bituminous odor under the blowpipe, and 
evaporates, leaving a small residuum. 

Comp. Cinnabar 95.5 ; carbon 2.3 ; silex 0.6 ; alumine 0.5 ; ox- 
ide of copper 0.2. — Kiaproth. 

Var. 2. fibrous cinnabar. A. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, scarlet red, often with a tinge of 
yellow ; occurs massive ; structure fibrous ; lustre shi- 
ning silky ; soils the fingers ; often invests other mine* 
rals. 

3. Slaty Cinnabar. This variety scarcely differs from the others, 
except in possessing irregular smooth faces, having a slaty appear- 
ance when broken. 

Local. Upper Carinthia, in gneiss. Transylvania, in grey wacke. 
Its most important repositories are Idria, in Carniola, and Alman- 
din in Spain. At Idria the mine has been wrought several centu- 
ries, and is now many hundred feet under the surface of the earth. A 
great proportion of the mercury of commerce is obtained from this lo- 
cality. It occurs in beds of bituminous shale, associated with Mack 
mineral resin, grey sandstone, and limestone ; The product of this 
mine has chiefly been sold to Spain, by a stipulation between the 
German and Spanish Governments. 

The mines of Almandin occur in a mountain clay-slate, and shale, 
and have been worked more than two thousand years. 

In South America, there are several quick silver mines, but the 



MURIATE OF MERCURY. NATIVE SILVER. 179 

quantity of metal which they produce, is small when compared with 
those already mentioned. 

U. S. On the borders of the lakes Huron, Michigan, St. Clair, 
and Erie, and at the mouth of Vermillion river, cinnabar occurs in 
the form of a dark red sand, which according to Mr. Sttckney, yields 
aoout60 per cent, of mercury. 

Mode of obtaining Mercury from the Cinnabar. The cinnabar 
being mixed with iron filings, or lime, and placed in retorts ; on the 
application of heat, the sulphur unites with the iron filings or lime, 
while the mercury being thus disengaged, is distilled over in its pure 
state. 

Uses. A great proportion of the mercury of commerce is employed 
for the extraction of silver from its ores by amalgamation. Accor- 
ding to Humboldt, the quantity employed in South America for this 
purpose amounts to about twenty-five thousand quintals annually. 

Mercury is also used in the construction of two of the most impor- 
tant among philosophical instruments, the barometer and thermom- 
eter ; when united with tin foil, it forms the amalgam placed over the 
backs of looking glasses. It is also used in the process of gilding, 
and in medicine it is the basis of several preparations of the highest 
value, and for which there is no substitute. 

Species 4. MURIATE OF MERCURY. 

Horn Silver, A. P. Muriate of Mercury, C. Mercure Muriate, H. 

Pyramidal Pearl-Kerate, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish white, yellowish white, 
and ash grey ; occurs massive and crystallized, in four- 
sided prisms, terminated by four-sided pyramids, with 
rhombic faces, also in crystalline crusts ; translucent ; 
streak white ; crystals very small ; lustre adamantine ; 
fracture conchoidal; yields to the knife; sp. gr. 6.4. 

Chen Char. Volatile before the blowpipe. 

Comp. Oxide of Mercury 88.48 ; muriatic acid 11.52. — Mohs. 

Dist. Char. The muriate of silver, which it most resembles, is soft, 
and leaves a globule of the metal under the blowpipe. 

Local. Idria in Germany, and Almandin in Spain, in cavities of 
sandstone, or clay, with cinnabar. 

Genus 4.— SILVER. 

Silver is found native, also combined with sulphur, and muriatic 
acid, fof ming sulphuret and muriate of silver. It likewise exists in 
themetallic state combined or mixed with several other metals. 

Species 1. NATIVE SILVER. 
Argent natif, H. Hexahedral Silver, J. M. Native Silver, A, 

PC. 

Ext. Char.— Color, silver white, often tarnished grey 



180 AXTIMOMAL SILTEJl. 

or reddish ; occurs dentiform capillary, ramose, mas- 
sive, reticulated, and in plates and spangles ; also crys- 
tallized in cubes and octohedrons ; sp. gr. 10 to 10.5 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a globule. Soluble in nitric acid, form- 
ing a solution which tinges the skin indelible black. 

Camp. Silver, with a little iron, antimony, copper, or arsenic 

Dist. Char. Its color and malleability, will always distinguish it 

It is found in primitive, and secondary rocks, with the ores of sil- 
ver, copper, cobalt, &c. 

Local Saxony and Suabia, in gneiss and mica slate. Bohemia, 
Norway, Ireland. In several places in England, and in many of the 
mines in South America. 

U. 8. Huntington, Con. with native bismuth. Near Portsmouth, 
N. H* a single mass has been found. Near Sing Sing, N. Y. in a 
small vein. 

Obs. 1. Native silver often occurs penetrating crystals, or amor- 
phous pieces of common quartz. These, when the quartz is trans- 
parent, are sometimes cut into various shapes, and polished as cabinet 
specimens, or curiosities, and are often very beautiful. 

2. In several instances, large masses of native silver have been 
found. Thus many years since, a mass occured near Freyberg in 
Saxony, weighing 1001b. lqr. Another mass was found in the mine 
of Konsberg, which weighed 5601b ; and Jameson mentions a block of 
the same metal discovered in the mine of Schneeberg in Saxony, 
which was so large, that Duke Albert descended into the mine and 
made use of it as a dinner table. This huge mass when smehed, pro- 
duced four hundred centners, (a centner being one hundred and ten 
pounds,) of pure silver. 

Var. 1. aurifirous native silver. 
AuriferouB Native Silver, J. K. C. A. P. 
Ext. Char. — Color yellowish white, approaching to 
brass yellow ; occurs disseminated, membranous, ca- 
pillary, in plates, and crystallized in cubes. 
Comp. Silver 72 ; gold 28. — Fordyce. 
Local Konsberg in Norway, and in Siberia, in primitive rocks. 

Species 2. ANTIMONIAL SILVER. 

Antiraonial Silver, J. P. A. C. Argent antimonial, H. Prismatic 

Antimony, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, silver or tin white; occurs mas- 
sive, in grains, and in hexahedral prisms, or cylin- 
ders ; also in curved laminae ; lustre metallic ; yields 
to the knife ; fracture conchoidal ; not malleable ; sp. 
gr. 9. to 10. 

Chem, Char. Fusible, with the emission of antimonial vapor, into 
a globule of silver. 



ARSEN1CO-ANTIMONIAL SILVER. BISMUTHIC SILVER. 181 

Camp. Silver 84 ; antimony 14. — Klaproth. 

Disi. Char. It is distinguished from native silver by its want of 
ductility, and the antimonial vapor, under the blowpipe ; from arsen- 
ical iron, and arsenical cobalt, by its want of the garlic odor, when 
heated, and from white cobalt ore by not giving a blue globule with 
borax. 

It is found in granite and clay-slate, associated with the other ores 
of silver. 

Local. Spain, Suabia, the Hartz, Alleraont, in France. 

It is a rare mineral. 

Species 3. ARSENICO-ANTIMONIAL SILVER. 

Arsenical Silver, C. Arsenical Antimonial Silver, P. A. Argent 

Arsenical, B. 

Ext. CAa/v— Color, nearly silver white, externally, 
with a blackish tarnish ; occurs in globular and reni- 
form masses ; structure imperfectly foliated ; sectile ; 
brittle ; lustre metallic and shining ; sp. gr. 9.44. 

Chem. Chat. Fusible, with the emission of antimonial and arseni- 
cal vapors, add the odor of garlic ; a globule of silver remaining. 

Dist. Char. It is softer than arsenical iron, which leaves a mag- 
netic globule, instead of one of silver, after the action of the blowpipe. 
It does not tarnish so soon as native arsenic. 

Remark. Jameson says, that it passes on the one side into native 
arsenic, and on the other into native silver. 

Local. Andreasberg, in the Hartz, with native arsenic, and the 
ores of lead and zinc. 

Species 4. BISMUTHIC SILVER. 
Molybdena-Silver, J. M. Molybdic Silver, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, light steel grey, passing into tin 
white ; occurs in crystalline masses, and in six-sided 
prisms : lustre metallic ; structure foliated ; cleavage 
parallel to the planes of the crystals ; soft, and some- 
what elastic ; powder iron black ; sp. gr. 7.82. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into small globules, which become yellow 
and tarnished, and are finally entirely volatalized. Soluble in nitric 
acid. 

Comp. Bismuth 95 ; sulphur 5. — Klaproth. 

Remarks. The specimen examined by Klaproth, under the name 
of the molybdic silver, must have been an entirely different mineral, 
as it contained neither molybdic acid nor silver ; yet this analysis is 
quoted both by Phillips and Mohs, as the only one appertaining to 
this mineral. It is most probable, therefore, that if any such mineral 
exists, as molybdic silver, no analysis of it has yet been given the 
public. It was, therefore, thought proper to change the name of this 
species, from molybdic to bismuthic silver, so as to make the name 
agree with the composition. 



182 SULPHURET OF SILVER. 

Species 5. SULPHURET OF SILVER. 

Argent Sulphure, H. Hexthedral Silver-Glance, J. M. Sulphnret 
of Silver, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark lead grey, often with a irri- 
descent tarnish ; occurs in cubes, and octohedrons ; 
also recticulated, ramose, lamelliform, amorphous, and 
in plates ; lustre metallic ; cleavage imperfect ; frac- 
ture flat conchoidal; malleable; easily sectile; sp. 
gr. 7. 

Ckem. Char. Fusible with intumescence, and odor of sulphur, leav- 
ing a globule of silver 

Camp. Silver 85; sulphur 15. — EJaproth. 

Dist. Char. From native silver, it may be known by its less sp. 
gr. and its sulphurous odor under the blowpipe. 

It occurs in primitive and secondary rocks, and is associated with 
the other ores of silver. 

Local. Freyberg, Bohemia, many places in Pern, and Mexico, the 
Hartz, Cornwall, and other places in England, and in Lower Austria. 

U. S. Livingston's lead mine, Columbia County, N. Y. 

06$. The present species is found in almost every silver mine, in 
greater or less quantity, and is an important ore for the extraction of 
silver. 

Var. 1. BLACK SULPHURET OF SILVER. 

Earthy Hexahedral Silver-Glance, J. Sooty Silver Ore, K. Black 
Sulphuret of Silver, A. P. Silver Black, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark lead grey, incliningto black; 
lustre feeble ; occurs massive ; pulverulent ; investing 
and filling the cavities of other ores of silver ; fracture 
dull and earthy ; sectile ; streak shining and metallic 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a slag, containing globules of silver. 
Comp. Unknown. 

It is found among the other ores of silver, and with native gold, 
and is a rich ore. 
Local Saxony, France, Mexico, Peru, Cornwall, &c. 

Var. 2. FLEXIBLE SULPHURET OP SILVER. 

Flexible Sulphuret of Silver, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, dark, nearly black ; occurs mas- 
sive, and in small tabular crystals, which are very flex- 
ible; cleavage perfect, parallel to the terminal planes ; 
lustre metallic ; yields readily to the knife ; easily sepa- 
rable into thin laminae. 

Comp. Silver, sulphur, and a little iron, the proportions un- 
known. 

Local. Hungary and Saxony, very rare. 



SULPHURETTED ANTIMONIAL SILVER. 



183 



Var. 3. BRITTLE SULPHURBT OP SILVER. 

Brittle Silver-Glance, J. Brittle Sulphuret of Silver, A. P. Brittle 
Sulphuretted Antimonial Silver, C: Prismatic Melane-Glance, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, dark lead grey, or bluish grey, 
passing into iron black ; occurs massive and dissemi- 
nated ; also in hexahedral prisms, with truncated ter- 
minal edges, and so short as to become lenticular ; lus- 
tre metallic, or dull ; structure foliated ; crystals most- 
ly intercept each other ; soft and brittle ; fracture con- 
choidal; sp. gr. 7. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with the evaporation of sulphur, arsenic, and 
antimony, into a globule of silver, surrounded by a slag. Soluble in 
nitric acid. 

Camp. Silver 66.5 ; antimony 10 ; iron 5 ; sulphur 12 ; arsenic 
and copper 5. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It differs from black sulphuret of silver, by giving out 
antimonial and arsenical fumes when heated. From sulphuret of sil- 
ver, in its want of malleability, and from arsenico-antimonial silver, by 
its darker color and brittleness. 

It is found in primitive rocks with the other ores of silver, and is a 
rich ore. 

Local. Near Freyberg, in Saxony. Bohemia, and Hungary. 

Species a SULPHURETTED ANTIMONIAL SILVER. 

Argent Antimoine Sulphur^, H. Red Silver, J A. P. Sulphuretted 

Antimonial Silver, C. Rhomboidal Ruby-Blende, M. 

Elxt. Char. — Color, red, of various shades, passing in- 
to lead grey, and greyish black ; powder crimson red ; 
occurs in masses and grains, also dentritic, mem- 
branous, capillary, and crystallized, in hexahedral 
prisms, terminated by hexahedral pyramids, variously 
modified by truncation ; also in double six-sided pyr- 
amids, with the edges replaced ; lustre metallic ada- 
mantine ; crystals often striated ; structure imperfect- 
ly foliated ; yields to the knife ; translucent, opake ; 
sp. gr. 5.20. to 6.68. 

s * • 



o^ 





Fig. 4. A six-sided prism, terminated by three-sided pyramids, the 
fkcea of which stand alternately on the lateral edges of the prism. 



184 SULPH. SIL. AND COPPER. EUCA1RITE. C A RB. SILVER. 

Fig. 5. A double six-aided pyramid, with the acute angles trunca- 
ted. 

Fig. 0. A dodecahedron, or double six-sided pyramid with the 
summits truncated, or replaced by three planes. 

Chem Char. Fusible with antimonial fumes, into a globule of 
silver. 

Comp. Silver 60 ; antimony 20.3 ; sulphur 14.7 ; oxygen 5. — Eh* 
proth. 

Dist. Char. From sulphuret of arsenic, it differs in having a great- 
er specific gravity, and in leaving a globule of silver. Sulphuret of 
mercury is entirely dissipated by the blowpipe. The sulphuret of sil- 
ver is malleable. Specular oxide of iron, after being submitted to the 
blowpipe is magnetic, and the red oxide of copper is easily reduced to 
the metallic state by the blowpipe. 

It is found chiefly in granite, mica-slate, and porphyry. 

Local. Saxony, Bohemia, Transylvania, Spain, Italy, and very 
abundantly in Mexico, and Peru. 

Obs. It is a valuable ore for the extraction of silver. 

Species 7. SULPHURET OF SILVER AND COPPER. 
Cupreous Sulphuret of Silver, C. Sulphuret of Silver and Copper, P. 
Ext.Char. — Color, lead grey, or iron black ; lustre 
shining; fracture conchoid al; brittle; sp.gr. 6.25. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into an impure globule of silver. 
Comp. Silver 52.27 ; copper 30.47 ; iron 0.33 ; sulphur 15.78.— 
Stromeyer. 
Local. Schalangenberg, in Siberia. 

Species 8. EUCATRITE. 

Seleniuret of Silver and Copper, P. Cupreous Seleniuret of Silver. 

C. Eucairite, Btrzelius. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, lead grey ; lustre metallic ; tex- 
ture granular ; yields to the knife, leaving a silvery 
lustre. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with a strong odor like that of horse radish, 
into a grey metallic globule ; soluble in nitric acid. 

Comp, Silver 38.93 ; selenium 26 ; copper 23.05 ; foreign sub- 
stances 8.90. — Berzelius. 

Local. In a copper mine in Smoland, Sweden. 

Species 9. CARBONATE OF SILVER. 

Argent Carbonatee, H. Carbonate of Silver, J. C. P. A. 

Ext. Char. — Color, grey, or blackish grey ; occurs 

massive and disseminated ; fracture uneven ; texture 

fine grained, lustre glistening metallic ; brittle. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, and easily reduced. Effervesces in acids. 



MURIATB OF PJLYPR. 165 

Camp. Silver 78.5 ; carbonic acid 12 : grid* <*f Wrt«PPJ*y and a 
trace of copper 15.5. 

JLacal. Furstenberg, Swabia, in sulphate pf bwytei. It is a very 
rare ore. 

Species 10. MURIATE OF SILVER. 

4rgent Muriate, H. Hexahedral Corneous Silver, J Muriate of 

Silver, P. C. Horn Silver, A. Hexahedral Pearl-Kerate, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, pearl grey, greenish or reddish 
blue, yellowish or greenish white and brown ; occurs 
massive, investing other minerals, reniform, amorphous, 
and crystallized in cubes, octahedrons, and acicu- 
lar prisms, variously modified ; lustre glistening and 
waxy; soft, yields to prespure; malleable; feebly 
translucent ; becomes brown externally by exposure ; 
sp. gr. 5.5. 

Chem. Char, Fusible in the flame of a candle. Under the blow- 
pipe, emits muriatic acid fumes, and is reduced to a globule of silver. 
Rubbed on moistened zinc, it leaves a film of silver. 

Comp. Muriate of silver 88.7 ; oxide of iron 6 ; alumine 1.75 ; sul- 
phuric acid 0.25. — KJaproth. 

Dist. Char. The muriate of mercury which it resembles, is entire- 
ly volatile before the blowpipe. The present species leaves a silver 
globule. 

It is found in primitive rocks, with the other ores of silver. 

Local Friberg, in Saxony. Hungary, in several mines, South 
America, Cornwall, England, Siberia, Spain, and France. 

It is a good ore for the extraction of silver. 

Subsp. 1. ARGILLACEOUS MURIA TE OF SILVER. 

Buttermilk Silver, A. P. Argillaceous Muriate of Silver, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, brownish white, greenish white, or 

pale green, externally bluish or brownish ; occurs 

massive, and coating other minerals ; fracture earthy • 

opake ; soft, sometimes nearly fluid. 

Chem. Char. It feebly agglutinates under the blowpipe, while mi- 
nute globules of silver flow from the mass. 

Comp. Silver 2464 ; muriatic acid 8.28 ; alumine with a trace of 
copper 67.08. — Klaproth. 

Local. Andreasberg, in the Hartz. 

Obs. 1. Silver was probably unknown to the antediluvians, as it is 
no where mentioned in the writings of Moses, who only speaks of 
brass and iron, among the metals. In the time of Abraham, it ap- 
pears to have been an article of common traffic, in the form of bars 
and ingots. — Calmet. 

2. Accordipg to Humboldt, the late annual product of the 

24 



1 86 NATIVE COPPER, 

American silver mines may be estimated at more than 32 millions of 
dollars. 

3. According to Shaw, the quantity of gold and silver extracted 
from the American mines from 1492 to 1803, has been equal hi value 
to 5,7^6,700,000 dollars, of which immense sum it is estimated, that 
including the booty which the Spaniards toot from the natives, 
about 5,445,000,000 was carried to Europe, making a yearly average 
of 17 millions and a half for 311 years. 

4. The annual importation of these metals from South America to 
Europe has been constantly increasing. From 1492 to 1500, the 
yearly importation did not exceed 250,000 dollars. From 1500 to 
1545, it amounted to 3,000,000. From 1545 to 1600, it was 
11,000,000. From 1600 to 1700, to 16,000,000. From 1700 to 
1750, 22,000,000 and a half. And lastly, from 1750 to 1803, the 
annual amount was 35,300,000 dollars. 

Humboldt calculates the weight of silver raised from these mines 
in three centuries, to have been 316 million of pounds. 

Genus 5.— COPPER. 

Copper is found native, also combined with s^pjuir, with oxygen, 
carbonic acid, arsenic acid, sulphuric acid, ntOrwR acid, and with 
several of the metals. Its ores are very numerous, and many of them 
highly beautiful and interesting. 

Uses. Copper next to iron, is probably the most indispensible metal, 
to the wants of man. Its uses are various and generally known. 
Brass, a compound, in universal use, is composed of copper and 
zinc. Bell metal, bronze, pinchbeck, speculum metal, and many other 
useful compounds are alloys of copper, with various other metals. Its 
salts and oxides are employed as paints, in coloring, and enameling, 
&c. 

Species I. NATIVE COPPER. 

Cuivre Natif, H. Native Copper, A. P. C. Octohedral C6p* 

per, J. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, copper red, tarnished externally 
brownish black ; occurs dentritic, capillary, reniform, 
and amorphous; also crystallized in cubes, and octohe- 
drous, variously modified by truncation ; malleable ; 
sp. gr. 8.5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible. Soluble in acids, forming salts which give 
a beautiful blue when mixed with liquid ammonia. 

Comp. Copper, nearly or quite pure. 
It is found in the veins of primitive and secondary rocks. 

Local. Siberia, Swabia, Saxony, Norway, and in many of the cop- 
per mines in England. 

U. S. Monroe County, Illinois. Near Lake Superior, North 
West Territory, a mass was found weighing by estimation 2,206H)S- 



SULPHURET OF COPPER. 187 

— Schoolcraft. Orange County, Fir. Blue Ridge, Jtftf. Adams 
County, Penn. Woodbridge, N. J. Hamden Hills, Conn, a mass 
was found weighing about 901bs. Also 12 miles from New Haven, 
another mass was found of 61bs. weight. — Sittiman. 

Specis 2. SULPHURET OF COPPER. 

Cuivre Sulphure*, H. Sulphuret of Copper, A. P. C. Rhomboidal 
Copper-Glance, J. Prismatic Copper-Glance, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, blackish lead grey, sometimes ir- 
ridescent ; internally lead grey, or tin white ; occurs 
massive, and in pseudomorphous crystals ; also crys- 
tallized in long tabular six-sided prisms, variously mo- 
dified, and in obtuse, and acute double six-sided pyra- 
mids, with the summits often truncated ; structure per- 
fectly lameller ; cleavage easy, with brilliant faces ; 
easily broken into grains ; crystals small and grouped ; 
the massive sectile, passing into hard ; fracture con- 
choidal ; sp. gr. about 5. 

Chan. Char. Fusible with the odor of sulphur, into a greyish me- 
tallic globule. Soluble in hot nitric acid. 
< Camp. Copper 76.50 ; sulphur 22 ; iron 0.50. — Klaproth. 

Dist Char. Grey copper decrepitates under the blowpipe, and is 
harder than the present species. Grey antimonial copper, gives out 
the fumes of antimony. Red oxide of copper is easily known from it, 
by the difference of color. 

Var. 1. PSEUDO-MORPHOUS SULPHURET OP COPPER. 

Cuivre Sulphur^ Pseudo-morphique, H. 

Ext. Char. — Color, blackish lead grey, occurs lenti- 
cular, or in small oval, flattened masses, formed of 
scales resembling the small cones of the pine tree, or 
ears of corn flattened; hence it has been called fossil 
corn ears, and was supposed by Linnaeus, to be a vege- 
table substance penetrated by copper. It also, gene- 
rally contains a little silver. 

Local. Frankenberg, in Hesse. 

Var. 2. VARIEGATED VITREOUS COPPER. 

Cuivre Sulphurl Hepatique, H. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, violet blue, greenish, and yellow- 
ish ; sometimes resembles tempered steel. 
Local Mont Blanc, and Cornwall, Eng. 



18ft 



FERRUGINOUS SULPHURET OF COPPER. 



Far. 3. black coppee. 
Black Copper, A. P. C. J. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, bluish, or brownish black ; oc- 
curs mostly disseminated in, or investing other ores of 
copper ; triable ; soils the fingers. 

Chcm. Char. Infusible, but gives out the odor of sulphur. 
Local Cornwall. 

Species 3 FERRUGINOUS SULPHURET OP COPPER. 

Cuivre Pyriteux, H. Copper Pyrites, P. Yellow Copper, A. Pyri- 

tous Copper, C. Pyramidal Copper-Pyrites, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, golden, or brass yellow, often 
with an external irridescent tarnish ; occurs dentritic, 
stalactical, amorphous, in concretions, and crystalli- 
zed ; form, the tetrahedron, with the solid angled of- 
ten truncated, also the dodecahedron, formed by rais- 
ing a three-sided pyramid, on the faces of the tetrahe- 
dron ; lustre shining, and metallic ; structure lamfelldr ; 
cleavage parallel to the faces of the octohedron ; faces 
brilliant ; crystals small and seldom pferfect ; yields to 
the knife : sp. gr. 4.3. 

Ckem. Char. Fusible into a black globule, which on continuing 
the heat, becomes magnetic. Tinges borax green. 

Comp. Copper 40 to 35 5 , iron 40 to 33 ; sulphur 90 to 85. 

Different specimens seldom yield the same proportions of these in- 
gredients. It often contains a portion of silex. 

Dist. Char. It resembles iron pyrites, but this is commonly of a 
bronze yellow, and does not tinge borax green. Native bismuth is 
laminated, and melts with great ease into a bright globule, that of the 
present species being black. Nati« e gold is malleable. 

It is found in primitive and secondary rocks, and is one of the 
most common and abundant ores of copper. 

Local Spain, Bohemia, {Siberia, Silesia, Norway, Japan, Corn- 
wall, and many other places in England. 

U S. Perikomon lead mine, Perm. Also in Chester, Delaware 
County. On the Hudson, A. Y. in many places. Cheshire, Sims- 
buiy, Farmington, and Granby, Conn. Woburn, Brighton, and Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

It is a valuable ore for the extraction of copper, and from it a great 
proportion of that used in commerce, is obtained. 

Var. 1. PURPLE COPPER. 

Cuivre Pyrteux Hepatique, H. Variegated Copper, J. Purpje Cop- 
per, A. P Variegated Pyritous Copper, C. Uctohedral Copper- 
Pyrites, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, blue, or yellow, sometimes inter- 



GREY COPPER. 



189 



mediate between bronze-yellow, and copper red ; irri- 
descent ; occurs massive, and ctystallized Jn the form 
of cubes with curvilinear faces, and truncated angles; 
also in plates which are sometimes hexagonal ; struc- 
ture imperfectly lamellar; cleavage parallel to the 
planes of the regular octohedron ; doft; easily frangi- 
ble ; lustre metallic ; subject to tarnish : sp. gr. 5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a globule which is magnetic. Effervesces 
with nitric acid. 

Comp. Copper 58 ; iron 18 ; sulphur 19 ; oxygen 5. — Klaprotk. 

Dist Char. Its greater specific gravitv, and its variegated colors, 
will distinguish it from ferruginous sulphoret of copper. 

It is found in primitive and secondary rocks, With the other pres of 
copper. 

Local Arendal, Cornwall, Switzerland, Saxony, Ate. 

Species 4. GREY COPPER. 

Cuivre Gris, H. Grey Copper, A P. C. Tetrahedral Copper Py- 
rites, J. Tetrahedral Copper-Glange, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, steel grey, passing into iron 
black ; streak brownish ; occurs amorphous, dissem- 
inated, and crystallised in tetrahedrons, of which Hauy 
has ennumerated twelve modifications ; lustre glisten- 
ing and metallic ; brittle ; crystals small and grouped ; 
sp. gr. about 5. 






Fig. 7. The tetrahedron, with the edges bevelled or replaced by 
two planes. 

Fig. 8. The same, with the edges, and solid angles truncated. 

Fig. 9. The pyramidal dodecahedron, with curved faces. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, but not easily reduced to the metallic state. 

Comp. Copper 52; iron 23 ; sulphur 14. — Chenevix. 

Dist. Char* Specular oxide of iron is magnetic ; arsenical iron is 
harder than grey copper, and gives oat arsenical fumes when heated. 

It is found with the other ores of Copper, and with those of iron in 
primitive and secondary rocks. 

Local. Friberg, in Saxony. Gomor, in Hungary. Several places 
in the Tyrol. Spain, Scotland, England, &c. 



190 TENNANTITE, 

Var. 1. ARSENICAL GR1Y COPPER. 

Cuivre Gris Arsenifere, H. Arsenical Grey Copper, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, steel . grey ; occurs in tetrahe- 
dronsand amorphous; lustre metallic ; possesses most 
of the characters of the species. 

Chcm. Char, Infusible, but diffuses the arsenical vapor. 
Comp. Copper 41 to 48 ; iron 22.5 to 27.5 ; sulphur 10 ; arsenic 
14 to 24 ; silver, a trace. — Klaproth. 
Local. Various parts of Germany, Cornwall, Eng. Scotland, &c. 

Var. 2. ANTIMONIAL GREY COPPER. 

Cuivre Gris Antimonifere, H. Black Copper, J. Antimonial Grey 
Copper, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark lead grey, nearly black; 
occurs amorphous and crystallized, in tetrahedrons ; 
lustre glimmering, and somewhat greasy ; fracture un- 
even. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a metallic globule, which emits minute 
scintillations attended with little trains of smoke. 

Comp. Copper 37 75 ; antimony 22 ; sulphur 28 ; silver 00.25 ; 
iron 03.25— Klaproth. 

Dist. Char It is distinguished from other ores which it resembles, 
by the antimonial scintillations under the blowpipe. 

Species 4. TENNANTITE. 
Tennantite, J. P. C. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, lead grey, passing into blackish 

Srey ; occurs crystallized in the form of rhombic do- 
ecahedrons ; also in cubes and regular octohedrons; 
cleavage imperfect ; structure foliated; lustre metal- 
lic ; streak reddish grey ; brittle : sp. gr. 4.37. 

Chem. Char. Burns with a bluish flame, and then emits arsenical 
vapors, leaving a black magnetic scoria. 

Comp. Copper 45.32 ; arsenic 11.84 ; iron 9.26 ; sulphur 28.74 ; 
silex 5. — Phillips. 

Local. Cornwall, Eng. in several of the copper mines. 

Var. 1. WHITE COPPER. 

White Copper, J. C. A. P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, internally nearly silver white, 
sometimes with a tinge of yellow ; soon tarnishes ; lus- 
tre metallic and glistening ; occurs massive and dis- 
seminated ; yields to the knife 5 fracture fine grained, 
uneven ; brittle : sp. gr. 4.5. 



RED OXIDE OP COPPER. 191 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with arsenical vapors, into a dark slag. 

Comp. Copper 40 ; the remainder being iron, arsenic and sulphur* 
—Vauquelin. 

Local. Cornwall, with other copper ores. 

V. 8. Fairfield, Conn, in compact masses, color, metallic, sp. gr. 9. 
— SilUman. 

Species 5. RED OXIDE OF COPPER. 
Cuivre Oxide Rouge, JI. Octohedral Red Copper Ore, J. Red 
Copper Ore, A. Red Oxide of Copper, P. C. Octohedral Copper- 
Ore, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, red, of various shades, as deep 
cochineal red, greyish red, and pure cochineal red ; 
occurs amorphous and crystallized in regular octahe- 
drons, and cubes, variously modified by truncation, and 
bevelment ; structure lamellar, but rarely visible; 
cleavage parallel to the planes of the octohedron ; lus- 
tre metallic adamantine ; fracture conchoidal, uneven; 
translucent ; yields to the knife ; brittle ; powder Ver- 
million red : sp. gr. 4 to 5.9. 







Fig. 10. The regular octohedron, the primary form. 

Fig. 11. The same, with all the solid angles truncated, producing 
quadrangular planes. 

Fig. 12. The octohedron, with its edges and solid angles trunca- 
ted, the angles produced by the truncation being slightly bevelled, 
forming three planes. 

Fig. 13. The rhombic dodecahedron, with all its edges and solid 
angles slightly truncated. 

Obs. According to Phillips, this mineral occurs under 100 secon- 
dary forms. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, and easily reduced to the metallic state. Dis- 
solves with effervescence, in nitric acid ; in muriatic acid, without 
effervescence. 

Comp. Copper 91 ; oxygen 9. — Klaproth. 

Copper 88.5 ; oxygen 11.5. — Cheneviz. 

Dist. Char. The red color of this species, and its effervescence in 
nitric acid, will distinguish it from red silver ore, which does not effer- 
vesce, and from the sulphurets of copper,, which are not red. Cinna- 
bar does not effervesce, and is volatile by the blowpipe. x 

Oxide of copper is found in primitive, and secondary rocks, as- 
sociated with the other ores of copper. 

It is found in small quantities, but its localities are numerous. 



192 BLUE CARBONATE OF COPKR. 

Var. 1. CAPILLARY RBD OXIDB OF COPPER* 

Capillary Red Copper Ore, J. Capillary Red Oxide of Cop- 
per, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, carmine red, often very beauti- 
ful ; occurs in minute, long, slender crystals ; translu- 
cent, or transparent ; crystals generally aggregated, 
or cross each other at various angles. - 

Local. In the mines of Cornwall. 

Var. 2. massive red oxide of copper. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark red ; opake, or translucent ;' 
fracture granular ; often intermingled with native cop- 
per. 

Local Cornwall. 

Far. 3. foliated red oxide of copper. 
Foliated Red Copper Ore, J. 
Ext. Char. — Color, red, often lively and rich} occurs 
massive and crystallized ; structure foliated ; lustre 
shining, metallic ; fracture conchoidal, uneven ; trans- 
parent, or translucent 
Local. It is found with the other varieties. 

Var. 4. ferruginous red oxide of copper. 
Tile Ore, P. A. 
Ext. Cfiar. — Color, brick red, passing into reddish 
brown ; occurs massive ; fracture earthy ; lustre glim- 
mering, or dull ; yields to the knife, sometimes to the 
nail ; opake. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, turns black. Gives a dirty green to borax. 

Comp. Supposed to consist of red oxide of copper, and iron. 

Local. This species is found in small quantities, in most copper 
mines. 

U. S. Perikomen lead mine, and near Lancaster, Pemn. In the 
red sandstone formation, N. J. In the greenstone mountains, Ctom. 

Species 6. BLDE CARBONATE OP COPPER. 

Cuivre Carbonate* bleu, H. Azure Copper Ore, J. Blue Carbonate 
of Copper, A. C. P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, blue, ojf different shades, a# azure 
or indigo blue ; occurs massive, stalactic&l, encrusting, 
disseminated, and crystallized ; primitive form, the oh- 



GREEN CA&80N4T9 OF COPPER. 193 

Chem. Char. Infusible without addition ; with borax, gives a green 
glass, and yields a metallic globule. Dissolves with effervescence in 
nitric acid. 

Camp. Oxide of copper 70 ; carbonic acid 24 ; water 6,— Klctr 
proth. 

Dist. Char, The sulphate of copper which it may resemble, is so- 
luble in water. Azure phosphate of iron becomes magnetic under 
the blowpipe. 

Obs. Some specimens of implanted crystals present brilliant shin- 
ing faces in every position, and being of an intense rich blpe, are pe- 
culiarly striking and beautiful. 

It is found in primitive and secondary mountains. 

Local, Chili, J&ohemia, the Hartz. Most of the copper mines in 
England. Chessy, in France. Uralian mountains, &c. 

U. S. Perkiomen lead mine, Perm. Schuyler's mines, N. J. Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Jameson remarks, that this species is not only used as an ore of 
copper, bnt also as a pigment, called mountain blue, of which there is 
a manufactory in the Tyrol. 

Species 7. GREEN CARBONATE OF COPPER. 

Cuivre Carbonate* Verte, H. Green Carbonate of Copper, P. C. He- 

mi-Prismatic Habroneme-Malachite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, emerald, grass, or apple green, 
also verdigris green ; streak and powder, lighter green; 
occurs tuberose, globular, reniform, mammillary, and 
stalactical ; also in fibres, and^curved folia, and rarely 
in crystals ; form four-sided prisms, generally very mi- 
nute ; and in rhombic prisms ; lustre shining, or dull : 
gp. gr. about 4. 

Chem. Char. Turns black, but does not melt alone ; with borax, 
gives a dark greenish glass : effervesces with acids, and forms a blue 
color with ammonia. 

Camp. Copper 5&; oxygen 12.50; carbonic acid 18 ; water 11. 5Q. 
— Kliproth. 

Dist. Chtr. From the green oxide of uranium, the green phos- 
phate of lead, and the green muriate of copper it is distinguished by 
its effervescence with acids. The green arseniate of copper gives 
out the garlic odor when heated. 

Var. 1. febrous malachite. 
Cuivre carbonate* vert aciculaire, H. Fibrous Malachite, J. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, green of various shades ,• occurs 

in delicate shining fibres, sometimes radiated, or fassi- 

culated ; lustre silky ; translucent ; very soft ; brittle ; 

Obs. 1. It is found incrusting other minerals, particularly ores of 



191 CHRYSOCOLLA. 

copper in thin layers, composed of radiating delicate fibres of a glis- 
tening, silky lustre. 

2. According to Jameson, these fibres are regular crystals, of which 
Estner determined, that some were six-sided prisms, with bevelled 
edges, others three-sided truncated prisms, &c. 

It occurs in small quantities with other ores of copper. 

Local Silesia, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and the several mines in 
England. 

U. S. Schuyler's mines, N. J. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. 
Cheshire, Conn, in small, but good specimens. — Silliman. 

Var. 2. compact malachite. 

Cuivre carbonate 1 vert concretionne*, H. Massive Malachite, A. P. 
Compact Malachite, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, emerald green, passing 
into apple, verdigris, or grass green ; occurs in masses, 
composed of botryoidal, globular, or reniform concre- 
tions, of a fibrous radiating structure, closely compact- 
ed together. Sometimes the concretions are concen- 
tric lamellar, in one direction, and fibrous in another 
fracture conchoidal; opake ; lustre glistening and 
silky ; aspect often striped. 

Comp. Oxide of copper, 72.2; carbonic acid, 13.5; water, 9.3. — 
PhiUips. 

It occurs with the blue carbonate of copper, and fibrous malachite. 

Local Bohemia, England, Russia, Saxony, Norway, and Siberia. 

U. 8. Blue Hills, Md. Near Nicholas Gap, Penn. Near Bound- 
brook, N. J. Greenfield, Mass. 

Uses. It is ground, and employed as a paint, and is sometimes cut 
and polished for jewelry. Specimens are sometimes found of con- 
siderable size, and are sawn into thin plates, and polished as curios- 
ities, for the covers of boxes, or are worked into vases, &c. These 
when polished, display the radiated structure, and silky, changeable 
lustre of the mineral to great advantage, and are often extremely 
beautiful. 

Jameson remarks, that Patrin saw a slab of green malachite at St. 
Petersburg, which was thirty two inches long, and seventeen broad , 
and was valued at twenty thousand livres. 

Species S. CHRYSOCOLLA. 

Cuivre carbonate terreux, H. Copper Green, C. Crysocolla, H. P. 

Uncleavable Staphyline-Malachite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, verdigris green, passing into 
emerald, or leek green, also yellowish green, and sky 
blue -, occurs massive, botryoidal, reniform, and some- 
times coating malachite ; fracture small conchoidal ? 



DIOPTASE. MURIATE OF COPPER. 195 

lustre shining, resinous ? yields to the knife, sometimes 
with difficulty ; sp. gr. 2. to 2.4 ; translucent : brittle. 

Chan, Char. Infusible, but becomes black, and tinges the flame 
green. With borax forms a green glass, and yields a copper globule. 
Effervesces slightly with acids. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 50 ; carbonic acid 7; water 17 ; silex 2§. 
—Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its translucency, and feeble effervescence will distin- 
guish it from malachite. 

Obs. 1. It appears to pass on the one side, into malachite, and on 
the other, into chalcedony, and hence it varies greatly in respect to 
hardness. — Aiken. 

2. The same specimen often exhibits different external characters, 
being partly green and translucent, and partly brown and opake. — 
Cleveland. 

Local. Cornwall, England ; Hungary, Bohemia, Norway, Siberia, 
Mexico, and Chili. 

Species 9. DIOPTASE. 

Cuivre Dioptase, H. Dioptase, J P. C. Emerald Copper, A. 
Rhombohedral Emerald-Malachite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, emerald, verdigris, or blackish 
green ; occurs in six-sided prisms, terminated by three- 
sided pryamids ; structure lamellar ; cleavage in three 
directions, more or less perfect ; fracture conchoidal ; 
lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous ; transparent, or 
translucent ; sp. gr. 3.27. scratches glass. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, melts into a green glass* 
Soluble without effervescence in muriatic acid. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 55 ; silex 33 ; water 12. — Lowitz. 

Oxide of copper 5*5.57 ; carbonate of lime 42.95 ; silex 28.57.— 
Vauquelin. 

Dht. Char. Emerald is much harder than dioptase, and is insolu- 
ble in acids. Its want of effervescence will distinguish it from chry- 
socolla. 

Local Siberia, where it is associated with carbonate of lime, and 
malachite. 

Species 10. MURIATE OF COPPER. 
Cuivre muriate, H. Muriate of Copper, A. P. C. Atacamite, J. M. 

Ext Char. — Color, emerald, verdigris, or leek green ; 
also blackish green ; streak, pale green ; occurs in mi- 
nute octohedrons, either with wedge-shaped termina- 
tions, or variously truncated, or both ; also in lamellar 
masses, and in concretions composed of acicular crys- 
tals resembling malachite : structure lamellar : brittle i 



196 SULPHATE AND PHOSPHATE OF COPPER. 

lustre shining ; translucent • crystals often transparent: 
sp. gr.3.52. to 4 A. 

Chem. Char, i 'ommunicates bright bloe and green colors to the 
flame of a candle ; before the blowpipe gives the muriatic odor, and 
melts into a globule of copper. Soluble in nitric acid, without effer- 
vescence. 

Dist. Char. From arseniate of copper, it differs in emitting the 
muriatic, instead of the gailic odor From malachite it is known by 
the same properties, as well as by the peculiar color it give* to the 
flame. 

Local. Remolinos in Chili, with carbonate of copper. Peru, with 
the ores of silver. Vesuvius, in lava. 

U. S. Woburn, Brighton, and Medford, Mass. 

Sptcits. 11. SULPHATE OF COPPER. 

Cuivre sulfate, H. Prismatic Vitrol, J. Sulphate of Copper, P. C. 

Tetarto-Prismatic-Vitrol-Salt, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, deep rich blue, and sky blue; 
artificial crystals, four, six, or eight-sided prisms, often 
terminated by dihedral summits; native crystals very 
rare; more commonly occurs stalactical, and pulveru- 
lent ; taste styptic, and nauseous ; when rubbed on 
moistened polished iron, leaves a coat of copper. 

Obs. Sulphate of copper, or blue vitriol is sometimes found in solu- 
tion, in the water proceeding from mines of the sulphuret of copper! 
and from the decomposition of which, it is produced. 

Local. Anglesea in England, Wicklow in Ireland, Fahlun in Swe- 
den, near Goslar in Hungary. 

Obs. 1. At the copper mine of Ahglesea, considerable quantities of 
the metal are obtained by throwing into the water which comes from 
the mine, waste iron, on which the metallic copper is precipitated. 

2. The blue vitriol of commerce is obtained partly by crystallising 
such natural solutions, and partly by lixiviating inferior ores of cop- 
per. 

Uses. Its principal use is in dying. It is also employed in ffled* 
icine. 

Species 12. PHOSPHATE OF COPPER. 

Cuivre Phosphate, H. Phosphate of Copper, J. A. P. C. Prismatic 
Habroneme-Malachlte, M. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, emerald, verdigris, or blackish 
green, often darker on the surface ; occurs crystallis- 
ed in rhombic prisms with curvilinear faces, aiid in oc- 
tohedrons, often elongated, and terminating in trunca- 
ted pyramids ; crystals very small, and fasciculated or 
grouped ; also, it occurs in mammillary, or reniform 
concretions composed of radiating, or diverging deli- 



HYDROUS PHOSPHATE, AND ARSENIATE OP COPPER. 197 

cate fibres, and in thin plates, opake ; crystals often 
translucent ; lustre resinous, or silky ; structure foliat- 
ed ; cleaves in two directions : sp. gr. 4. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a brownish globule, which extends it- 
self on the charcoal, and by the addition of a little tallow, is reduced 
to a small globule of copper. Dissolves without effervescence in nitric 
acid. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 68.13 ; phosphoric acid 30.95. — Kla- 
proth. 

Dist. Char. Its solubility without effervescence, will distinguish it 
from malachite, and the effects of the blowpipe will distinguish it 
from arseniate of copper, chrysocolla, dioptase, and muriate of cop- 
per. 

Local. Hungary, at several places. Cornwall, in England ; and 
near 'Cologne, in Italy. 

Species 13. HYDROUS PHOSPHATE OF COPPER. 
Hydrous Phosphate of Copper, P. Prismatic Habroneme-Mala- 

chite, M. 

Ext. CAar-^Color, emerald green, the massive, stri- 
ated with blackish green ; occurs massive and crys- 
tallized ; crystals occur aggregated, or implanted, 
sometimes radiating or diverging ; very minute, and so 
connected that their forms have not been precisely de- 
termined 5 powder, verdigris green ; translucent : sp. 
gr. 4.2. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ease, into a reddish black slag, which 
with soda is reduced to a metallic globule. 

Comp. Peroxide of copper 62.48 ; phosphoric acid 21.67 ; water 
15.45. - Limn. 

Local. Bonn, on the Rhine, with native copper. 

/Species 14. ARSENIATE OF COPPER. 

Thert are several varieties of this species , which differ considerably 

in their chemical characters, as mU as external forms. 

Var. 1. OCTOHEDRAL ARSENIATE OF COPPER. 

Cuivre arseniate primitif, H. Lenticular Copper, J. Octohedral 
Arseniate of Copper, A. P. Obtuse Octohedral Arseniate of Cop- 
per, C. Prismatic Lirocone-Malachite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, sky blue, bluish white, greenish 
white, or verdigris green ; streak pale ; occurs in ob- 
tuse pyramidal octahedrons, composed of two four-sid- 
ed pyramids joined base to base ; crystals small ; 
cleavage parallel to all the planes of an obtuse octo- 



198 ARSENIATE OF COPPER. 

hedron ; lustre vitreous ; translucent, semi-transpa- 
rent; brittle ; not so hard as fluor: sp. gr. 2.88. 

14 




Fig. 14. An obtuse octohedron, or two four-sided pyramids set on 
a short common base ; a form under which this mineral commonly 
occurs. The crystals are often flattened, so as to become nearly len- 
ticular. 

Ckem. Char. Fusible into a black scoria ; with borax, yields a 
metallic bead of copper. Gives the garlic odor when heated. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 49 ; arsenic acid 14 ; water 35. — Che- 
nevix. 

Dist. Char. It differs from malachite, in not effervescing with acids, 
and in giving the odor of garlic. Green oxide of uranium, is not re- 
duced by the blowpipe. Muriate of copper, exhales the muriatic va- 
por. 

Local Cornwall, in England, with many other varieties of copper 
•re. 

Far. 2. rhomboidal arseniate of copper, 
Cuivre arseniate lameIliform6, H. Prismatic Copper Mica, J. Rhom- 
boidal Arseniate of Copper, P. Hexahedral Arseniate of Copper, 
C. Rhombohedral Euchlore-Mica, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, pure green, emerald green, grass 
green, rarely bluish green, or greenish white ; occurs 
in six-sided tabular crystals, of which the lateral planes 
are trapeziums ; cleavage parallel to all the planes of 
the rhomboid ; structure foliated, with brilliant faces 
parallel to the broader planes ; transparent, translucent; 
crystals sometimes arranged in rose-like forms, and 
sometimes form foliated, or tabular masses, which are 
divisible like those of mica ; yield's to the knife, or 
nail : sp. gr. 2.M. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a globule ; with borax, yields a bead of 
copper. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 5S; arsenic acid 21 ; water 21. — Che- 
nevix 

Dist. Char. These are similar to those of the variety above, while 
it may be distinguished from that variety, by the forms of its crystals 
and foliated structure. 

Local. Cornwall, in several of the copper mines. 



ARSENIATE OP COPPER. 199 

Var. 3. OBLIQUE PRISMATIC arseniate of copper, 
Cuivre arseniate prismatique triangulaire, H. Trihedral Oliven 
Ore, J. Oblique Prismatic Arseniate, A. P. Prismatic Arseniate 
of Copper, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, bluish black, or deep black ; oc- 
curs in curved lamellar concretions, and more rarely 
in minute oblique rhombic prisms ; crystals fascicula- 
ted, or radiatiug, and often of a beautiful blue, by trans- 
mitted light ; when massive, nearly black ; translucent, 
or transparent ; yields to the knife : sp. gr. 4.2. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe, flows like water, and in cooling, 
crystallizes in plates of a brown color. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 54 ; arsenic acid 30 ; water 16. — Che- 
nevix. 

Dist. Char. Its peculiar chemical characters, and its crystalliza- 
tion on cooling, will distinguish it from substances it most resem- 
bles. 

Local. Cornwall, with the other varieties of this species. 

Var. 4. RIGHT PRISMATIC ARSENIATE OP COPPER. 

Prismatic Oliven-Ore, J. Right Prismatic Arseniate, P. Prismatic 
Olive-Malachite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, various shades of olive green, 
passing into yellowish, brownish, or blackish green ; 
occurs in prismatic crystals ; cleavage parallel to the 

{>lanes of a right rhombic prism ; crystals often capil-" 
ary ; translucent ; op^ke ; shapes of the massive, glo- 
bular, and reniform ; surface drusy : brittle : sp. gr. 
2.28. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with a kind of deflagration, and by continu- 
ing the heat, is reduced, the globule of copper being covered with a 
coating of the red oxide. Soluble in nitric acid. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 50 ; arsenic acid 29 ; water 21. — Clie- 
nt vix. 

Dist. Char. The difference between the chemical characters of 
this variety, and that above, will distinguish them from each other. 

Local. Cornwall, and Cumberland, Eng. 

Var. 5. fibrous arseniate or copper. 

Caitre arseniate* aciculaire, H. Fibrous Acicular Olivinite, J. 
Amianthiform, and Haematitic Arseniate, A. P. Fibrous Arseni- 
ate of Copper, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, gr?en, grass green, yellowish 
or brownish green, or greenish white ; occurs in ca- 
pillary crystals, parallel or diverging, extremely fine, 



200 MARTIAL ARSENIATE OP COPPER. 

like raw silk, and so closely connected as to resemble 
knots of wood ; also it occurs loosely united, in short 
delicate fibrils, projecting from nodular, or reniform 
masses, and resembling the finest cotton ; lustre silky ; 
brittle ; translucent ; opake : sp. gr. 4.28. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with the odor of arsenic, into a cellular scoria. 
Soluble in acids. 

Dist. Char. It resembles some varieties of amianthus, and bysso* 
lite, and also fibrous oxide of fin, but is easily distinguished from 
them by its chemical characters, and particularly the garlic odor. 

Species 15. MARTIAL ARSENIATB OF COPPER. 
Cuivre arseniate ferrifere, H. Martial Arseniate of Copper, J. A. 
Ferruginous Arseniate of Copper, C. Scorodite, M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, leek green, olive green, passing 
into white ; also, pale blue, and yellowish green; 
streak, white ; occurs in reniform masses, composed 
of minute crystals, and in crystals, the forms of which 
are right rhombic prisms, terminated by four-sided pyr- 
amids ; lustre vitreous $ harder than calcareous spar 5 
translucent, or transparent ; fracture uneven ; brittle : 
sp. gr. 3.16. 

Chem. Char. Emits an arsenical odor, and melts into a brownish 
scoria, which acts on the magnet. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 22.5 ; oxide of iron 27.5 ; arsenic acid 
33.5 ; water 12 ; silex 3. — Chenevix. 

Obs. The great copper mine of Fahljun, in Sweden, has been work- 
ed to the depth of 1200 feet, and one of the Cornwall copper mines, 
is 1800 feet deep. In both of these mines, the heat is so great that 
the miners carry on their labor with little or no clothing, in the cold- 
est season. In the Fahlun mine, according to Dr. Clarke, the heat 
to a stranger is absolutely intolerable. This high temperature, is in 
part owing to the fires which are kindled to soften the rock, or break 
it in pieces, so as to lessen the labor of the miners, and in part to the 
great depth of the mines, the heat increasing, it is said, in proportion 
to the descent into the bowels of the earth. 

Genus 6.— LEAD* 

The color of pure lead, is bluish grey, approaching white, but it 
soon tarnishes on exposure to the air. Its specific gravity is 11. 
The ores of this metal are numerous, but with the exception of the 
sulphuret of lead, they are of no considerable importance to the 
arts. 

Lead is found native, also combined with several of the other me- 
tals ; with sulphur, with several of the acids, with oxygen, with sev- 
eral of the acidified metals, and with carbonic acid. 



NATIVE, AND 8VLPHURET Of LEAD. GALENA. 201 

Uses. The uses to which this metal is applied, are numerous and 
important. In its metallic state, it is employed in the construction of 
aqueducts ; for covering the roofs of houses ; for the linings of boil- 
ers, for certain uses ; in the composition of pewter, &c. Its oxides 
and salts, are employed as paints ; in the composition of glass; in 
medicine, and in several of the more common arts. 

This metal is inert on the living system, but its salts and oxides 
operate as slow, but certain poisons. 

Species I. NATIVE LEAD. 
Plomb natif, H. Native Lead, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, bluish grey ; occurs interspersed 
in galena ; lustre metallic ; malleable ; soft ; easily 
cut : sp. gr. 11. 

Obs. 1. The existence of native lead has been doubted by Hauy, 
and others. That found on the Island of Madeira, in lava, was sup- 
posed to have been reduced to its metallic state, by volcanic heat. 

2. The existence of native lead is, however, proved by the follow- 
ing extract of a letter to the present writer, from a gentleman of sci- 
ence, B F. Stickney, Esq. ol Ohio. 

" I have," says he, " a specimen of lead ore, from Auglaise River, 
(Ohio,) in which metallic lead is so interspersed with galena, as to 
prove incontestably the existence of native lead." 

Species 2. SULPHURET OF LEAD GALENA. 

Plomb sulfur6 y H. Hexahedral Galena, J. Sulphuret of Lead, P. C 
Hexahedral Lead-Glance, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, bluish grey, lead grey, external- 
ly blackish grey, and sometimes irised ; occurs crys- 
tallized, amorphous, and reticulated ; form the cube, 
and regular octohedron, with many of their varieties ; 
structure lamellated ; cleavage, parallel to the planes 
of the cube, which is its primitive form ; lustre of the 
cleaved surfaces, very brilliant ; soft ; brittle ; opake ; 
when massive, the structure is granular, and the frac- 
ture uneven, flat conchoidal : sp. gr. 7.5. 

*** 

15 " ^ x— *-v 






Fig. 15. The regular octohedron, a form next to the cube, under 
which the present species most commonly appeals. 

Fig. 16. The octohedron, with its edges bevelled, or replaced by 
two planes. 



202 8ULPHURET OF LEAD. GALENA. 

JPig. 17. The octahedron, with its solid angles deeply truncated, 
and the edges replaced. 

Chtm. Char. First decrepitates, and then melts with the odor of 
sulphur, into a globule of lead. 

Camp. (A mean of 4 specimens.) Lead 67.5 ; sulphur 17 ; lime 
and silex 15.5. — Vauquelin. 

Dist Char. Between the sulphuxet.of lead, and the sulphuret of 
zinc, there are these distinctions. The lead is reduced to a metallic 
globule, by the blowpipe, and is fixed ; while the zinc being reduced, 
is soon eTaporated. Molybdena is infusible, as is the case with gra- 
phite. 

Var. 1. GRANULAR GALENA. 

Plomb sulfure* granulaire, H. Granular Sulphuret of Lead, C. 
Granular Galena, A. P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, the same as in the species ; occurs 
massive, composed of small crystalline grains, irregu- 
larly disposed ; fracture granular ; lustre shining ; re- 
sembles steel ; less apt to tarnish, than the other vari- 
eties. 

In other respects, it does not differ from the species. 
Var. 2. compact galena. 

Plomb sulfure compacte, H. Compact Sulphuret of Lead, or Ga- 
lena, C. Compact Galena, A. P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, light lead grey ; occurs in no- 
dules, or small masses ; fracture conchoidal ; structure 
fine grained ; texture close, and compact ; lustre mod- 
erate ; often contains silver. 

Var. 3. specular galena. 
Plomb sulfure* speculaire, H. Specular Galena, A. P. C. 
/2xf. Char. — Color, lead grey ; occurs in extremely 
thin coatings, on quartz, and other subtances ; lustre 
splendid, with an appearance of polish. 

Obs. 1. This variety, from its high lustre, is called by the miners, 
slickensides, or looking-glass lead ore. 

2. This variety is found chiefly in the Derbyshire lead mines, and 
Mr. Phillips states the curious circumstance, that when two vein- 
stones meet, the surface of each being coated with this variety, there 
is a loud report, or explosion produced on separating them, the frag- 
ments at the same time being projected in various directions. 

Var. 4. antimonial sulphuret of lead. 

Plomb sulfure* antimonifi&re, JI. Triple Sulphuret of Lead, A. An- 
timoniated tylena, P. ^ntirnonial Sulphuret of Lead, C. S£- 
p r i«nati'c Copper-Glance, M. 

£xt. Char.— Color, steel grey, passing into dark lead 



StTLPHURB? OF LEAD- GAUDfe'. 203 

grey, or fron black ; occurs attiorphous anft Crystalliz- 
ed, in* the form of rectangular prisms, variottdfy rrtoAi- 
fied ; or in elongated cubes ; Crystals grouped ; struc- 
ture lamellar, affording brilliant faces parallel to the 
planes of a four-sided prism ; brittle ; lustre strongly 
metallic; crystals striated on certain faces-; soft; 
yields to the nail : sp. gr. 57. 



Chem. Char. Fusible, with the escape of white anttniottial 
into a metallic globule, which contains a bead of copper at the 
centre. 

Comp. Lead 42.62 ; antimony 24.23 ; sulphur 17 ; copper 12£ ; 
iron t%.—Hatchett. 

Dist. Char. The antimonial fumes, which it emits, and the glo- 
bule of copper surrounded by a crust of lead which the blowpipe pro- 
duces, will distinguish this variety. 

Sulphuret of lead is found in primitive and secondary mountains, 
but most frequently in the latter, and particularly in limestone. In 
granite and limestone, it sometimes constitutes extensive beds, but 
more often occurs in veins of various dimensions and extent. It' is 
commonly associated with the ores of zinc, copper, and iron, and 
often with those of silver, a portion of which, it generally Contains. 

Local England, is a great repository of this ore. According to 
Phillips, the lead mines of Great Britain, produce annually from 45 
to 48,000 tons of smelted lead. This is extracted almost entirely 
from the sulphuret, the largest proportion i of which, is raised from the' 
mines of England. 

France, also contains its mines' of this- metal, as weH as Saxony, 
Bohemia, and Spain. 

U. S. Perkiomen Creek, 23 miles from Philadelphia, Perm. 
The shall of this mine is 170 feet deep. Livingston's Manor, 
Columbia County. Ancram. Shawangunk Mountain, and Ul- 
ster County, N. Y. One ton from Livingston's mine, is said 
to have yielded 118 ounces of silver. Huntington, Southington, 
flfiddletown, and Bethlehem, Conn. None of these are wrought 
Thetford, and Sunderland, VU Southampton, and Leverett, Mass. 
The mine at Southampton, has a horizontal entrance through the so- 
lid granite of nearly 1000 feet, and is expected ultimately to yield 
the best ore, in large quantities. Counties of Washington, St Geni* 
vieve, Jefferson, and Madison, Missouri. The number of mines is 
these counties, according to Schoolcraft, are 45. The ore on at 
average, yields from 60 to 70 per cent, of metal, and is found in an 
alluvial deposit. The whole annual product of them, is about 
3,000,000 of pounds. This ore is also found in llUnoi s, Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Tennessee, Maryland, Virginia, and in various places in the 
NortJ^Western Territory. — See Cleveland's Mineralogy, andRobin* 
son's Localities. 



104 NATIVE RED OXIDE, AND CARBONATE OF LEAD. 

Species 3. NATIVE RED OXIDE OF LEAD. 

Plomb oxide rouge, H. Native Minium, J. A. P. Oxide of 
Lead, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, scarlet red ; occurs amorphous, 
in flakes, and in powder; when examined by a lens, it 
has a crystalline structure. 

Chem. Char. On charcoal, it is converted into metallic lead. 
Remark. It is supposed to arise from the decomposition of galena, 
with which it occurs. 
Local. Yorkshire, Eng. Siberia, and Westphalia. 

Var. 1. aluminous oxide of lead. 

Hydrous aluminate of Lead. — Smithson. P. Aluminous Oxide of 

Lead, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellow, or yellowish brown ; oc- 
curs in masses composed of concentric layers ; lustre 
pearly, on certain parts ; on others irised ; texture 
sometimes fibrous, and radiating ; translucent on the 
edges ; heavy ; resembles hyalite in aspect. 

Chem. Char. Decrepitates ; when slowly heated, turns white and 
opake, but does not melt. With borax, melts into a colorless glass ; 
with the addition of nitre, a globule of lead is obtained. 

Comp. Lead 40.14; alumine 37; water 19.90; sulphuric acid 
0.20 ; oxides of manganese and iron 1.80 ; silex0.60. — BerzeUus. 
Local Huelgoet, in Brittany. 

Species 4. CARBONATE OF LEAD. 
Plomb carbonate^ H. Di-Prismatic Lead-Spar, J. Carbonate of 
Lead, A. P. C. Di-Prismatic Lead-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, greyish 
white, and light brown ; occurs in tabular crystals, in 
six-sided prisms, in cuneiform octohedrons, in four-sid- 
ed prisms, and in double six-sided pyramids, each form 
being subject to various modifications, by truncation ; 
also massive, compact, in spangles, and pulverulent ; 
fracture uneven ; transparent, or' translucent ; lustre 
adamantine, passing into resinous ; brittle ; sectile ; re- 
fraction double : sp. gr. 6 to 7.23. 





Fig. 18. A six-sided prism, terminated by six-sided pyramids. 



CARBONATE OF LEAD. 



205 



Fig. 19 and 20. The same figures modified by truncation. 

Fig. 21. A four-sided prism, with curved faces, terminated by 
four-sided pyramids, another common form. 

Chem. Char. Decrepitates, becomes yellow, then red, and is imme- 
diately reduced to a globule of lead. Effervesces with muriatic 
acid 

Comp. Oxide of lead 82 ; carbonic acid 16 ; water 2. — Klaprotk. 

Dist. Char. Its high specific gravity, will distinguish it from car- 
bonate of lime, and its effervescence from the sulphates of barytes 
and strontian. Its reduction to the metallic state, will indeed distin- 
guish it from every mineral which it resembles. 

Obs. 1. Crystals of the carbonate of lead, are generally grouped, or 
aggregated, or intersect each other in such a manner, as to make it 
difficult to determine their forms. 

2. They are subject to decomposition, and in consequence, be- 
come grey and opake. 

3. When recently exposed, some specimens are very beautiful. 
Carbonate of lead, is found in primitive and secondary countries. 

It accompanies galena, and the other ores of lead ; also several of the 
ores of iron, zinc, and copper. 

Jameson remarks, that next to galena, this is the most common 
ore of lead, but that it never occurs so abundantly, as to make it 
worth working by itself. 

Local Bohemia, Saxony, Siberia, Chili, Switzerland, and in many 
of the lead mines of England, and Scotland. 

U. S. Mine k Burton, Missouri, incrusting galena. Wythe Coun- 
ty, Vir. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. in double six-sided pyramids 
with truncated summits ; in six-sided prisms, and in oblique four- 
sided prisms. — Wetkcrill. Also near Lancaster, Perm. 

Var. 1. acicular carbonate of lead. 
Plomb carbonate aciculaire, H. Acicular Carbonate of Lead, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish, or yellowish 
white, and brownish black ; occurs in minute fibres, or 
crystals, collected into groups, or tufts ; lustre silky 
and glistening ; often intermixed with malachite. 

Remark. Some specimens of this variety, are remarkably beauti- 
ful. 
Local. Cornwall, in several of the lead mines. 

Var. 2. EARTHY CARBONATE OF LEAD. 

Plomb carbonate terreux, H. Earthy-Spar, J. Earthy Carbonate 
of Lead, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, grey, occasionally tinged with 
green, yellow, or red ; occurs in amorphous masses, in 
reniform concretions, and in crusts ; fracture and as- 
pect, earthy ; lustre, a little glossy, pr dull ; opake • 



206 SULPHATE OF LEAD. 

sometimes friable; soft and heavy: sp. gr. 4.16 to 
5.78. 

Comp. Oxide of lead 66 ; carbonic acid 12 ; water 2.2 ; silex 10.5 ; 
alumine 4.7 ; oxides of tin and manganese 2.2.— John. 

Obs. This variety differs greatly in respect to its composition, ow- 
ing to the foreign matter it is liable to contain. Sometimes it is near- 
ly a pure carbonate of lead, while other specimens scarcely effervesce 
with acids, owing to admixture with foreign ingredients. 

Local Durham, and Derbyshire, in England, and in Scotland, 
with the other ores of lead. 

Species 5. SULPHATE OF LEAD. 
Plomb sulfate^ H. Sulphate of Lead, A. P. C J. Prismatic Lead- 

Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish white, grey, red, 
brown, and green; occurs massive, and in small shin- 
ing crystals ; in the form of rhombic prisms with dihe- 
dral summits, the prisms often being so short as to give 
them an octohedral form ; translucent ; transparent in 
thin laminae, lustre splendent, and resinous ; streak 
white ; easily scraped by the knife ; brittle : sp. gr. 
6.29. 

Chem. Chctr. Fusible, and easily reduced to the metallic state. In- 
soluble in nitric acid. 

Comp. Oxide of lead 72.47 ; sulphuric acid 26.9; the residue be- 
ing water, iron, manganese, and silex. — Stromeyer. 

Dist. Char. Carbonate of lead, which it resembles, effervesces with 
acids, and molybdate of lead which it also resembles, is not easily re- 
duced to its metallic state, by the blowpipe. 

It is found with sulphuret of lead, from the decomposition of which 
it may have been produced. 

Local Zellerfield, in the Hartz, with the ores of copper, iron, and 
lead. Andalusia, in Spain. Cornwall, Anglesea, and Scotland. 

U. S. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. in octohedrons. — WetkeriU. 
Huntington, Conn. Southampton, Mass. in plates, or tables, on sul- 
phuret of lead. — Meade. 

Var. 1. SULPHATO-CARBONATH Of LEAD. 

Rhomboidal carbonate of Lead, Bournon. Sulphato-Carbonate of 
Lead, Brooke. P. M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish, yellowish, or greyish 
white ; occurs in oblique angled, four-sided prisms, 
terminated by two planes set obliquely on the obtuse 
angles of the prism ; crystals always minute, seldom 
distinct ; and generally fasciculated, feo as to present a 
fibrous aspect; lustre adamantine; structure foliated; 



MUJUO-CARBONATE OP LEAD. 207 

cleavage perfect, in two directions ; translucent ; sec- 
tile :sp-.gn 6.8 to 7. 

Chan. Char. Fusible, but not easily reduced. Effervescence 
hardly perceptible, in nitric acid. 

Comp. Sulphate of lead 53.1 ; carbonate of lead 46.9. — Brooke, 
Local. Lead Hills, in Scotland. 

Var. 2. cupreous sulphato-carbonatb of lead. 
Cupreous Sulphato-Carbonate of Lead, Brooke. 
Ext CAar.— Color, deep verdigris green, or bluish 
green ; occips in minute prismatic crystals, which ap- 
pear in small bunches, or bundles, radiating from a 
common point ; form, broad rectangular prisms, termin- 
ated by dihedral summits ; surface streaked ; fracture 
uneven ; translucent ; brittle ; soft ; sp. gr. 6.4. 

Comp. Sulphate of lead 55.8 ; carbonate of lead 32.8 ; carbonate 
of copper 11.4.— Brooke. 

Local. Lead Hills, in Scotland. 

Var. 3. sulf ato-tri-c arson ate of lead. 

Rhomboidal Carbonate of Lead, Bournon. Sulphato-Tri-Carbonate 

ofLead^oofe. M. P. 

Ext Char.— Color, pale green, yeHowish,and brownish ; 
occurs in prismatic and rhomboidal crystals 5 primary 
form, the acute rhomboid, which passes by the replace- 
ment of all its solid angles into a six-sided prism ; trans- 
lucent ; small crystals, transparent : sp. gr. 6./>. 

Comp. Sulphate of lead 27.6 ; carbonate ofiead 72.5.— Brooke. 
Local. Lead Hills, Scotland, with the two preceding varieties. 

Var. 4. cupreous sulphate of lead. 
Cupreous Sulphate of Lead, Brooke. M. P. 
jExt. Char*— Color, deep blue, and beautiful azure 
Hue ; occurs in crystals ; primitive form, a right rhom- 
bic prism ; occurs also in twin crystals ; lustre ada- 
mantine ; streak pale blue ; feintly translucent ; brittle ; 
sp.gr. 5.3 to 5.43. 
Camp. Sulphate of lead 74.4 ; oxide of copper 18 ; water 4.7.^- 

Local. Lead Hills, Scotland. Linares, in Spain. 

Species 6. MURiO-CARBON ATE OP LEAD. 
CnwFflpnt |^ad«Ore, J MuriorCarbopate of Lead, P.M. Carbo- 
jtfAM Muriate of Lead, C. 
Em. Char.— Color, white, with tints of yellow, green, 



208 PHOSPHATE OF LEAD. 

and grey ; streak white ; occurs in fouMided prisms, 
often so short as to become cubes ; also in rectangu- 
lar prisms, terminated by four-sided pyramids ; both 
kinds variously modified by truncation ; lustre adaman- 
tine ; structure lamellar; cleavage, parallel to all the 
planes of a four-sided prism; cross fracture conchoid- 
al ; transparent, or translucent ; rather sectile ; brittle ; 
sp. gr. 6. 

Chcm. Char. Fusible, into an orange colored globule, and on con- 
tinuing the heat, the acid evaporates, and a minute globule of lead 
remains. 

Comp. Oxide of lead 85.5 ; muriatic acid 8.5 ; carbonic acid 6.5. 
— Klaproth. 

Dist Char. Its peculiar behavior under the blowpipe, will distin- 
guish it from carbonate of lead. 

Local. Hausbaden, in Germany, and Matlock, in Derbyshire. 

U. S. Southampton lead mine, Mass. in groups of light green, 
nearly transparent, cubic crystals, with four-sided summits. — Meade. 

Species 7. PHOSPHATE OF LEAD. 

Plomb phosphate, H. Rhomboidal Lead-Spar, J. Phosphate of 

Lead, A. P. C. Rhombohedral Lead-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, brown, grass green, 
olive, pistachio, and blackish green ; sulphur yellow, 

irreenish yellow, wax yellow ; aurora red, hyacinth red; 
lair brown, clove brown ; pearl grey, and ash grey ; 
occurs amorphous, in crusts, in concretions, and in crys- 
tals ; form, the six-sided prism, often truncated on the 
lateral or terminal edges ; also the dodecahedron, or 
double six-sided pyramid ; fracture small grained, or 
uneven, passing into splintery ; lustre glistening, re- 
sinous, or adamantine ; crystals sometimes acicular, 
and often glouped; translucent; yields easily to the 
knife ; brittle ; sp. gr. 6 to 7. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe on charcoal, it usually decripi- 
tates, then melts, and on cooling tbrms a polyhedral globule, the fe- 
ces of which present concentric polygons ; if this globule be pulver- 
ized, and mixed with borax, it melts into a milk-white enamel, which 
on continuing, the bead becomes transparent, the lower part being 
studded with globules of metallic lead.— Aikin. 

Comp. Oxide of lead, 77.10; phosphoric acid, 19,0; muriatic, 1. 
54 ; oxide of iron, 0,10. — Klaproth. 

hist. Char. It differs from carbonate of lead, and carbonate of 
copper, in not effervescing with acids. Its peculiar behaviour un- 
der the blowpipe, will distinguish it from most, if not all other sub- 
stances. 



ARSENIATE OF LEAD. 209 

'It is found in primitive and secondary rocks. 
Local. Saxony, Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall in several lead mines. 
Lead Hill in Scotland. Ireland. 

U. S. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. Southampton, Mass. 

Var. 1. AR8ENIATED PHOSPHATE OF LEAD. 

Plomb phosphate arsenifere, H. Arseniated phosphate of lead, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellow, and greenish yellow, of 
various shades ; occurs crystallized in the form of the 
species ; also reniform and mammillated ; fracture 
conchoidal ; lustre resinous. 

Chem. Char. Exhales the arsenical vapor, and yields a globule of 
lead. 

Comp. Oxide of lead 76 ; phosphoric acid 13 ; arsenic acid 7 ; 
muriatic acid 1,75; water 5. — Klaproth. 

Local. Saxony, and Hosiers in France. 

Var. 2. blue lead. 

Plomb sulfure epigene prismatique, H. Blue Lead, J. A. P. C. 
Hexahedral Lead-Glance, M. 

Ext. CAar.—rColor, between lead grey, and indigo 
blue ; occurs massive, and in six-sided prisms, often 
somewhat bulging, or with convex faces ; fracture con- 
choidal, or fine grained ; uneven ; lustre glimmering me- 
tallic ; fragments indeterminate ; soft ; easily frangi- 
ble; opake; sp. gr. 5.46. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with the emission of sulphureous vapors, a 
part of the globule being reduced, while the other part, on cooling 
crystallizes in dodecahedrons. 

. Obs. Prof. Silliman supposes this to be a mixture of the sulphuret, 
and the phosphate of lead, in which opinion he is followed by Pro£ 
Mohs. 

Local. Huelgoet, in France, and in Saxony. 

Species 7. ARSENIATE OF LEAD. 
Plomb arsenic, H. Arseniate of Lead, J. A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, grass green, wine yellow, hair 
brown, and yellowish white ; occurs in small slender 
six-sided crystals, either perfect or with truncated 
edges, and in minute crystals, gathered into bundles, 
and so arranged as to assume the general appearance 
of six-sided prisms ; translucent, rarely transparent ; 
when transparent scratches glass; lustre resinous; 
brittle ; also occurs in mammillary concretions, and in 
filaments, with a silken lustre, sp. gr. 5 to 6.4. 

27 



210 MOLYBDATE OF LEAD. 

Chem. Char. Gives oaf arsenical vapors, and is redueed ft* metallic 
lead, h does not effervesce with acids. 

Comp. Oxide of lead 69.76 ; arsenic acid 26.4 ; muriatic acid 1. 
68.— Gregar. 

Local. Cornwall, and Devonshire, in several of the lead mines. St 
Prix, in the department of Saone, in France. 

Far. 1. RENIFORM ARSENIATE OF LEAD. 

Reniform Arseniate of Lead, P. A. C. 

Ext. CAar.— Color, brownish red, passing into straw 
yellow ; occurs in reniform masses ^ fracture conchoi- 
dal; lustre glistening, resinous; opake; soft; brittle: 
sp. gr. 3.9. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with arsenical vapor, into a black gloWe, 
out of which oozes little globules of metallic lead. 

Comp. Lead 25 : oxide of iron 14; silver 1,1&; arsenic acid 35 ; 
silex 7 ; alumine 2 ; water 10. — Bindheim. 

Dist. Char, Arseniate of lead diners from the carbonate, the mo* 
libdate, and the phosphate of lead, by the emission of the garlic odor, 
when heated ; also, the carbonate effervesces, the molybdate ia with 
difficulty reduced, and the phosphate crystallize* in polyhedrons 
on cooling. 

Local. Nertschinsk, in Siberia. 

Specut . 8. MOLYBDATE OF LEAD. 
Homb molybdatl, H. Yellow Lead Spar, J. Molybdate of Lead, A. 
P. C. Pyramidal Lead-Baryte, M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, wax, or honey yellow, passing 
into lemon, or orange yellow, and brownish yellow? 
occurs in crystals, and rarely massive ; form, the octo* 
hedron, variously modified • sometimes it is truncated 
on all its angles, or on the solid angles of die summits 
only : sometimes it is found in four-sided tables, or 
nearly in the form of a cube, or parallelopiped, or 
eight-sided table, either truncated or bevelled ; some- 
times these table so intersect each other, as to give 
the mass a cellular structure: fracture imperfectly 
conchoidal ; soft ; brittle ; yields to the knife ; lutre 
waxy ; sp. gr. 5.9. 

JRT 





Fig. 22. The octohedron, truncated on all its solid angles. 




CHROMATE OF LEAD. 211 

ftg. 23. An eight-sided table, produced by the deep truncation of 
ail the angles of an octahedron, forming the table ; and the truncation 
of the common base, producing the eight-sides. 

Fig. 24. Another secondary form, in which the solid angles are 
truncated, with the truncation of the edges of the common base, in 
form of a scalene triangle. 

Chan. Char. Fusible into a dark grey mass, which by the utmost 
effort of the blowpipe, yields globules of lead. Soluble, without ef- 
fervescence, in hot nitric acid. 

Comp. Oxide of lead 64.42 ; molybdic acid 34.25 —Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It diners from the carbonate, and sulphate of lead, in 
the difficulty of its reduction. The arseniate of lead, emits the gar- 
lic odor ; the phosphate is not reduced without a flux, and the muri- 
ate of lead, emits the smell of muriatic acid. Its sp. gr. will distin- 
guish it from the earthy minerals. 

Local. Bleyberg, in Garinthia, Zimapan in Mexico. Annaberg 
in Austria, and in the Tyrol. 

17. S. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. where it occurs in quadrangu- 
lar tables, variously modified. — Conrad. Southampton lead mine, 
Mass. in small tabular crystals, of a dark wax yellow.— Meade. 

Species 9. CHROMATE OF LEAD. 

Plomb chromatl, H. Red Lead-Spar, J. Chromate of Lead, A. 

P. C. Hemi-Prismatic Lead-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, orange, or aurora red, or hya- 
cinth red, always rich and beautiful ; occurs crystal- 
lized, and rarely massive ; form, the rectangular four- 
sided prism, variously modified ; also the compressed 
eight-sided prism, with two, three, or four-sided ter- 
minations ; crystals often broad and flat ; sometimes 
striated, and generally incomplete, their geometrical 
characters being difficult to determine ; lustre resi- 
nous; translucent; yields to the knife ; brittle; sp. 
gr. 6. 

Ckem. Chair. Fusible, with crackling, into a greyish slag ; tinges 
borax green, 

Comp. Oxide of lead 63.96. chromic acid 36.40.— Klaproth. 

Dist Char. It differs from the sulphuret of arsenic, from red an- 
timonial silver, and from cinnabar, in this respect, that all these are 
more or less volatile under the blowpipe, while the present spe- 
cies is fixed. 

Local Beresof, in Siberia, in a gold mine, Cocaes, in Brazil, and 
Zimapan in Mexico. 

Gbs. The native chromate of lead, is a we, and scarce mineral. 
The artificial chromate is of a beautiful bright yellow, and is employ- 
ed with oil, in the finer kinds of painting. 

The chromic acid, used in the manufacture of this article, is ex- 
tracted by a chemical process, from the chromate of iron, 



212 BISMUTH. WAT1TE BISMUTH. 

This paint is manufactured at Philadelphia, the chromic acid be- 
ing obtained from the chroraate of iron, which is found near Balti- 
more. 

Var. 1. CUPREOUS CHROMATE of lead. 
Vaquelinite. Chromate of lead and Copper, P. Cupreous Chro- 
mate of lead, C. Vauquelinite. Malachite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, olive green, and blackish green ; 
occurs in minute six-sided crystals, irregularly aggre- 
gated, and frequently constituting thin crusts, and 
sometimes in botryoidal, or stalactical masses ; lustre 
adamantine ; faintly translucent ; rather brittle ; some- 
times is interspersed with chromate of lead. 

Chem. Char. Intumesces, and melts into a greyish globule, sur- 
rounded with little globules of metallic lead. 

Comp. Oxide of lead 60.78 ; oxide of copper 10.80; chromic acid 
28.33.—- Berzeiius. 

Local Siberia, and Brazil, with the chromate of lead. 

Genus 7.— BISMUTH. 

Color, when pure, reddish white ; lustre brilliant ; texture foliated ; 
softer than copper ; breaks when struck smartly with a hammer ; 
melts at 476, Fah. ; and if the heat be increased, evaporates in the 
form of yellow oxide : may be distilled in a close vessel ; sp. gr 9.83. 

Uses. It enters into the composition of printing types. Its oxides 
are employed as paints, and in medicine. 

The ores of Bismuth are few, and rarely met with. 

Species 1. NATIVE BISMUTH. 

Bismuth natif, H. Octohedral Bismuth, J. M. Native Bismuth, A. 

P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, silver white, with a tinge of cop- 
per red ; occurs amorphous, plumose, and reticulated ; 
also crystallized in the form of octohedrons and cubes ; 
structure lamellar, with joints parallel to the planes 
of an octohedron ; soft; lustre brilliant ; subject to 
tarnish ; sp. gr. 9. 

Chem. Char. Easily fusible, and by continuing the heat, evaporates 
in the form of a yellow oxide. Soluble in nitric acid, but is precipi- 
tated on dilution with water. 

Dist. Char. Native bismuth diners from the sulphuret of' bismuth, 
in not giving out the sulphureous odor when heated ; the sulphuret is 
also of a pale lead grey color, instead of reddish white ; its want of 
malleability, and easy fusion will distinguish it from native silver, and 
native copper, and its color will distinguish it from native antimony. 



SULPHURET OF BISMUTH. 213 

It is found in primitive'rocks, and particularly in quartz, gneis*, and 
mica slate, where it is generally associated with cobalt, arsenic, and 
silver. 

Local. Saxony, Bohemia, Swabia, Norway, and England, each con- 
tain localities of this metal. 

U S. Huntington, Conn, in broad plates disseminated in a vein 
of quartz. — Silliman. Also Trumbull, Conn, in tabular masses, with 
the sulphurets of iron, and lead. — Phillips. 

Species. 2. SULPHURET OF BISMUTH. 
Bismuth sulfure, H. Prismatic Bismuth-Glance, J. M. Sulphuret- 
ted Bismuth, A. Sulphuret of Bismuth, P. G. 

Ext. Char. — Color, between lead grey, and tin white ; 
occurs amorphous, lamelliform, and acicular ; struc- 
ture foliated, or fibrous ; cleavage of the foliated, paral- 
lel to the sides, and shorter diagonal of a rhombic 
prism ; sometimes occurs in fibrous radiating masses ; 
lustre shining, metallic ; soft ; brittle ; streak unchang- 
ed : sp.gr. 6. 

Chem. Char. Fusible by the flame of a candle ; under the blowpipe, 
gives the flame and odor of sulphur, and is chiefly volatilized, the 
residue being with difficulty reduced to its metallic state. 

Comp. Bismuth 60 ; sulphur 40. — Sage. 

Dist. Char. It differs from native bismuth, in color, and in giving 
the fumes of sulphur, under the blow pipe. Sulphuret of lead is ea- 
sily reduced to a metallic globule ; sulphuretjof antimony disappears 
entirely before the blowpipe. 

Local. These are much the same with those of native bismuth,, 
with which it is commonly found. 

Var. 1. ■ cupreous sulphuret of bismuth. 

Cupreous Bismuth, J. Cupriferous Sulphuret of Bismuth, A. P. 
Cupreous Sulphuret of Bismuth, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, lead grey, or steel grey, passing 
into tin white, with a reddish, or yellowish tarnish ; 
occurs massive, disseminated, and acicular ; fracture 
uneven ; streak black ; opake ; sectile. 

Comp. Bismuth 47.24 ; copper 34.66 ; sulphur 12.58— Klaproth. 
Local. Near Wittichen, in Furstenburg, with native bismuth, and 
pyritous copper. 

Var. 2. PLUMBO-CUPREOUS SULPHURET OF BISMUTH. 

Bismuth sulfure* plumbo-cuprifere, H. Plumbo-Cupreous Sulphuret of 

Bismuth, C. 

Ext. Char — Color, steel grey, with a yellowish tar- 
nish ; occurs amorphous, disseminated, and in acicular 
prisms, striated longitudinally; structure lamellar) 



214 OXIDE OF BISMUTH. KATIYE If ICKEL. 

lustre, Bhining, metallic ; yields easily to the knife : sp. 
gr. 6. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with sulphureous vapor, after which it 
emits sparkling metallic globules, and on continuing the heat, there 
remains a mixture of copper and lead, which tinges borax green. 
Effervesces in acids. 

Comp. Bismuth 43.2 ; lead 24.3 ; copper 12.1 ; nickel 1.5 ; tel- 
lurium 1.3; sulphur 11.5.— John. 

Local. Near Beresof, in Siberia, imbedded in quartz. 

Species 3. OXIDE OF BISMUTH. 
Bismuth oxidl, H. Bismuth Ochre, J. A. P. Oxide of Bismuth, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greenish, or yellowish grey \ oc- 
curs massive, and pulverulent ; fracture earthy ; struc- 
ture imperfectly lamellar ; opake ; soft ; dull ; and 
brittle : sp. gr. about 4.37. 

Chem. Char. Easily reduced, on charcoal, to the metallic state. So- 
luble in nitric acid. 

Comp. Oxide of bismuth 86.3 ; oxide of iron 5.2 ; carbonic acid 
4.1 ; water 3.4. — Lampidius. 

Genus 8.— NICKEL* 

Pure nickel is of a brilliant white color, resembling silver. It is 
malleable, both hot and cold. It is not so hard as wrought iron, and 
like it, is magnetic. It fuses at 160°, Wedgewood. In nitric acid, 
it gives a greenish solution ; tarnishes by heat, and runs through 
nearly the same changes that heated steel does : sp. gr. 9. 

Nickel is not an abundant metal. Its ores are few im number, and 
rarely found. 

Species I. NATIVE NICKEL. 
Nickel natif, H. Native Nickel, J. A. P. C. H. 

Ext. Char. — Color, when fresh broken, pale yellow, 
with a tinge of grey ; occurs in slightly flexible needles, 
or filaments, or in tables placed on each other ; not 
magnetic. 

Chem. Char. Partially melts, and becomes magnetic and maDea* 
ble. 

Comp. Nickel, with a small portion of arsenic, and cobalt, which 
seems to destroy its magnetism. 

Local. Hart z, Saxony, Bohemia, near Salzburg, and Cornwall. 

It is also found in nearly every meteoric stone, which has been an* 
alyzed. 



ABSENICAL, AND ARSRNIATE OF NICKEL. PIMELITE. 215 

Species % ARSENICAL NICKEL. 

Nickel arsenical, H Prismatic Nickel Pyrites, J. Copper Nickel, 

A. P. Arsenical Nickel, C. Prismatic Nickel-Pyrites, M. 

Ext Char.— Colors, copper red, or yellowish red ; ac- 
quires a dark tarnish hy exposure ; occurs reticulated, 
botryoidal, and massive ; fracture imperfectly con- 
choidal ; lustre, shining metallic ; yields with difficul- 
ty to the knife ; sometimes gives sparks with steel ; 
said to occur in four, or six-sided prisms : sp. gr. 6.60 
to 7.70. 

Chem. Char. Gives out arsenical vapors, and melts with difficulty 
into a scoria, interspersed with metallic globules. Forms a green 
solution in warm nitric acid. 

Camp. Nickel 44.2 ; arsenic 54.7 ; iron, lead, and sulphur, in 
small portions. — Stromeyer. 

Dist. Char. It has a strong resemblance to native copper, but cop* 
per is malleable, and does not emit arsenical vapors. From pyri- 
tous copper, it may be known by its garlic odor, and its difficult re- 
duction. 

It is found in primitive rocks, with the ores of cobalt, copper, and 
silver. 

Local Saxony, Bohemia, France, Spain, and Cornwall. 

K S. Chatham, Conn, in a hornblende rock, associated with co- 
balt.*-*- IWrey. Frederic County, Md. 

Species*. ARSENITE OF NICKEL. 
Nickel oxide*, H. Nickel Ochre. Arseniate of Nickel, B. Nickel- 
ochre, A. Arsenite of Nickel, C. 

Ext Char. — Color, apple, or grass green, and green- 
ish white ; occurs in the state of a powder adhering to, 
and coating other minerals, and particularly arsenical 
nickel ; also, more or less compact, and df a fine apple 
green color ; opake, or feebly translucent. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, and reducible with borax, to the metallic 
state, exhaling a strong odor of arsenic. Dissolves in acids without 
effervescence. 

Comp. Oxide of nickel 37.4 ; arsenious acid 37 ; water 24.3 ; ox* 
ide of iron 1.1 ; sulphuric acid 0.2. — Stromeyer. 

Dist. Char. The carbonate of copper, which it sometimes resem- 
bles, effervesces with acids, and turns black when heated. The ox- 
ide of bismuth is easily reduced, and soon evaporated, by the blow- 
pipe. 

Species 4. PIMELITE. 

Pimelk, W. Nickel oxyde, Bt. Pimelite, J. P. C. 

Ext Char.— Colors, apple green, or greenish yellow ; 



216 PIMELITE. ARSENICAL COBALT. 

occurs in crusts, or small indurated masses ; fracture, 
and texture, earthy ; lustre glimmering, or dull ; soft ? 
unctuous to the touch. 

Ckem. Char. Infusible, but turns dark grey, and loses a part of its 
weight 

Comp. Oxide of nickel 15.62 ; silex 35 ; alumine 5.10 ; lime MO; 
magnesia 1.25 ; water 37.91.— Klaproth. 

Local. Silesia, in several places, where it is associated with chry- 
soprase, in veins traversing serpentine. 

U. S. New Fane, N. H. color apple green ; envelopes chryso- 
prase. Discovered by Mr. Field. 

Genus 9.— COBALTt 

Color, when pure, greyish white, with a tinge of copper red ; lus- 
tre, approaching brilliant ; melting point, 130° Wedgewood ; brittle, 
and reducible to powder in a mortar ; not liable to oxidate on expo- 
sure to the air, or if kept under water : sp. gr. 8.7. 

Obs. Cobalt has not been found in the native state. 

Uses. Cobalt, in its metallic state, has not been applied to any use; 
but in the state of an oxide, it is an article of considerable conse- 
quence in the arts. Zaffree is an impure oxide of cobalt, which 
when fused with a certain quantity of glass, forms smalt. Smalt, is 
of a deep and rich blue color, and is the substance which gives the 
blue color to china-ware, to enamel, glass, porcelain, &o. Paper, 
and linen, also receive their bluish tinge from smalt. 

Remark. The name, cobalt, according to Beckmann, comes from 
cobalus, a title which the German miners gave to an imaginary spirit, 
which they formerly believed haunted certain mines. This name 
was given to the ores of cobalt, because, like an evil spirit, they 
thwarted the hopes of the miners, by raising great expectations when 
nothing in fact was to be realized, the uses of cobalt being then en- 
tirely unknown. It was once customary, therefore, says the same 
author, to introduce into the church service, a prayer, " that God 
would protect miners, and their works, from kobalts, and spirits." 

Its uses as a coloring matter, were discovered in about 1640. 

Species 1. ARSENICAL COBALT. 

Cobalt Arsenical, H. Octohedral Cobalt Pyrites, J. M. Arsenical 

Cobalt, A. C. Tin White Cobalt, P. 

Ext. Char.— Color, tin, or silver white, tarnished ex- 
ternally greyish, or reddish ; occurs amorphous, arbo- 
rescent, reticulated, stalactical, and crystallized in the 
form of cubes, and octohedrons with their varieties ; 
crystals often exhibit cracks, and convex surfaces ; lus- 
tre, glistening and metallic ; yields with difficulty to 
the knife ; brittle : sp. gr. 7.3. 



ARSENICAL OOBA&Yr 217 

Ckem. Char. Before the btowpipe, it g ivet out « copious arsenical 
vapor, on the first impression of the heat ; k melts only partially, aed 
that with great difficulty, and is not attractable by the magnet ; on the 
addition of borax, it immediately melts into a grey metallic globule, 
coloring the borax of a deep bine. — Aikin. In the flame of a candle, 
it emits arsenical vapors. 

Dut. Char. The present species, differs from grey o»balt, in be* 
ing of a more compact, or granular texture, instead of being lamellar ; 
and in emitting the odor of arsenic, when exposed to the ilame of a 
candle. From arsenical iron, it differs, in giving a blue color to bo- 
rax, and from antimonial silver by the same test, and also by its gar- 
lic odor, which the silver does not emit. 

Comp. Cobalt 44 ; arsenic 55 ; sulphur 0.50. — Klaproth. 

VoT. 1. GREY ARSENICAL COBALT. 

Cobalt gris, II. Hexahedral Cobalt Pyrites, J. M. Bright White 
Cobalt, A. P. Grey Cobalt, €. 

Ext. Char. — Color, tin white, with a tinge of copper 
red ; occurs dentritic, botryoidal, and crystallized in 
cubes and octohedrons, variously truncated, and per- 
fectly similar to those of the sulphuret of iron ; struc- 
ture lamellar ; cleavage, parallel to the planes of the 
cube ; yields with difficulty to the knife ; not brittl e ; 
lustre metallic, shining : sp. gr. 6.33 to 6.45. 

Ckem. Char. Turns black, and as it grows red hot, emits arseni- 
cal fumes, and is finally reduced to a metallic globule, which is mag- 
netic. — Phillips. 

Comp. Cobalt 33.1 ; arsenic 43.5 ; sulphur 20.1 ; iron 3.2. — Stro- 
meyr. 

Dist. Char. The marks of distinction, between this variety and the 
species, has already been pointed out. All the ores of cobalt are ea- 
sily distinguished from other minerals, by the deep blue they give to 
borax. 

Obs. The present species and its variety, are the ores chiefly 
wrought for the purpose of obtaining cobalt, for commercial pur- 



Arsenical cobalt occurs in veins, traversing primitive rocks, asso- 
ciated with nickel, bismuth, silver, arsenic, and copper. 

Local. Cornwall, and near Dartmoor, in England. Tunaberg, in 
Sweden. Queerback, in Silesia. Norway, Sweden. Friberg, Ma- 
rienberg, and Annaberg, in Saxony. 

U. S Chatham, Conn, in a hornblende, and mica-slate rock. This 
mine was wrought 50 years since, and abandoned. Another attempt 
has also been made within a few years, but the ore was found too 
poor to make it profitable, and it is again abandoned. 

Obs. Nearly all the zaffree and smalt, used in commerce, come 
from Saxony, where the cobalt mines have been long wrought, with 
great profit. 

<28 



218 SULPHURET, AND A R8 EN I ATE OF COBALT. 

Species 2. SULPHURET OF COBALT AND COPPER. 

Cobalt sulfurl, Lucas. Cobalt Kies, J. M. Sulphuret of Cobalt, 

P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, yellowish white, or grey- 
ish ; occurs massive and botryoidal ; fracture une- 
ven, conchoidal ; presenting a granular surface ; lustre 
brilliant ; cleavage indistinct ; semi-hard. 

Chem. Char. Emits a sulphureous odor, and melts into a metallic 
globule, which gives the blue color to borax 

Oomp. Cobalt 43.29 ; copper 14.40; iron 3.53 ; sulphur 3a 60.— 
Hisinger. 

Local. Riddarhyttan, in Sweden. 

Species 3. EARTHY COBALT. 
Cobalt oxide noir, H. Black Cobalt-ochre, J. M. Earthy Cobalt, 
A. P. Oxide of Cobalt, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, bluish, and brownish black, black- 
ish brown, and yellowish grey ; occurs botryoidal, sta- 
lactic, and massive ; structure impalpable ; sometimes 
friable ; fracture, earthy ; lustre, none ; acquires a re- 
sinous lustre by rubbing ; soils a little ; sp. gr. 2.2. 

Chem. Char. Gives out the arsenical smell, and tinges- borax smalt 
blue. 

CompT It consists of the oxides of cobalt and manganese.— 
Mohs. * 

It occurs only in small quantities, and is found in secondary 
rocks. 

Local Schneeberg in Saxony ; Saalfield in Thuringia ; in Hes- 
sia, and at Alderly Edge, in England. 

Uses. It is employed in the preparation of smalt, and is sometimes 
a valuable ore. 

Species 4. ARSENIATE OF COBALT. 
Cobalt arseniate, H. Prismatic Red Cobalt, J. Red Cobalt, Cb- 
balt Bloom, A P. Prismatic Cobalt-Mica, M. Arseniate of Co- 
balt, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, crimson red, peach blossom red, 
cochineal red, and somtimes pearl grey, or greenish 
grey ; occurs in botryoidal, and reniform masses, also in- 
vesting, earthy, slaggy, and in acicular, radiating, or di- 
verging crystals; crystals translucent ; massive, opake 
and dull ; soft ; yields to the knife, and sometimes to 
the nail ; thin laminae, flexible ; sp. gr. 2.9. 

Chem. Char. Emits copious arsenical fumes, an.d tinges borax smalt 
blue. 



SULPHATE OF COBALT. NATIVE IRON. 219 

Comp. Oxide of cobalt 39; arsenic acid 37; water 22.— Bti- 
ckok. 

Dist. Char. The blue color it gives to borax will distinguish it 
from red oxide of copper, the red oxide of iron, and the sulphuret of 
mercury. 

It occurs in veins, traversing rocks of various ages, and in beds. 
It may be considered a common ore of cobalt, and sometimes occurs 
in sufficient quantities for the manufacture of smalt. 

Local. Schneeberg and Annaberg in Saxony, Thuringia, Bieber, 
inHessia. 

U. S. Chatham Conn, of a peach blossom red, in crusts, dissem- 
inated in felspar. — Torrey. 

Species 5. SULPHATE OP COBALT. 
Red Vitriol, Sulphate of Cobalt, J. A. P. M. Sulphate of Co- 

bait, O. 

Ext. Char. — Color, pale rose red ; occurs in small 
masses of a crystalline appearance, and sometimes 
stalactical ; translucent ; taste styptic, friable. 

Ckern. Chmr. Tinges borax pale blue. 

Comp. Cobalt 38.71 ; sulphuric acid 19.74 ; water 41.55.— 
Koppe. 
Local. Bieber in Hessia, and in Hungary. 

Genus 10.— IRON. 

Of all the metals, this is the most universally diffused, and of the 
greatest use to man. 

Its ores are very numerous, and many of them ?ery beautiful and 
highly interesting. The color, and many of the properties of pore 
iron are too generally known to require any description. In its 
soft state, it is one of the most ductile of all the metals, and in the 
form of steel it is the hardest of all metallic bodies. 

In general the ores of iron are easiy detected by their magnetic 
property. Many of them, as the oxides and sdpborets, which are 
not magnetic, in their original state, become so on being submitted 
to the blowpipe on charcoal, with the addition of a little tallow. 

The specific gravity of pore iron is 7.7. 

Spcdts \. NATIVE IRON. 
Fernaiif, H, Native Iron, A- P. C. Octahedral Iron, J, M, 
Eat. Char 4 — Color, pale steel grer, approaching that 
ofplatina; occurs manure, reticulated and cellular > 
fracture hackly ; malleable; magnetic; not easily ox* 
idated ; has rarely occurred in octobedral crystals ; 
sp. gr. 7.7. 

Ckem. Char. Dissolves with efemseeaee m all the strong acid* 
Its sotaaosw strike a Mack color, with tisctore of m+pto* 



220 MAT1VE IRON. 

Comp. (From Saxony.) Iron 02.60 ; lead 6 ; copper 1.5.— 
Klaproth. 

Local. Near Grenoble in France, mingled with quart* and clay. 
Near Steinback in Saxony, in a gangue of garnets. 

Var. 1. METEORIC NATIVE IRON. 

Fer natif meteorique. Meteoric Native Iron, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, pale steel grey, usually covered 
with a coat of what appears to be brown oxide of iron; 
occurs massive, globular, and rarely in octohedral crys- 
tals ; lustre metallic ; texture compact, or porous ; mal- 
leable ; sp. gr. 6,48, to 7.57. 

Comp, (Siberian) Metallic iron 98.5 ; nickel 15. 

Obs. 1. Nearly every specimen of native meteoric iron which has 
been examined, has been found to contain nickel, in small propor- 
tions, as from 1.5. to 10 per cent. 

2. Masses of meteoric iron, have been found in various parts of the 
world. 

3. Profe ssor Pallas in his travels, states that he found on the top 
of a mountain in Siberia, a mass of native iron weighing 1680 pounds. 
It was malleable and flexible. The inhabitants reported to bun, that 
it fell from the sky. 

4. A mass, now in the imperial cabinet of Vienna, came from 
Agram, in Croatia. It was seen by the inhabitants to fall from the 
air, and is said to have appeared like a globe of fire. This event 
happened in 1751. 

5. In the province of Tucuman, in South America, in the midst of 
a large plain, Don Rubin de Celis describes a mass of native iron! 
weighing about 30,000 pounds. It had an irregular indented ear- 
face, and internally presented many cavities. It contains 10 per 
cent, of nickel. 

6. A mass found in Prussia, is said to have weighed 1,600 
pounds. 

7. A mass found at Bithborg in France, is mentioned by Col. 
Gib be. It weighed, by estimation, about 2.500 pounds. Is some 
parts it is so hard as to give fire with steel. 

8. A mass, now in the Cabinet, at New-Haven, was found near 
Red River in Louisiana. Its surface is covered by a dark brown 
crust, and is deeply indented. It is very compact and malleable. 
This mass weighs upwards of 3000 pounds. In its interior, Col. 
Gibbs discovered octohedral crystals of iron, the largest of which is 
half an inch long. 

9. Capt. Ross mentions a mass of native iron which exists in West 
Greenland. The Esquimaux have made knives of it. It contains 3 
per cent of nickel. 

10. Other masses of the same metal have been discovered in var- 
ous parts of the globe. That of Croatia, however, seems to be the 
only one concerning which there is any direct proof of its having faJU 
en from the atmosphere. But the similarity of composition, and the 



ARSENICAL AND SUL PHUKET OF IRON. 221 

circumstances under which most, if not all of these masses have been 
found, as their insulation, peculiar composition, and their situation on 
the surface of the earth, seems to indicate that they owe their origin 
to a common cause, and that they must have fallen from the atmos- 
phere at various and uncertain periods. 

Species 2. ARSENICAL IRON. 
Fer arsenical, H. Arsenical Pyrites, J. Prismatic Arsenical Py- 
rites, M. Mispickel, A* Arsenical Iron, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, tin white, with a shade of yellow; 
occurs massive, disseminated, and crystallized; form 
the right rhombic prism, either simple, or terminated 
by dihedral summits ; also modified by truncation, on 
the edges of the summits— on each of the obtuse angles, 
or otherwise ; lustre shining, metallic ; fracture granu- 
lar ; hard ; brittle ; gives fire with steel, the sparks be- 
ing attended with a little train of white smoke ; when 
struck, gives the odor of garlic ; sp. gr. 6.5. 

Ckem. Char. Fusible, with volumes of white arsenicaLsmoke, the 
residue being magnetic iron. 
. Camp. Arsenic 54.55 ; iron 45.46. — Berzelius. 

Dist. Cher. It resembles arsenical, and grey cobalt, but these both 
tinge borax smalt blue. It also may resemble sulphuret of iron, and 
antimonial silver, but neither of these emit the garlic fumes. 

It is found chiefly in primitive rocks, as gneiss, mica-slate, and 
granite ;. where it occurs in veins, or is disseminated. 

Local. Its foreign localities are numerous. 

U. S. Warwick, Orange County, N. Y. Near Boston, Mass. 
Chatham, Conn. Paris, Maine. 

Var. 1. ARGENTIFEROUS ARSENICAL IRON. 

Fer arsenical argcntifere, H. Argentiferous Arsenical Pyrites, J. 
Argentiferous Mispickel, A. Argentiferous Arsenical Iron, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, whiter than in the species ; lustre 
silvery; usually tarnished with a shade of yellow; some- 
times occurs in acicular crystals; otherwise its char- 
acters agree with those of arsenical iron. 

Comp.. (That of Andreasberg ;) lion 44 ; arsenic 35 ; silver 13 ; 
antimony 5. — Klaproth. 
Remark. This variety contains from 1 to 15 per cent of silver. 
Local Freyberg, aud Braunsdorf, in Saxony. It- is a rare ore. 

Species 3. SULPHURET OP IRON. 

Fer sulfure, H. Hexahedral Iron Pyrites, J. M. Common Pyrites, 

A. P. Sulphuret of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char .«~-Cok>r, bronze yellow, passing into brass 
yellow, and steel grey ; occurs crystallized, capillary, 



222 SULPHURET OF IRON. 

cellular, massive, and disseminated ; form the cube, 
oclohedron, dodecahedron with pentagonal faces, and 
the icosahcdron, with trapezoidal faces, with their mod- 
ifications and varieties ; cleavage parallel to the sides 
of an hexahedron and octohedron ; fracture conchoi- 
dal; lustre brilliant, metallic ; crystals embedded, and 
implanted ; hard, brittle, sp. gr. 4.8. 

£5 





Fig. 25. A cube, the primitive form, and one of the most common 
figures under which it occurs. This is often truncated on all its sol- 
id angles. 

Fig. 26. The dodecahedron, with pentagonal faces. 

Fig. 27. The octohedron, truncated on all its solid angles. 

Fig. 28. A solid, bounded by twenty triangular faces. 

Hauy has enumerated a great variety of other modifications, some 
by truncation, others by bevelment. 

Obs. Sulphuret of iron is often a very beautiful mineral, the crys- 
tals being as perfect in shape, as could be formed by the most skilful 
lapidary, and the truncations perfectly symmetrical, together with a 
surface that resembles burnished gold. They are of all sixes, from 
that of a mustard seed, to two inches, or even more, in diameter. 

Chem. Char Fusible, with a strong odor of sulphur, into a glo- 
bule, which is magnetic. 

Comp. Iron 47.85; sulphur 52.1 5— Hatchett. 

Dist. Char. It has often been taken for gold, but gold is mallea- 
ble ; iron pyrites is brittle. It differs from sulphuret of copper in 
being so hard as not to yield to the knife ; pyritous copper yields to 
the knife, and does not yield a magnetic globule. Arsenical iron emits 
arsenical fumes, while iron pyrites emits those of sulphur. 

Var. 1. RADIATED SULPHURET OF IRON. 

Fer sulfure* radi6, H. Radiated Pyrites, J. Radiated Iron Pyrites, 
P. White Pyrites, A. Radiated Sulphuret of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, bronze yellow, passing into steel 
grey, often variegated ; occurs in masses, ota globular, 
botryoidal, or reniform shape,composed of fibrous crys- 
tals, radiating from the centre, and terminating on the 
surface of the mass ; fracture fibrous ; lustre brilliant 

Obs. These masses, commonly fall into a state of decomposition, 
if exposed to the air, as in cabinets ; in which case they crack in va- 
rious directions, and become covered with a white efflorescence, which 
will be found on touching it with the tongue to be sulphate of iron, 
or copperas. 



MAGNETIC SULPHURET OF IRON. 223 

Far. 2. hepatic sulphuret of iron.* 

JPer sulfure epigene, H. Hepatic Pyrites, J. A. P. Hepatic Sal- 
phuret of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, liver brown; internally pale brass 
yellow, inclining to steel grey ; occurs in hexahedral, 
and octohedral crystals, also stalactical, botryoidal, 
and amorphous ; lustre glimmering. 

Obs. 1. This variety presents most of the forms of iron pyrites. 

2. Its color seems to arise from a peculiar kind of decomposition, 
the nature of which is not well understood, and by which its color is 
changed, and its lustre disappears, without any change of form. 

It is found in veins in primitive rocks. 

U. S. Near Sparta, N. J. Staten Island, and at Anthony's nose, 
N. Y. 
Arsenical Sulphur et of Iron. — Color, steel grey, paler than common 
pyrites ; it yields arsenical, as well a3 sulphureous vapors. 

Auriferous Sulphuret of Iron. — Color, deep yellow ; occurs in 
grains and cubic crystals ; contains a small quantity of gold, which 
seems to be in a state of simple mixture with the pyrites. 

Seleniferous Sulphuret of Iron. — Color, pale yellow ; occurs in 
granular masses. 

Pseudomorphous Sulphuret of Iron. — It occurs in the crevices of 
wood, and minerals, and also in the cavities of organic remains, 
and takes its form from that of the cavity, in which it is found. 

Uses. Sulphuret of iron, is a very abundant, and universally distri- 
buted ore. It however is seldom, if ever employed for the making of 
iron, but is chiefly used for the extraction of the sulphate of iron or 
copperas, by decomposition. 

For this purpose, the ore, being raised from the earth, it is exposed 
to the air, and moistened. By a natural process, the sulphur absorbs 
oxygen from the atmosphere, and is converted into sulphuric acid. 
The acid then unites to the iron, and forms a sulphate, which ap- 
pears in the form of a greenish white crust on the decomposing py- 
rites. The copperas is then obtained by washing, or lixiviation, and 
subsequent crystallization. 

In the United States, manufactories of the sulphate of iron have 
been established in Tennessee. In Maryland, about twenty miles 
from Baltimore. In Ohio, near Zanesville, and on the Muskingum 
river, and at Steubenville. In Vermont, at Strafford, and Shrewsbu- 
ry. At Strafford, about one thousand persons are employed in the 
several departments of this manufactory, and during the last year, 
(1825,) seven hundred tons of copperas have been produced. 

Species 4. MAGNETIC SULPHURET OF IRON. 
Fer sulfure magnetique, H. Magnetic Iron Pyrites, P. Magnet- 
ic Pyrites, J. A. C. Rhombohedral Iron, Pyrites, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, between bronze yellow and cop- 

* From hepar Lat. liver ; because it is of a liver color. 



224 MAGNETIC OXIDE OF IRON. 

per red ; occurs massive ; rarely in six-sided prisms : 
structure lamellar ; turns brown by exposure ; obedi- 
ent to the magnet. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with the sulphureous odor, into a magnetic 
globule. 

Comp. Iron 63.5; sulphur 36.5.— H at diet t. 

Obs. This variety contains less iron and more sulphur than the 
other species. Its magnetic property, Hauy supposes, may depend 
on its containing a portion of iron in its pure state, and not united to 
the sulphur. In the opinion of Hatchett, iron combined with less 
than 37 per cent of sulphur may not only affect the needle, but be- 
come a permanent magnet, which is the case with the present 
species. 

Local Hartz. Galloway, in Scotland, and various other places. 

U. 8. Brookfield and Huntington, Conn. Near Boston, Mass. 
Brunswick, Maine. 

Species 5. MAGNETIC OXIDE OF IRON. 

Fer oxidule, II. Octohedral Iron ore, J. M. Oxidulated Iron, P. 
Magnetic Iron Ore, A. Magnetic Oxide of Iron, C. 
Ext. Cruir. — Color, iron black ; occurs crystallized, 
lamelliform, and massive ; form the regular octohe- 
dron, dodecahedron with rhombic faces, cube and four- 
sided prism terminated by four-sided pyramids ; all 
subject to a variety of truncations; structure imperfectly 
lamellar • fracture uneven ; lustre shining or glimmer- 
ing 5 faces often striated ; occurs also in thm plates 
and in the state of sand ; sp. gr. 4.4. 

Ckem. Char. Becomes brown but is infusible. Insoluble in nitric 
acid. 

Comp. Peroxide of iron 71.86; protoxide of iron 28.14 — Bar- 
zelius. 

Obs. I This species is always attracted by the magnet, and some- 
times attracts iron, which has not been magnetized ; it then is called 
native magnet, or loadstone. 

<& In other instances, iron is said to be magnetic when it disturbs 
the polarility of the magnetic needle, without possessing the power of 
imparting the same quality ; but the native magnetic iron, not only 
attracts its own particles, but those of iron, which before were not 
magnetic, and has the power of imparting this property, thus forming 
the artificial magnet. 

3. The loadstone is chiefly found in primitive countries, and some- 
times constitutes large masses, or even beds. 

4. According to Patrin, there occurs in Sweden, and Switzerland, 
whole mountains composed of magnetic iron, immense masses of 
which are found to be native magnets. Blocks of 401bs. weight, he 



MAGNETIC OXIDE OF IRON. 225 

says, would carry 2001bs. of iron, and sometimes pieces were (bund 
which would lift 25 times their own weight of iron. 

5. The celebrated Bergman also describes a hill of the same kind 
of iron ore, which he saw at Talberg in Swedish Lapland. It is a 
league in circuit, and 400 feet high, and consists to appearance, sole- 
ly of black iron ore, cemented into a hard and solid mass with quartz. 
— Pinkerton's Petrology. 

6. From its external appearance, the native magnet does not differ 
from common magnetic oxide of iron, but on trial it will be found to 
attract iron filings, and to possess polarity. 

U. 8. Goshen, Penn. On the river Wachitta, Arkansas Territory, 
Topsham, Maine. 

Var. 1. EARTHY MAGNETIC OXIDE OP IRON. 

Fer oxydule fuligineux, H. Earthy Oxydulated Magnetic Iron, P. 
Earthy Magnetic Iron Ore, J. A. 

Ext Char. — Color, bluish black ; occurs massive ; 
fracture fine grained, earthy ; lustre dull ; yields to the 
knife ; sometimes friable; gives the odor of clay, wher* 
breathed on. 

Local. Arundal in Norway. 

Var. 2. sandy magnetic oxide op iron. 

Fer oxydule titanifere, H. Sandy Magnetic Iron Ore, A. Titanifer- 

ous Oxydulated Iron, P. Iron Sand, J. C. 

Ext. Char — Color, iron black ; occurs in small do- 
decahedral, and octohedral crystals, and in minute 
grains constituting iron sand ; strongly magnetic ; pow 
der black. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, and unalterable by the blowpipe. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 85.50 ; oxide of titanium 14 ; oxide of man- 
ganese 0.50. — Klaproth. 

Obs. This variety being sifted, is in common use for desk, or writ- 
ing sand. 

Local. U. 8 West-Haven, Conn, on the beach of the sea shore. 
It very obviously proceeds from the disintegration of the chlorite slate 
contiguous to the beach. — Silliman. On Block Island, JR. /. Gill, 
Mass. Also in Maryland, Ohio, and Virginia. 

Magnetic oxide of iron is found very abundantly in foreign coun- 
tries, and is known under the name of mountain ore. It furnishes the 
best bar iron, and is that, from which, the Swedish steel is made. It 
yields from 50 to 90 per cent of metallic iron. 

Local. U. 8. Franconia, Grafton county N. H. The bed is from 5 
to 8 feet thick, and is contained in gneiss. Beautiful octohedral, and 
dodecahedral crystals are common. It also yields the compact vari- 
ety. This bed is explored for smelting. Topsham, Lincoln county, 
Maine. Some of the crystals are two inches in diameter. — 
Cleveland. Suckasunny, N J. where the bed has been worked to 
the depth of 100 feet. The ore from the lowest part is not magnetic 
until it has been exposed to the light and air. — Gibbs. Near Lake 
Champlain, N. Y. Also in the Highlands, and at Crown Point — 
29 



226 SPECULAR OXIDE OF* IRON. 

Gibbs. Williamstown, Middlefield, and Woburn, Mass. Somerset 
Ver. In various places in Pennsylvania, &c. 

Species 6. SPECULAR OXIDE OF IRON. 

Per oligiste, H. Specular Iron, P. Rhomboidal Iron Ore, J. Rbom- 

bohedral Iron Ore, M. Specular Oxide of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, steel grey, with the surface high- 
ly polished, and often tarnished azure blue, green, or 
red, sometimes resembling tempered steel, and some- 
times passing into blackish blue ; streak cherry red, 
or redaish brown -, occurs crystallized in a great vari- 
ety of forms, among which are the pyramidal octohe- 
dron, with its modifications ; the pyramidal dodecahe- 
dron, with its summits replaced ; the hexahedral table, 
with the edges replaced, &c. ; primary, the slightly 
acute rhomb ; structure lamellar ; cross fracture con- 
choidal ; lustre brilliant, metallic ; faces of the crys- 
tals often striated ; slightly attracted by the magnet; 
sp. gr. 5. 52. 




Fig. 29. A figure bounded by 24 faces, of which six are isoceles 
triangles, twelve scalene triangles, and six pentagons. 

Obs. 1. The beautiful irridescent specimens, which come from the 
Isle of Elba, are frequently crystallized in the above form. 

2.. The present species, often occurs in groups of tabular or lentic- 
ular crystals, implanted edgewise, or intersecting each other so as to 
form cells of various shapes. Sometimes the edges only appear dis- 
tinct, forming groups resembling the lancets of a scarificator. 

Chem Char ~ Infusible, but becomes reddish. Insoluble in acids. 

Camp. Iron 69 ; oxygen 31.— Hassenfraz. 

Dist. Char It differs from the magnetic oxide, in yielding a red 
powder, that of the magnetic being black. Grey copper and galena, 
are reduced by the blowpipe, and are not at ail magnetic 

Remark. Some of the most splendid specimens, seen in cabinets, 
belong to this species. It occurs chiefly in primitive mountains, as- 
sociated with magnetic iron, red oxide of iron, and quartz. 

Local Elba, affords the finest specimens, where it if very abund- 
ant, and is said to have been worked as a mine, for 3000 years. Sax- 
ony, Bavaria, Bohemia, and in most other countries. 

U. S. Near Baltimore, Md. Near Lake Champlain, N. Y. Brigh- 
ton, and Montague, Mass. Jamaica, Ver. 

Var. 1. Volcanic Sptcular Oxide of Iron. — It is found in lava, and 
possibly also, in the stones used in smelting furnaces, when they be- 



BROWN OXIDE OP IRON. 227 

come porous and partially disintegrated by the heat. The writer has 
seen some beautiful crystals of specular iron, contained in a micaceous 
sandstone, which had been used for the above purpose, and which to 
all appearance, had been formed by particles of iron from the fur* 
nace. 

Var. 2. micaceous oxide of iron. 
Fer oligiste ecailleux, H. Micaceous Specular Iron, J. P. A. Mi- 
caceous Oxide of Iron, C. Rhombohedral Iron-Ore, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, iron black, passing into steel- . 

Sey ; when turned in a particular direction towards 
e light it has a tinge of red ; streak and powder cherry 
red ; translucent, in thin laminae, when it appears blood 
red ; occurs massive, composed of thin laminae, easily 
separable ; splits into broad pieces, of a slaty aspect; 
also occurs in distinct tabular crystals ; sometimes a 
little unctuous to the touch ; brittle ; sp. gr. nearly 4. 

Dist Char. From earthy minerals, it is sufficiently distinguished 
by its weight, color, and lustre, and from the other ores of iron, by 
its micaceous structure. 

Specular and micaceous iron, are found in primitive rocks, among 
the other ores of iron. Sometimes they are disseminated in the other 
ores, and sometimes they form considerable beds alone. 

Local. Near Baltimore, Fir. Near the Raritan, N. J. Fort Lee, 
N. F. Hawley, Brighton, and Charlestown, Mass. New Stratford, 
Conn. Near Belfast, Maine. Madison County, and Washington 
County, Missouri. In the latter County, micaceous iron forms a 
ridge from 500 to 600 feet high, and half a mile long. — Schoolcraft. 

Species 7. BROWN OXIDE OF IRON. 

Fer oxide rubigineux, H. Brown Iron Ore, A. P. Brown Oxide ef 

Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, blackish brown, or yel- 
lowish brown ; occurs stalactical, nodular, fibrous, and 
amorphous ; and according to Mohs, in cubical crys- 
tals •, powder, yellowish brown ; seldom magnetic ; 
sp. gr. 3.44. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but turns reddish, and acquires the mag- 
netic property. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 85 ; water 15. — Daubisson. 

Var. 1. fibrous brown oxide of iron. n 
Fer oxide haematite, H. Fibrous Brown Iron Ore. Brown Hema- 
tite, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brown, yellowish, or blackish 
brown ; on the outside, often varnished or glossed, pre- 
cisely resembling black glazed earthen ware ; occurs 



228 BROWN OXIDE OF IRON. 

stalactical, tuberose, nodular and amorphous ; structure 
fibrous, sometimes parallel, but more often radiating, 
or diverging from a centre ; lustre, silky, or resinous ; 
yields to the knife, 

Obs. This variety often presents very curious imitative forms ; as 
of cylinders of the size of a pipe stem, many inches long, and inter- 
woven into a sort of net- work ; also of the branches of trees, or of co- 
ral, or bunches of grapes, &c. 

This ore, is found in primitive, and secondary rocks. 

Local. It is found in every country of Europe. 

U S. Messersburg, Jenkintown, and Lancaster, Penn. Gallatin 
County, Illinois. Lawrence County, Arkansas Territory. Burling- 
ton County, N. J. Slaten Island, N. Y. Stalactical and mammilla- 
ry, often with a shining surface. — Pierce and Torrey. Salisbury, 
Conn, specimens often covered with a jet black shining gloss, like 
the black glazed tea-pots of former times. Some very beautiful spe- 
cimens come from this locality. Bennington, and Monkton, Ver. 
That of Bennington yields 33 per cent, of iron. — Hall. 

Uses. It is employed as an iron ore, and yields from 30 to 60 per 
cent, of the metal. 

Far. 2. compact brown oxide of iron. 

Compact Brown Iron Ore, J. P. A. Compact Brown Oxide of 

Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, olive brown, passing into blackish 
brown ; occurs massive, stalactical, cellular and amor- 
phous ; streak and powder yellowish brown ; lustre 
none ; structure compact, sometimes slaty, but never 
fibrous • fracture conchoidal, or earthy, yields to the 
knife ; sp. gr. 3.5. to 3.7. 

Comp. Iron 82 ; water 11.3 ; oxide of manganese 0.3; silex 2.6. 
— Daubisson. 

Dist. Char. It is distinguished from the haematite, by its com- 
pact structure. 

It usually occurs with the fibrous variety, into which it gradually 
passes. 

Local. Blue Ridge, Md. It occurs in stalagmites, or very beauti- 
fully dentritic, resembling in large masses, a grove of trees. — Hay- 
den. 

Uses. It is explored as an iron mine, and is said to yield about 50 
per cent, of metal. 

Var. 3. scaly brown oxide of iron. 
Scaly Brown Iron Ore, A. P. 

Ext Char. — Color, brown, passing into steel grey ; 
occurs in the form of scales, often' encrusting £he other 



RED OXIDE OF IRON. 229 

varieties ; lustre glistening, metallic ; unctuous to the 
touch; soils the fingers, 

Var. 4. OCHERY BROWN oxide of iron. 
Fer oxide pulverulent, H. Ochery Brown Iron Ore, P. Yellow 

Ochre. 

Ext. Char. — Color, pale brown, or yellowish ; occurs 
massive, of an earthy aspect ; soils the fingers ; fria- 
ble. 

Comp. Iron 83 ; water 12 ; silex 5. — Daubisson. 
. It is found among bog iron ore. 

Var. 5. umber. 
Ext. Char. — Color, olive brown, blackish or yellow- 
ish brown ; occurs massive ; lustre, none ; fracture con- 
choidal ; texture earthy ; soils very much ; easily brok- 
en ; adheres strongly to the tongue ; falls to pieces in 
water ; sp. gr. 2. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 48 ; oxide of manganese 20 ; silex 13 ; alu- 
mine 5 ; water 14. — Phillips. 

Local. Cyprus. It is used as a paint. 

Species 8 RED OXIDE OF IRON. 

Fer oxide rouge, H. Rhomboidal Iron Ore, J. Rhombohedral Iron 

Ore, M. Red Iron Ore, P. Red Oxide of Iron, C. 

Ext Char. — Color, reddish brown, streak and pow- 
der, blood red, or brownish red ; sometimes slightly 
magnetic ; yields to the knife ; aspect rather earthy , 
than metallic ; rarely found crystallized ; opake ; tex- 
ture fibrous, or compact ; sp. gr. 3. to 5. 

Var. 1. FIBROUS RED OXIDE OF IRON. RED H2EMAT1TE. 

Fibrous Red Iron Ore, J. P. Red Hcematite, A. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish brown, and brownish 
red, or steel grey ; lustre somewhat metallic; receives 
a polish ; streak and powder, nearly blood red ; occurs 
amorphous, stalactical, botryoidal, and in concretions ; 
structure distinctly fibrous; fibres, particularly of the 
stalactical, radiate from the centre, or run parallel, re- 
sembling the grain of wood ; fracture conchoidal in 
one direction ; sp. gr. 4.75. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but turns dark, and becomes magnetic. 
Comp. Oxide of iron 90 ; silex 2 ; lime 1 ; water 3 ; — Daubisson. 
It is found chiefly in primitive, but sometimes in secondary moun- 
tains. 



230 RED OXIDE OF IRON. 

Local. It is found in several European countries, as England, Bo- 
hemia, Saxony, &c. 

U. 8. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. Kent, Conn. 

Uses It is said to yield the best of iron, particularly for drawing 
and rolling. It is also used for polishing buttons, under the name of 
bloods tune, and during our late war, was in great demand, and sold 
at exceedingly exorbitant prices, for this purpose. 

VOX. 2. COMPACT RED OXIDE OP IRON. 

Fer-oligiste compact, H Compact Red Iron Ore, J. A. P. Com- 
, pact Red Oxide of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brownish red, with a mixture of 
steel grey ; surface, sometimes steel grey ; streak, 
and powder, blood red; fracture conchoidal or uneven; 
lustre a little metallic ; occurs massive, slaty, globular, 
and reniform ; also in pseudomorphous crystals, gen- 
erally cubic, with truncated angles ; sp. gr, 3.5 to 5. 

It is found in primitive, and secondary rocks, with red haematite, 
and other iron ores. 

Local. U. S. On Elk river, Tenn. very hard, and compact. — 
Schoolcraft. Canton, N. Y. — Hall. At the head of Gasconade ri- 
ver, Missouri. 

Var. 3. scaly red oxide of iron. 
Fer-oligiste luisant, H. Scaly Red Iron Ore, J. A. P. Seedy Red Ox- 
ide of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, reddish brown ; occurs in masses 
and crusts, composed of minute scales, slightly coher- 
ing ; lustre somewhat metallic ; unctuous to the touch ; 
soils the fingers. 

Chcm. Char. Iron 66 ; oxygen 28.50 ; silex 4.25 ; alumine 1.25. 
— Hauy. 
It occurs with the preceding varieties, hut is more rare. 
Local. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. Kent, Conn. 

Var. 4. ochery red oxide of iron, red ochre. 

Fer oligiste terreux, H. Red Ochre, J. A. P. Ochery Red Oxide 

of Iron. Red Ochre, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark blood red, passing into yel- 
lowish, or brownish red ; occurs massive ; texture com- 
pact, earthy ; soils the fingers, but is not unctuous ; fri- 
able ; sp. gr. about 3. 

It is found with the preceding varieties, and occurs in many pla- 
ces in this country. 

Uses. It is sometimes employed as a pigment, under the name of 
Indian Red; but more commonly it is believed, under that of Span* 
ish Brown. 



ARGILLACEOUS OXIDE OF IRON. 231 

SpeciesS. ARGILLACEOIS OXIDE OF IRON. 

Fer oxide massif and geodique, H. Argillaceous or Ciay Iron Stone, 

P. Argillaceous Oxide of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, ash grey, bluish, brown, and red- 
dish brown ; occurs amorphous, and in flat tabular 
masses ; also reniform, globular, and pulverulent ; 
fracture uneven, and earthy, or flat conchoidal ; yields 
easily to the knife ; adheres to the tongue ; sp. gr. 3.37. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but turns black, and becomes magnetic. 

Comp. Protoxide of iron, with a trace of manganese 43.26 ; alu- 
mine and silex 20.78 ; carbonic acid 29.30 ; carbonaceous matter 
2.67; lime 1.87; moisture 1. — Phillips. 

It occurs in secondary rocks, and is found in most countries. 

VOT. 1. COLUMNAR ARGILLACEOUS OXIDE OF IRON. 

Fer ogiliste bacillaire-conjoint, H. Columnar Clay-Iron-Stone, A. 
P. Columnar Argillaceous Oxide of Iron. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, red, brownish, or blackish red, 
and yellowish red ; occurs in masses, composed of co- 
lumnar pieces,fitting each other like grain, tin or starch, 
and sometimes with interstices filled with bitumen, or 
calcareous spar ; texture fine grained, earthy ; brittle ; 
adheres to the tongue ; sometimes magnetic ; sp. gr. 3. 
to 4.4. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 50; water 13; silex 30.5; alumine 7 ; — 
Brocchi. 

Load. U. S. Navesink hills, N. J. Long Island, N. Y. Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, Mass. 

It is not common, but is sometimes explored as an iron mine. 

Var. 3. pisiform argillaceous oxide of iron. 

Fer oxidl rubigeneux globuliforme, H. Pisiform Clay-Iron-stone, A. 

P. Granular Argillaceous oxide of Iron, C. Pea Iron ore.* 

Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, yellowish brown, or 
blackish brown ; occurs in small globular masses, con- 
sisting of concentric layers of the size of a pea, or lar- 
ger ; brittle ; fracture conchoidal; lustre, resinous at 
the circumference, but dull and earthy at the centre. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 48 ; alumine 31 ; silex 15 ; water 6. — Dau- 
bisson. 

It is found in clay, and soft calcareous deposites, with the bog-ore. 

Local. It is abundant in France, and in several parts of Switzer- 
land. It is also found in England, Franconia, and Swabia. 

* From its resemblance to pets. 



232 ARGILLACEOUS OXIDE OP IRON. 

U. 8. Pompton plain, and other places, N. J. Staten Island, N. Y. 
Salisbury, Windsor, and Hartford, Conn. m 

Uses. It is explored in France, and Switzerland, but is said not 
to yield good iron. 

" Var. 3. LENTICULAR AROILLACEOUS OXIDE OP IRON. 

Lenticular Clay Iron-Stone, A. P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brownish red, yellowish brown, 
or greyish black ; occurs in lenticular or oblong flatten- 
ed masses, of various sizes, from that of an apple seed 
to that of a butternut ; lustre of the fracture, somewhat 
metallic ; easily broken ; sp. gr. 3. to 3.8. 

Chem. Char. Becomes magnetic, but does not easily melt alone ; 
with borax, melts into a yellowish green glass. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 64 ; water 5 ; alumine 23 ; silex 7.5. — Lam- 
pidius. 

Local. Franconia, Bavaria, Saltzburg, Switzerland, France. &c. 

U. S. Ontario, N. Y. in an alluvial deposite, which also contains 
fossil shells. — Eaton. 

Uses. It is sometimes explored as an iron mine, and is said to 
yield from 30 to 60 per cent. 

Var. 4. nodular argillaceous oxide of iron. 
Fer oxide* geodique, H. Reniform Brown Clay-Iron-Stone, P. No- 
dular Argillaceous Oxide of Iron, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish brown, or yellow, in- 
ternally, when fresh fractured ; occurs in nodules of 
various sizes, from that of a nut, to that of a man's head ; 
sometimes hollow internally, and sometimes contains a 
pulverulent nucleus ; fracture, even, earthy, or flat con- 
choidal, generally earthy towards the centre ; texture 
earthy, or compact, towards the circumference ; ap- 
pears to be composed of concentric layers ; sp. gr. 
about 3 ; in the hardest parts scarcely yields to the 
knife. 

It is found in clay-slate, and in alluvial depositee. 

Obs. Sometimes there is a cavity in the centre of these nodules, 
containing some small loose stones, or sand, which rattles on being 
shook. The ancients supposed, but on what grounds, we do not 
know, that the eagles, had a habit of transporting those balls to their 
nests, for the purpose of facilitating the laying of their eggs ; hence 
they were called, Eagle stones. 

Local. U. S. Near Baltimore, Md it forms extensive beds. The 
nodules are composed of concentric layers, and frequently contain 
minute crystals of sparry iron. — Gilmor. Also at Bomb-shell bilinear 
Bladensburg, in nodules from two to eight inches in diameter. When 



BOG IRON ORK. 233 

exposed to a strong heat they burst with an explosion.— Harden, 
Near Plymouth, Mass. Nodules, of a reddish grejr color, externally, 
with a soft, or friable, yellowish nucleus, occur at Nortbington, 
Conn. They appear to be formed of fine sand-stone. 

Var. 5. jaspery oxide of iron. 
Jaspery Clay Iron-stone, J. Jaspery Argillaceous oxide of Iron, C. 

Ext. CAar.— Color, reddish, or yellowish brown ; oc- 
curs massive, having the aspect of jasper ; fracture 
conchoidal, passing into even; lustre glimmering;, 
opake ; scarcely yields to the knife ; sp gr. 3.19. 
Local. Cornwall, in England. Fischau, in Austria. 
Var. 7. compact black iron ore. 
Compact Black Iron Ore, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, bluish black, passing into steel 
grey ; occurs massive, and in distinct concretions, con- 
sisting of concentric lamillae ; fracture conchoidal, or 
uneven ; texture fine grained ; opake ; brittle. 

Var. 8. fibrous black iron ore. 
Fibrous Black Iron ore, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, bluish black, passing into steel 

frey ; occurs reniform, and globular ; structure finely 
brous, and divergent ; lustre somewhat metallic ; give* 
a shining streak on paper ; scarcely yields to tke knife ; 
sp. gr. 4.7. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone; with borax yields a violet colored 
glass. 

Obs. According to Phillips the two last varieties occur in only 
small quantities, and are found in the veins of primitive, and second- 
ary mountains, with the brown and red hematites. 

They probably contain a portion of manganese. 

Species 10. BOG IRON ORE. 
Bog Iron Ore, J. A. P. Bog Ore, C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish, brown, brownish yel- 
low, and reddish grey; occur amorphous, tuberous, 
and cellular ; fracture earthy, or uneven ; lustre res- 
inous, or dull ; oftet^ friable ; sometimes resembles 
scoria, and sometimes ochre ; soils the fingers; sp. gr, 
2 to 3. 

Var. 1. FRIABLB BOG ORE. 

It occurs in masses, sometimes corroded or sinuous ; setts the fifr- 
gers ; dull ; appears eartjiy, or ochery. 

30 



234 FRANKMN1TE. HYDROUS OKIDE OF IRON. 

For. 3. COMPACT BOO OBS. 

It occurs amorphous, tuberous, and in crusts ; fracture! concboidtl ; 
lustre resinous ; soft ; yields to the knife ; soils the fingers. 

Remarks. These varieties, to which some add Indurated, occur 
together, commonly in the same specimen. They are found in low 
swampy ground, in almost every section of country. 

Obs. Bog ore is considered of the most recent formation, indeed it 
is supposed to be deposited every day, from waters containing oxide 
of iron, and therefore is constantly forming. 

Uses. It is employed for the extraction of iron, and yields, from 30, 
id 60 per cent of metal. 

Species 1 1 FRANKLINITE* 
Franklinite, Berthier. P. C. 

Ext. Cliar. — Color, iron black, powder deep red, or 
reddish brown ; occurs in granular masses, composed 
of imperfect crystals, or small grains, which sometimes 
exhibit the planes of the octohedron ; structure lam- 
ellar ; aspect similar to octohedral iron ; sp. gr. 4.87 ; 
magnetic. 

Chem. Char. Soluble without effervescence in hot muratic acid, ex- 
haling a slight odor of chlorine. Before the blow pipe, the zinc is 
volatilized, leaving a hard magnetic alloy of iron and manganese, sus- 
ceptible of a polish. 

Camp. Oxide of iron 66 ; oxide of zinc 17 ; oxide of manganese 
16— Berthier. 

Local U. S. New-Jersey, accompanied by the red oxide of zinc, 
and yellowish green garnet. It is mostly embedded in the red oxide 
of zinc. 

Species 12. HYDROUS OXIDE OP IRON. 

Fer hydro-oxide, Bovmon. Hydrous Oxide of Iron P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, iron black, internally blackish 
brown; occurs massive, and crystallized; stricture 
of theri massive, fibrous and radiating : crystals very 
minute, the terminations, sometimes appearing like 
velvet ; also occurs in slender stalactites, composed of 
fibres radiating from the centre to the circumference; 
scratches glass. 

Camp. Oxide of iron 80.25; water 15; silex 3.75.— FoiQiiegii. 
Local. Clifton, near Bristol, in quartose geodes, also near Botal- 
htck, Cornwall, Siberia, and France. 

Var. 1. CRONSTEDITE. 

Cronstedit, Leonhard. Cronstedite, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black ; occurs massive, composed 

•In honor of Dr. Franklin. 



HYDROUS SUL. OXIDE, AN* KATITB MOft, OF IRON. 235 

of opake fibres; lustre brilliant ; also, in separate six- 
sided prisms, sometimes adhering laterally; soft; 
powder and streak, leek green ; sp. gr. 3.34. 

Chem. Char. Intumesces, but does not melt; with borax, yields a 
black, opake enamel. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 58.85, of manganese 2.88; magnesia 5.07 ; 
water 10.70; silex 22.45.— PhilKps. 

Local. Near Przibram, in Bohemia, with carbonate of iron. 

Species. 13. HYDROUS SULPHURIC OXIDE OP IRON. 

Fer oxide resinite IL Iron Sinter J. Pitchy Bog Iron Ore A. Pitchjr 
Iron Ore P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish black, blackish, or yel- 
lowish brown ; occurs in crusts, in statactical, or reni. 
form masses, and in lamellar concretions ; fracture con. 
choidal, or fine grained ; lustre shining, or glistening • 
translucent on the edges ; streak yellowish ; yields to 
the knife; said also to occur in rectangular prisms ; 
sp. gr. 2.4. 

Chem. Char. Metis in the flame of a candle, and becomes mag* 
netic. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 67 ; sulphuric acid 8 ; water 25.— Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its easy fusibility, will distinguish it from the other 
ores of iron. 

Local Pless, in upper Silesia, and in Brittany. 

Species 14. NATIVE MURIATE OF IRON. 

Fer muriate 1 H. Pyrosmalite J. P. Muriate of Iron C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, Bver brown, passing into pistachio 
green, and greenish grey ; occurs in six-sided prisms, 
or tables, with the terminal edges often replaced > lus- 
tre shining; that of tiie terminal planes pearly; struc- 
ture lamellar • translucent ; cleavage, most distinct, 
parallel to the terminal planes ; cross fracture splint- 
ery ; yields to the knife with difficulty . sp. gr. about 3 ; 
translucent on the edges. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with the escape of chlorine into a magnetic 
globule. 

Comp. Submuriate of iron 14.10; protoxide of iron 21.81 ; oxide 
of manganese 21.14; silex 35.85 ; lime 1.21 ; loss 5.89 Hisinger. 

Local, Nordmark in Sweden, in a* bed of magnetic iron. 



236 CARBONATE AND PHOSPHATE OF IRON* 

Species 15. CARBONATE OF IRON. 

Per oxide carbonate H. Sparry Iron J. Sparry Iron. K. A. Spar 
those Iron, Carbonate of Iron P. Carbonate of Iron C. Brachytypous 
Parachrose — Baryte M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, wine yellow, yellowish brown, 
or greyish yellow ; becomes brownish black, by ex- 
posure ; occurs massive ; composed of crystalline, folia- 
ted plates, often curved ; structure foliated or lamel- 
lar ; lustre shining vitreous ; streak white ; translu- 
cent when recently broken ; occurs also in acute rhom- 
boids, sometimes with truncated terminal angles, in 
six-sided crystals, in octohedrons, and in lenticular 
crystals ; crystals often adhere by thin edges to other 
minerals, or are found in groups, or druses ; yields to 
the knife ; cleavage parallel to the planes of an ob- 
tuse rhomboid, which is the primitive form ; sp. gr. 
about 4. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, blackens and becomes magnetic Dissolves 
slowly in nitric acid, with slight effervescence. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 58 ; carbonic acid 35 ; oxide of manganese 
4.25 ; magnesia 0.75 ; lime 0.5. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char, From the earthy minerals which it resembles, it is dis- 
tinguished by its great weight ; from'other ores of iron by its crystal- 
line, foliated cleavage, or fracture ; and from blende which it often 
very nearly resembles, by its yielding magnetic iron, by the blowpipe. 

Obs. On being exposed to the air, it is gradually decomposod ; first 
the color of the surface becomes brown, or black ; afterwards, also 
the streak is changed into red or brown, its hardness and specific 
gravity are diminished, and even the chemical constitution is altered, 
the whole being converted into hydrate of iron. (Mohs.) 

It occurs abundantly in some countries, in veins and beds, chiefly 
in primitive rocks, but sometimes in secondary ones. It is associated 
with the other ores of iron, also with those of copper, and lead, and 
with calcareous spar, brown spar, &c. 

Local Hesse, Hartz, and Westphalia, where it is worked as an ore 
of iron. France, Germany and Spain in abundance. England spar- 
ingly. 

U. 8. Near Baltimore, Md. in lenticular crystals. New-Milford, 
Conn, chiefly in foliated masses, but sometimes in obtuse rhombs. — 
" This appears to be the only locality in the U. States where carbonate 
of iron occurs in quantity." — Sittiman. 

Species 16. PHOSPHATE OF IRON. 
Fer phosphate H. Blue Iron Ore A. Phosphate of Iron P. C. Pris- 
matic Blue Iron J. Prismatic Iron-Mica M. 

Ext, Char. — Color, indigo blue, sometimes near* 



PHOSPHATE OE IROH. 23? 

ly black, and sometimes greenish bine; occurs crys- 
tallized, massive and amorphous; form of the primi- 
tive, an oblong four-sided prism, which is also the form 
under which it often appears ; crystals subject to trun- 
cation. It also occurs in six, eight, or twelve sided 
prisms, and in rounded, flattened, or lenticular crystals ; 
structure fibrous, resembling hornblende ; crystals 
grouped, or intersect each other, leaving interstices or 
cells ; lustre shining ; the massive is laminated, or con- 
sists of shining plates, adhering together ; the indura- 
ted occurs in friable crusts, or in small masses, with an 
earthy texture ; sp. gr. 2.69. 

Chum. Char. Fusible into a steel colored globule, which is mag- 
netic. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 41.25; phosphoric acid 19.25 ; water 31.25 i 
alumine 5. — Luugier. 

Dist. Char. A little attention to color will distinguish it from horn- 
blende ; from the blue carbonate of copper, it differs in being of dark- 
er color ; and from this, and indicolite, it differs in yielding a mag- 
netic globule. 

Local. Isle of France. Allier in France, Cornwall, and Devonshire 
in England. Siberia. Bodenmais in Bavaria. Stavern in Norway. 

U. 8. New-Jersey. It is transparent when first taken from the 
earth, but becomes deep indigo blue by exposure, or by a moderate 
heat — Woodbridge. Also, on Crosswick's creek, color, externally 
blue, but greenish internally, and soft like talc. 

Var, 1. EARTHY PHOSPHATE OF IRON, 

Fer phosphate* terreux, H. Earthy Blue Iron, J. Earthy Blue Iron 
Ore, A. Earthy Phosphate of Iron, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, on its first exposure, greyish, yel- 
lowish, or greenish white, but soon changes to indigo 
blue of various shades; occurs massive, disseminated, 
and investing other minerals ; soft ; often very slightly 
cohering; dull; soils the fingers; sp.gr. about 2. 

Chen. Char. Becomes brown, and then melts into a magnetic glo- 
bule. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 47.50 ; phosphoric acid 32 ; water 30. — 
Kkwrotk. . 

This variety is found in alluvial soils, as in mud and clay, suppos- 
ed to be more or less intermingled with animal matter, and from 
whence it is probable, the phosphoric acid has been derived. Indeed, 
it has been found penetrating the organic remains of various ani- 
mals. 

Local. Isle of Dogs, Isle of Man, and in the Shetland Islands, in 
England. 



238 SULPHATE AND CHR0MATE OF IRON. 

V. S. Allentown, and other places, N. J. Near Plymouth, and it 
Hopkintou, Muss. York, in Maine. At AUentown, it occura a 
masses which weigh 301bs. or more. —Conrad. 

Uses. Phosphate of iron, is sometimes- ground and employed aa a 
pigment. 

Species 17. SULPHATE OF IRON. 
For sulphatl, H. Rhomboidal Vitriol, J. Hemi-Priamatic Vitriol- 
Salt, M. Green Vitriol, A. Sulphate of Iron, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, green, or yellowish, or brownish 
green ; occurs in stalactical concretions, in efflores- 
cences, massive, and crystallized in the form of right 
oblique angled prisms ; taste astringent and metallic; 
soluble in water. 

Chem. Char. Its solution strikes a black color with tincture of not 
galls. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 25.7 ; sulphuric acid 28.9 ; water 45.4.— 
Berzclius. 

It occurs in small quantities, in mines of the sulphurot of iron, 
from the decomposition of which, it proceeds. 

Species 18. CHROMATE OF IRON. 

Fer chromat6, H. Prismatic Chrome-Ore. J. Octohedral Chrome- 

Ore, M. Chromated Iron, A. Chromate of Iron, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, blackish brown, or nearly black; 
occurs massive, disseminated, granular and crystal- 
lized in regular octohedrons, or double four-sided pyr- 
amids, sometimes flattened ; powder and streak brown- 
ish ; lustre imperfect metallic ; opake ; brittle ; crys- 
tals sometimes so minute as to resemble a tuft of hair, 
and sometimes of considerable size ; fracture conchoi- 
dal, or uneven ; sp. gr. 4. to 1.50 ; sometimes mag- 
netic. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, but with borax, yields a rich and live- 
ly grass green bead. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 34.7 ; chromic acid 43 ; aramim' 80.8 ; sflex 
2. — Vauquelin. 

Dist. Char. The green tinge it gives to borax, will distinguish it 
from octohedral iron, which it most resembles, and from the dark w 
rieties of blende. 

This species is usually found embedded in serpentine, steatite, or 
talc. 

Local Near Grassin, department of Var, in France, in nodoletf 
and veins, in serpentine. Uralian Mountains, in Siberia. Shetland 
Islands. In Bohemia, Silesia, and Piedmont. 

U. S. Loudon County, Va. Bare Hills, near Baltimore, Ma\ in 



4JMKKUT& OF IHOK* 239 

great abundance, in serpentine. From this locality, according to 
Harden, it extends through Pennsylvania, .New Jersey, and New 
York, to Milford, in Connecticut. From 10 to 14 miles from Phila- 
delphia, on the West Chester and Lancaster roads it occurs in de- 
tached masses, weighing from a few ounces to 20 pounds, and in one 
instance 500 pounds.— Gsflpsr. Hoboken, N. J in octahedral crys- 
tals. On Staten Island, N. F. Milford, Conn, disseminated in ser- 
pentine. Cummington, Mass. 

Uses. Chromate of iron is employed to furnish, the chromic acid, 
which being united with oxide of lead, forms the chromate of lead, 
or chrome yellow, a yellow pigment in great demand. 

The chromate of iron is worth from 40 to 60 dolls, a ton in mark- 
et The chtomsje of lead sells in large quantities for $1,00 a pound, 
and in smaller quantities, or by the single pound $1,25 to f 1,50. It 
is stated that in 1819, about 3000 pounds of the chromate of lead 
were manufactured in Philadelphia. — Cleveland. 

Sptcies 19. X ARSENIATE OF IRON. 

Fer arseiuat£, H. Hexahedral Olivenite, J. Arseniate of Iron, A. 

P* C. Hexahedral Lirocone-Maiachite, M. 

Ext. Chmr* .Color, olive green, passing into bottle 
green and brownish green ; also yellowish brown, and 
yellowish red ; streak, and powder, pale brown ; oc- 
curs in small, and often very perfect oubes, sometimes 
truncated on the alternate angles, or on the edges and 
angles; crystals longitudinally striated; lustre ada- 
mantine ; sometimes occurs stalactical, and studded 
with crystals; fracture imperfectly conchoidal ; trans- 
parent, translucent, or opake ; yields to the knife ; sp. 
gr. 3. 

is 




O 



Fig, 3ft. A cube, with a triangular face on each alternate, solid an- 
gle, formed by truncation. 

Rg 9 31. A cube, with the alternate solid angles replaced by four 
p lan e s , of which the middle one is a hexagon, and the others, trian- 
gles* 

Ckm. Char. Melt* in the flame of a candle. On charcoal, before 
the blowpipe, emits the arsenical odor, and leaves a magnetic 



Camp. Oxide of iron 48 ,* arsenic acid 18 ; water 32 ; carbonate 
of lime 8. — FauqueUn. 

L*+al. St Leonard^ in France. Cornwall, and near St. Day, in 
England, with the other ores of iron. 

It is a rare mineral. 



240 OXALATE OF IROlf. BLACK OXIDE OF UfeANIUM. 

Species 20. OXALATE OF IRON. 
Oxalate of Iron. Humboldtine, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, bright yellow ; occurs in costal- 
line, flattish masses, of indeterminate forms; yields to 
the nail; acquires electricity by friction; sp.gr. 1.3. 

Chcm. Char. Decomposes easily by heat, giving out a vegetable 
odor, and leaving a residue, which is at first yellow, then black, and 
finally becomes red. Insoluble in boiling water, or alcohol 

Comp. Protoxide of iron 53.56 ; oxalic acid 46.14.— Rivero. 

Local. Near Berlin, in Bohemia, in friable lignite. The oxalic 
acid, is supposed to proceed from the decomposition of succulent 
plants, many varieties of which contain it. 

Gemu 11.— URANIUM. 

This metal is reduced to its pure state with great difficulty, even 
in the laboratory of the chemist. According to Klaproth, uranium if 
of a dark grey color, with a metallic lustre and granular texture. It is 
soluble in nitric acid ; fuses with great difficulty, and afibrds a deep 
orange color to porcelain enamel : sp. gr. 8 to 9. 

Species 1. BLACK OXIDE OF URANIUM. 
Urane oxidule', H. Uran-Ochre. Pitch Blende, A. P. Indivisible 
Uranium, J. Uncleavable Uranium-Ore, M. Black Oxide of 
Uranium, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish black, bluish black, 
brownish black, and iron black ; occurs globular, ren- 
iform, and amorphous ; fracture imperfectly conchoi- 
dal; structure granular or slaty; lustre imperfectly 
metallic; translucent, opake ; brittle; scratches glass, 
but yields to the knife; sp. gr. 7.5. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, yields a grey slag. So- 
luble in nitric acid, with the emission of nitrous gas. 

Comp. Oxide of uranium 86.5 ; galena 6 ; oxide of iron 2J> ; siJex 
5. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. From the dark varieties of the sulphuret of sine, it is 
distinguished by its greater specific gravity, and its want of the folia- 
ted structure which the zinc possesses. The ohromate of iron gives 
a green globule with borax : and the ferruginous oxide of tungsten, is 
fusible alone. 

This rare species is found in primitive rocks, commonly in small 
masses. It is associated with the ores of copper, cobalt, arsenic, sil- 
ver, &c. 

Local Konsberg, in Norway. Joachimsthal, in Bohemia, and is 
Cornwall, England. 



GREEN OXIDE OF URANIUM. 241 

Species 2. GREEN OXIDE OF URANIUM. 

Uran oxide\ H. Micaceous Uranitic Ore, K. Uranite, A. P. Green 
Oxide of Uranium, C. Pyramidal Uranite, J. Pyramidal Euchlore- 
Mica,M. 

Est. Char. — Color, emerald, or grass green, often 
very beautiful ; also, yellowish green, leek green, and 
lemon yellow ; streak pale ; occurs crystallized in 
quadrangular prisms, in four, six, and eight-sided 
tables, and rarely, in obtuse octohedrons ; all the va- 
rieties subject to truncation ; crystals variously group- 
ed, sometimes resembling a fan, and sometimes a 
sheaf; sometimes it appears like a scale of mica, at- 
tached to some other mineral ; structure foliated ; 
cleavage, easy in certain directions ; lustre glistening, 
and sometimes pearly ; transparent, translucent ; yields 
to the knife ; sp. gr. 3.10. 





Fig. 92. An eight-sided tabular crystal, one of the common 
forms. 

Fig. 33. An octohedron, with truncated summits, and truncated 
angles. 

Ckem. Char. Decrepitates, but does not melt. Dissolves in nitric 
acid, yielding when the solution is saturated, a lemon yellow solution ; 
with borax, yields a yellowish green glass. 

Camp. Oxide of uranium 72.15; water 15.70; lime 6.87; oxides 
of tin and manganese 1.55 ; gangue 2.50. — Berzelius. 

Obs. According to the analysis of Phillips, a specimen from Corn- 
wall, yielded oxide of uranium 60 ; oxide of copper 9 ; phosphoric 
acid 15.3 ; water 13.8 ; silex 0.5. 

If this is the composition of the present species, it is a phosphate 
of uranium, probably colored by phosphate of copper. 

Dist. Char. It resembles green mica, but the mica is elastic, while 
the uranium is easily broken, and is inelastic ; mica is also more easi- 
ly cleaved. It may resemble some of the green ores of copper, but 
copper when dissolved in nitric acid, yields a blue color with ammo- 
nia, which the uranium does not. 

It is found in primitive rocks, and particularly in granite. 

Local. Cornwall, where it is found in granite, with the ores of 
copper, arseniate of iron, wavellite, dtc. Bodenmais, in Bavaria, 
with felspar and beryl. Near Autun, and near Limoges, in France; 

U,S. Near Baltimore, Md—Gilmor. 
31 



242 ©<ide of Tnr. 

Far. 1. eaKtht otiDE or uranium. 

Urane oxide* terreux, II. Uran Ochre, J Pulverulent Urtnite, A. 
Earthy Green Oxide of Uranium, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellow, of various shades, also 
greenish yellow; occurs in a pulverulent state, forming 
crusts on other minerals ; also in small indurated masses, 
with little lustre, and an earthy aspect. 

It id found with the present species. 
U. S. Near Baltimore, Md. 

Genus 12.— TIN. 

Tin is a white metal of considerable lustre, and not easily oxidated 
by exposure. It is easily cut with a knife, but is not so soft as lead. 
When bent, it makes a peculiar crackling noise, probably owing to 
the separation of some of its particles. It is very malleable, and is 
readily reduced into thin sheets. It melts at 442° Fah. sp^gtf. 7.29. 

Uses Tin is employed for various, and very important purposes. 
Thin sheets of iron, being dipped into melted tin, receive a coat of 
the metal, and are thus prevented from rusting. This is commonly 
called sheet tin, and is the article of which the common tin ware is 
made. Tin foil with mercury, forms the amalgam on the backs of 
looking-glasses. Tin also forms a part of prince's metal, Brittania 
metal, pewter speculum metal, &c. 

Obs. It was formerly supposed that tin was sometimes found in iti 
native state, but Mr. Phillips observes, that this error arose from there 
having been found pieces of the metal at the scites of old smelting 
places, and which had been reduced by the heat, long before'. 

The ores of tin, are only two, an oxide, and a sulphuret. 

Species !. OXIDE OF TIN. 

Etain oxide, H. Tinstone, K. A. Pyramidal Tin-Ore, Jf. lit. Ox- 
ideofTin, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish brown, brownish black, 
greyish yellow, hair brown, and nearly colorless, And 
transparent ; the light brown, translucent, atid the 
da:rker colors, opafee ; occurs in crystals, and iti mass- 
es, from the size of grains to that of the fist ; primitive 
form, the octohedron, with square bases; secondary 
forms very numerous, but diffic&lt to ascertain, Gto && 
count of the imperfections, or grouping of the cry atdts ; 
lustre resinous, or adamantine ; structure lamellar : 
cleavage parallel to the axis of the octohedron, and 
also to the diagonals of the cferai&on base; fhttfere 



OXIDE OF jLftON. 



24$ 



uneven and imperfectly coucboitlal ; gives sparks with 
steel ; brittle ; sp. gr. 6. ? to 7. 



S4 








ST 




Fig. 34. An obtuse octahedron, or double four-sided pyramid, the 
primitive form. 

Ftg. 35. A four-sided prism, terminated by four-sided pyramids. 
This is one of the most common forms. 

I\g. 36. The same as 35 with the angles truncated. 

Fig- 37. A macied, or twin crystal, composed of two four-sided 
prisms, with truncated edges joined together. 

Fig. 38. A four-sided prism, surmounted by eight-sided pyramids, 
which are terminated by four-sided summits. 

A great variety of other secondary for.ms are ennumerated. 

Chetn. Char. It decrepitates strongly, but in fine powder, may be 
reduced to the metallic state on charcoal. 

Comp. Tin 77.5; ox) gen 21.5; oxide of iron 0.25 ; silex 0.75. — 
Klapreth. 

Dist. Char. Carbonate of iron, which it most resembles, leaves a 
magnetic globule under the blowpipe Sulphuret of zinc is infusible, 
and not so hard as oxide of tin ; and ferruginous oxide of tungsten, 
yields readily to the knife, and melts into a black scoria. 

Tin occurs only in primitive rocks. Its localities are few, but 
Jameson observes, that when it does occur ,it is generally in consider- 
able quantities. 

Local. Cornwall, in England. Gallacia, in Spain. Bohemia, and 
Saxony. Sumatra, Siam, and Pegu. Mexico and Chili. 

Obs. 1. The greatest known deposite of tin, is at Cornwall, where 
it occurs in veins, traversing granite, and other primitive rocks, and 
is associated with chlorite, iron pyrites, topaz, quartz, fluor, &c. The 
jOie from the Cornwall mines is most commonly found in the state of 
crystals, variously grouped or aggregated, and according to Phillips 
the different veins yield different varieties of form. It is also found 
in alluvial deposites, in the same district, and is called Stream Tin,- 
because the ore is separated from the rocks and brought down, by 
streams of water. 

Some of the Cornwall mines extend many hundred feet under the 
sea, and it is said that in one of them the noise* of the waves, and the 
rolliug of the pebbles can be distinctly heard, so near has the excava- 
tion been carried to the bottom of the ocean. 

2. The Block Tin of commerce is extracted from the ore taken 
from the excavated mines. Grain tin, which is said to be of a purer 
qualily, is extracted from stream tin. 



244 SULPHURET OF TIN AND COPPER. 

Var. 1. FIBROUS OXIDE of tin. wood tin. 
Etain oxyd6 concretionnl, H. Wood Tin J. A. Fibrous oxide of 

Tin P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brown of several shades; occurs 
amorphous, reniform, globular, and wedge shaped; 
surface generally water-worn ; structure fibrous in one 
direction and concentric lamellar in the other; fibres 
radiate, or diverge, sometimes intersect each other ; 
lustre feebly resinous ; colors, sometimes arranged in 
bands ; sp. gr. 6-4. 

Chem. Char. Decrepitates, and becomes reddish, but does not melt 
Comp. Oxide of tin 91 ; oxide of iron 9. — VauqueUn. 

Var. 2. toad's eye wood tin. 
Toad's Eye Wood Tin P. 

ExL Char. — Colors, hair brown, and yellowish white, 
arranged in concentric layers ; occurs in minute spher- 
ical masses, composed of fibres radiating from the cen- 
tre. 

Obs. Wood Tin, so called, from its fibrous structure, resembling 
that of wood, is found chiefly in the alluvial mining districts of Corn- 
wall. It is commonly found in small masses, but a mass found near 
St. Austle weighs 15 lb. and for which 100 dollars has been offered. 

The toad's eye variety, is found in small masses embedded in an 
aggregate of schorl and quartz. 

Var. 3. COLUMBIFEROUS OXIDE OF TIN. 

Columbiferou* Oxide of Tin P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, reddish black, or reddish grey; 
occurs in small octohedrons, or crystalline grains; 
lustre metallic; fracture uneven; opake; scratches 
glass ; sp. gr. 6,55. 

Chem. Char. It does not alter before the blowpipe. 

Camp. Oxide of tin G3.6; oxide of columbium 2.4 ; oxide of iron 
1.4 ; of manganese 0.9 ; Another variety yielded 12 per cent of the 
oxide of columbium. — BerzeHus. 

Local. Finbo in Sweden. 

Species 2. SULPHURET OF TIN AND COPPER. 

Etain sulphur^ H. Tin Pyrites, A. P. Pyritous Tin, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, steel grey, yellowish white, and 

yellow ; occurs amorphous, with the colors intermixed, 

giving it the appearance of bell metal, whence it is 



SULPHURET OF ZINC. 245 

sometimes called bell metal ore; fracture granular 
and uneven ; lustre metallic ; brittle ; yields to the 
knife ; sp. gr. 4.3 to 4.78. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with the odor of sulphur, into a black scoria, 
but is not reduced to the metallic state. 

Comp. Tin 34 ; copper 36 ; sulphur 25 ; iron ?. — Klaproth. 

Remark. The analysis does not shew whether these constituents 
exist in a state of chemical combination, or in the state of simple mix- 
ture. 

Local Cornwall, only, where it is associated with pyritous copper 
and blende. 

Genus 13.— ZINC. 

Zinc when pure is of a brilliant white color, with a tinge of blue ; 
fracture uneven, striated, or foliated, presenting the result of a con- 
fused crystallization ; when rubded on the fingers, zinc imparts to 
them a peculiar taste and smell. When cold it is not malleable, but 
when heated to a little above 212 deg. it becomes malleable, and may 
be hammered into thin plates, or drawn under rollers. If heated to 
about 400 deg. it becomes so brittle as to be easily reduced to powder 
in a mortar. — Thomson. 

Zinc melts at 680 deg* and if the temperature be increased, it burns 
with a bluish white flame ; sp. gr. 7.29. 

Uses. When mixed with copper it forms brass, one of the most use- 
ful and common of alloys. In chemistry it is employed to obtain hy- 
drogen, by solution with sulphuric acid and water. Its salts and 
oxides are employed in medicine, and the pure metal, when reduced 
to thin sheets, is used to cover the roofs of buildings. 

Zinc never occurs in the native state, but is found mineralized by 
sulphur, oxygen, or carbonic acid. 

Its ores are few in number, and not common. 

Species 1. SULPHURET OF ZINC. 
Zinc sulphurl, H. Blende, K. A. P. Sulphuret of Zinc, C. Dodeca- 
hedral Zinc Blende, J. Dodecahedral Garnet-Blende, M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish, greenish, reddish, or 
blackish brown ; streak corresponding with the color, 
but paler ; occurs crystallized, amorphous, and lamel- 
liform ; primitive form, the rhombic dodecahedron ; 
secondary forms, the octohedron, and tetrahedron, 
with their varieties, often modified by truncation and 
bevelment ; opake, or translucent ; yields to the knife ; 
brittle ; crystals commonly grouped so as to make it 
difficult to determine their forms ; lustre shining, or 



246 sulphuret or ZINC. 

splendent; sometimes metallic, or adamantine; struc- 
ture foliated ; sp. gr. 3.7 to 4. 





Fig. 39. The rhombic dodecahedron, the primitive, form. 

Fig. 40. The same with all the ed*/es truncated. 

Remark. These simple forms are subject to deep and various trun- 
cations ; so that in many instances, the forms are very difficult to de- 
termine or understand. One complex form, having the general ap- 
pearance of fig. 39, is so modified by truncation, as to present 24 faces, 
of wnich 12 are nearly equilateral, and 12 isoceles triangles. 

Chem. Char. Decrepitates, but is commonly infusible. When pul- 
verized and thrown into sulphuric acid, it gives the odor of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen. 

Comp. (Brown variety.) Zinc 58.8 ; sulphur 23.5 ; iron S.4 ; silex 
7. 0.— Thomson. 

(Yellow variety.) Zinc 64; sulphur 20 ; water 6; iron 5; fluoric 
acid 4 ; silex 1. — Bergman. 

Dist. Char. Sulphuret of lead is easily reduced to the metallic state 
by the blowpipe, while the zinc is infusible. Oxide of tin is •if a dark- 
er color than the present species, and wants its foliated structure, 
Chromate of iron tinges borax green, and the carbonate of iron yields 
a magnetic globule, neither of which characters belong to zinc. 

Zinc is found in primitive and secondary rocks, and is associated 
with sulphuret of lead, with iron and copper. 

Local. Cornwall, and Derbyshire, England, Perthshire, Cumber* 
land, and in the lead hills near Edinburgh. 

U S. Near Baltimore, Md. Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. Hamburg 
and Sparta, N. J. Near Hamilton College, N. Y color, wax yellow 
and translucent. — Torrey. At Shawangunk Mountain, and in the 
Highlands, N. Y. Berlin, Conn, color yellow. Southampton lead mine, 
Mass. Also at Leverett. 

Obs This ore commonly occurs too widely disseminated in its 
gangue to make it profitable for working. It is however sometimes, 
after roasting, used in the preparation of brass. 

Var. 1. PHOSPHORESCENT BLENDE. 

Yellow Zinc Blende, J. Yellow Sulphuret of Zinc, C. Phospho- 
rescent Blende, P. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish, sometimes lemon yel- 
low ; occasionally mixed with green, and red; 
translucent ; lustre adamantine ; phosphorescent by 
friction. 



mtPHVKwt oramc 3*7. 

Zrftedf. Pierthshiife, JWd FlitttoMrt. This Harts. la Saxony, aid 

Bohemia. 

It is one of the rarest varieties of zino ore. 

Var. 2. fibrous blende. 

Zinc sulfure stri6, H. Fibrous Brown- Zinc-Blende, J. Fibrous 
Sulphuret of Zino, C. Fibrous Blende, A. PL 
Ext. Char. — Colors, reddish brown, yellowish brown 
and iron black; occurs reniform, and massive ; opake, 
or translucent ; structure fibrous, often radiating, or 
diverging. 

Chem. Char. Gives the odor of sulphur, and sometimes even burns 
with a bluish flame, but is not reduced to its metallic state. 
Local Cornwall, Eng. Brisgaw, and Reabel, in Carinthia. 
It is a rare variety. 

Var. 3. MAMMILLATED BLENDE. 

Mammillated Blende, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, externally, brown, or blackish 
brown ; internally, hair bfowrt, passing into yellowish 
White ; occurs m mammillated, and botryoidal masses ; 
structure concentric lamellar ; fracture in one direc- 
tion, flat conchoidal ; translucent on the edges* 

dnnp. Chfrde of zinc 66 ; sulphur SS.^Kidd. 
Remark. In the other varieties, the zinc is not in the state of an 4 
oxide. Possibly there may be a mistake in this analysis. 

Var.< 4. CADMIFEROtJS BLEN&R, 

Cadraiferouis Blende, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, brown ; lustre metallic, when 
fresh fractured ; structure radiated ; occurs embedded 
hi common massive blende • sp. gr. 4. 

Obs. The presence of cadmium in this variety, wis first discov- 
ered by Stromeyer, and according to Phillips, has sirice been found 
in the radiated siiiciferous oxides of zinc, from Freyberg, and Der- 
byshire. 

Var. 5. black blende. * 

Zinc sufure* noir, H. Black 2inc-Blende, J. Black Sulphuret of 

Zinc, C. 

Ext. C7w*r>-*Colors, black, reddish, greyish, or brown- 
ish black, often irised ; occurs massive and crystalli- 
sed fracture foliated ; nearly opake ; transmits a blood 
paj light ; lustre more or less shining, and metallic. 

Obs. 1. According to Jameson, the different colored varieties of 
zinc, characterize different formations, the yellow being the oldest, 
the black the newest, and the brown of an intermediate age. 



248 RED, AND 8IL1CI0US OXIDE OF ZINC. 

3. Sulphuretofzinc, is not extensively worked for the purpose of 
obtaining the metal, its reductiou being much more difficult than 
that of calamine, the ore from which zinc is commonly obtained. 
The miners know this species under the name of blackjack. 

Species 2. RED OXIDE OF ZINC. 
Red Oxide of Zinc, Bruce. A. P. C. Zinc-Ore, M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, ruby, blood, or aurora red, some- 
times yellowish red; occurs massive, and dissem- 
inated; fracture foliated in one direction, and flat 
conchoidal in the other ; lustre shining, and somewhat 
micaceous ; cleavage, (according to rhillips) parallel 
to all the planes of a regular six-sided prism ; translu- 
cent on the edges ; by exposure, becomes dull, and 
covered with a whitish pearly crust ; structure folia- 
ted ; brittle, and easily reduced to powder; yields to 
the knife ; sp. gr. 6.22. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, but with borax yields a yellowish 
transparent bead. Soluble with effervescence, in all the minerals 
acids ; with potash, melts into an emerald green glass, which com- 
municates to water, the same color, but is changed to rose red, on 
the addition of a few drops of acid. — Bruce. 

Comp. Zinc 76 ; oxygen 16 ; oxides of manganese, and iron 8.— 
Bruce. 

Oxide of zinc 88 ; red oxide of manganese 12.— IfertA&r. 

Dist. Char. It differs from red sulphuretted antimonial silver, and 
from the chromate of lead, by its infosibility before the blowpipe ; 
from the red oxide of copper by its greater specific gravity, and by its 
colorless solution in nitric acid ; from the red oxide of titanium, by its 
solubility in acids ; and is not like the red sulphuret of arsenic, vola- 
alized by the blowpipe, with the garlic odor. — Cleveland 

Local In the Franklin, Stirling, and Rutger's iron mines, in Sus- 
sex County, N. J. At Franklin, it is embedded in a whitish oxide of 
zinc. Sometimes the Franklinite is embedded in it, forming an ag- 
gregate of a singular aspect, a red ground, with black spots. 

Obs. Cleveland remarks/ that this ore is well adapted to the man- 
ufacture of brass. 

Species 3. SILICIOUS OXIDE OF ZINC. 

Zinc oxide*, H. Silicious Oxide of Zinc, P. C. Prismatic Calamine, 

or Electric Calamine, J. Prismatic Zinc-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish or greyish white, and 
light brown, sometimes with a tinge of green ; occurs 
stalactical, botryoidal, massive, and crystallized ; pri- 
mary form the right rhombic prism ; secondary forms 



CA*BONAT£ OF ZWG. 240 

the^ixr^ided prism, and the four sided 4§&le,yarioufll7 
mttH&ed by truncation ; also the octohedron ; crys- 
tals commonly collected into groups; translucent or 
transparent; becomes electric by beat; sometimes 
gives fire with steel, but may more commonly be 
scratched by the knife ; texture, foliated, fibrous, or 
earthy ; sp. gr. 3.4. 

Chem. Char. Whitens, and becomes friable, but does not melt. 
Dissolves in nitric acid, without effervescence, forming a gelatinous 
solution. 

Comp. Oxide of zinc 66 ; silez 33. — Klaproth. 

Oxide of zinc 38 ; silex 50 ; water \%—PtXk$Kr. 

Dist. Char. The zeolites, which it sometimes resembles, melt 
into a spongy mass. From stilbite, and the varieties of carbonate and 
sulphate of lime, it is distinguished by the effects of acids, and the re- 
sult of the blowpipe, as also by its electric property. 

This species is found in primitive, transition, and secondary rocks, 
but most frequently in limestone. 

Local. Wanlockhead, in Scotland. Leicestershire, and Derby- 
shire, E*g. Flintshire, in Wales. Bleiberg, in Carinthia, and Fri* 
berg, in the Brisgau. 

U. S. Perkiomen lead mine, and a* Conestoga Creek, Perm. Near 
the falls of the Hockhocking, Ohio. 

Species 4. CARBONATE OF ZINC. 

Zinc carbonate, H. Rhomboidal Calamine, J. Carbonate of Zinc, 

P. C. Rhombohedral Zinc-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, grey, greenish, or brown, and 
sometimes nearly white ; occurs crystallized, compact, 
amorphous, pseudo-morphous, and cupriferous ; trans- 
lucent, or opake ; yields to the knife ; not electric by 
heat ; sp. gr. 3.35 to 4.44. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but loses about 24 per cent, by ignition. 
Soluble with effervescence, in cold sulphuric, or warm nitric acid. 
Cleveland says, if paper, which has been immersed in a solution of 
this salt, in nitric acid, be dried, and then iieid at the distance of & 
few inches from burning coals, it spontaneously kindles. 

Dist. Char. It is distinguished from the silicious oxide, by its effer- 
vescence with acids, and by its not forming a gelatinous solution. 

Var. 1. CRYSTALLIZED CARBONATE OP ZINC. 

Crystallized Calamine, P. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish, greyish, or various 

shades of green and brown; occurs in obtuse and 

acute rhomboids, and in long quadralateral tables, 

variously modified ; structure lamellar ; cleavage par- 

32 



250 CARBONATE OF ZINC. 

allel to all the planes of the rhomboid; lustre vitre- 
ous ; translucent ; yields to the knife ; crystals small. 

Camp. Oxide of zinc 65.2 ; carbonic acid 34.8.— Smitkim. 
Var. 2. compact carbonate of zinc. 
Compact Carbonate of Zinc, or Calamine, C. 

Ext. CAar.— Colors, greyish, yellowish, greenish, or 
brownish; colors dull; occurs stalactical, reniform, 
and cellular; structure imperfectly fibrous, or com* 
pact ; fracture uneven, or splintery ; lustre feebly glis- 
tening ; translucent, or opake. 

Comp. Oxide of zinc 64.8 ; carbonic acid 35.2. — Smithson. 

Var. 3. PSEUDO-MORPHOUS CARBONATE OF ZINC. 

Pseudo-morphous Calamine, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, as in the above varieties ; oc- 
curs in the form of that variety of crystallized carbo- 
nate of lime, called Dog's-tooth spar. 

Obs. These crystals, instead of being solid, are hollow, the carbo* 
nate of zinc having been deposited on the dog's-tooth-tpar, after 
which the spar has been decomposed and washed away. 
Far. 4. earthy carbonate of zinc 
Earthy Calamine, P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish, or yellowish 
white; occurs massive, disseminated, and investing; 
yields to the nail; fracture and texture earthy; 
adheres to the tongue ; sp. gr. 3.36. 

Comp. Oxide of zinc 71.4 ; carbonic acid 13.5 ; water 15.1.— 
Smithson. 

Var. 5. cupreous carbonate of zinc. 
Cupriferous Calamine, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, pale green ; occurs in thin lamel- 
lae, composed of crystalline, diverging fibres, closely 
aggregated ; lustre silky. 

Obs. It contains a portion of carbonate of copper, to which its col- 
or is owing. 

The present species is found in secondary rocks, and most often, 
in limestone. It is associated with the ores of lead, and copper, and 
with the silicious oxide of zinc. 

Local. Medship Hills, in Somersetshire. Holywell, in Flintshire, 
where it occurs in obtuse rhomboids. Near Castleton, in Derby- 
shire. Also in Bristol. 

U. S Perkiomen lead mine, Penn. in reniform concretions, radiat- 
ed and compact— -WetheriU. 



SULPHATE OF ZINC. 251 

Uses. When melted with copper, it forms brass. 
Obs. 1. Both of these species were anciently known under the 
name of calamine. 

2. The ancients highly esteemed an earth under the above name, 
which had the quality of converting copper into a golden yellow me- 
tal, and at the same time, «f increasing its weight. 

3. It is most probable,,£hat at first, brass was formed by the nat- 
ural occurrence of the ores of copper and zinc together, as is said to 
be the case in some of the Hungarian mines. 

4. Brass had been made and employed in the arts, for many cen- 
turies, before it was known, that calamine, which was considered an 
earth, contained a metal. 

5. At present, most of the brass used in commerce and the arts, is 
made, more or less after the ancient manner. The oxide, or carbo- 
nate of zinc, being previously roasted, is mixed with granulated cop- 
per and charcoal, and then exposed to a proper degree of heat. The 
zinc is reduced to its metallic state, and unites with the copper to 
form the alloy in question. 

6. The mode of obtaining metallic zinc, is by first roasting the 
calamine to drive off the carbonic acid, and other volatile matters, and 
then by distilling, in earthen retorts, the beaks of which are placed 
un^er water The metal passes by distillation, into the vessels of 
water. This process is said to have been obtained from the Chi- 
nese, by a person who went out for that purpose. 

Species 5. SULPHATE OF ZINC. 

Zinc sulphate^ H. White Vitriol, A. Pyramidal Vitriol, J. Sulphate 

of Zinc, P. C. Prismatic Vitriol-Salt, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish, or reddish white 
occurs in concretions, in efflorescences, stalactical, 
reniform, and investing; also crystallized in minute 
rectangular, four-sided prisms ; structure of the mas- 
sive fibrous, and radiated ; lustre shining; translucent; 
soft ; brittle ; soluble in water ; taste, styptic and nau- 
seous ; sp. gr. 2. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe it fuses, and gives off a large 
quantity of water and sulphuric acid, leaving a grey scoria. Its so* 
lutions in water, are precipitated into the carbonated alkalies. 

Comp. Oxide of zinc 27.5 ; sulphuric acid 22 ; water 50. 

It is found in mines, containing the sulphuret of zinc, from the de- 
composition of which, it is supposed to arise. 

Obs. The sulphate of zinc, or white vitriol of commerce, is produ- 
ced by the same kind of process, already described, for making green 
vitriol, or sulphate of copper. The sulphuret of zinc, being first 
roasted, is exposed to the action of the air and moisture, by which 
means the sulphur is converted into sulphuric acid, by the absorption 
of oxygen from the atmosphere. As the acid forms, it combines with 
the zinc, forming a sulphate, which is obtained by lixiriation, or wash- 
ing, and subsequent evaporation and crystallization. 



252 RLACK OXIDE OF MANGANESE. 

Genus 14— MANGANESE. 

Manganese, in its metallic state, has not been converted to any use; 
it is therefore never reduced, except in the laboratory of the chemist, 
in small quantities, by way of experiment. 

When pure it is of a greyish white color like cast iron, and of a 
brilliant lustre ; melts at 160 deg. Wedgewood, and has neither taste, 
nor smell. Exposed to the air, it soon loses its lustre, and again be- 
comes an oxide ; sp. gr. 8. 

Uses. The black oxide of manganese is employed, with muriate of 
soda, and sulphuric acid to produce chlorine, a gas used hi bleaching 
cotton and linen cloth, paper, &c. It is also used with sulphuric 
acid, to furnish oxygen gas, for chemical purposes ; and in small quan- 
tities, it enters into the composition of glass. It is also employed to 
give a purple tinge to enamel. 

Remark. The best test of the presence of manganese, is the purple 
color which all its ores give, when fused with borax. 

The ores of this metal are not very numerous, but they are widely 
disseminated, and quite common. 

Species 1. BLACK OXIDE OF MANGANESE. 

Manganese oxide* metalloide, H. Grey oxide of Manganese, P. Grey 
Manganese, A. Oxide of Manganese, C. Uncleavable Btanganese- 
Ore, M. 

Ext. Char — Colore, grejish black, dark violet, or 
iron black ; occurs massive, acicular, and crystal- 
lized ; primitive form, the rhombic prism, with various 
modifications ; also, in acicular crystals, longitudinally 
striated, and diverging, or confusedly intersecting each 
other; lustre earthy, sometimes metallic, and shining \ 
soils the fingers ; sp. gr. 4,1 4 to 4.80. 

Far. 1. RADIATED AND FIBROUS BLACK OXIDE OF ttAIfUAHISl. 

Radiated and Fibrous Grey Manganese, J. Radiated oxide of Man- 
ganese, C. 

Ext. Char.— Color, dark steel grey, passing Into iron 
black; occurs in fibres, or in acicular crystals, some- 
times radiating from a point, and sometimes intersect- 
ing each other in various directions, and resembling a 
bunch of the finest steel needles, after having been in 
the fire ; lustre metallic ; often presenting specimens of 
singular beauty. 

Chem. Chat. Infusible alone, but with borax dissolves, giving the 
globule a dark violet, or purple tinge. When a grain or two of Hi 
powder is mixed with a little common salt, and moisteried with sol* 
phuric acid, and heated, the sufbeating smell of efctaiM is emitted. 



ItLAttt OXIDE OF MANGANESE 253 

Gtrtkp. Manganese 44 ; oxygen 49 ; oxide of iron 3 ; silex 5 ; car- 
bon 1.5. — Cordier. 

Oxide of Manganese 99.*i5 ; water 0.25.— K laprath. 

Dht. Char. It resembles sulpbtfret of antimony, but this is easily 
fiftsibie, while the manganese is infusible. It may be confounded 
With brown haematite, but this becomes magnetic under the blowpipe, 
ind tinges borax brown, while the manganese tinges borax purple. 

Var. 2. compact black oxide of manganese. 
Manganese oxide* compacted H. Compact grey oxide of Manganese, 
P. Compact grey Manganese, A. Compact oxide of Manga* 
nose, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, dark steel grey, passing into iron 
black, violet brown, or brownish black ; occurs mas- 
sive, stalactical, and botryoidal ; lustre a little metallic, 
or dull ; fracture conchoidal, or uneven ; texture com- 
pact ; yields to the knife, but sometimes scratches 
glass ; soils the fingers ; sp. gr. 3.70. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax gives the purple globule. 

Comp. It is an impure mineral, containing about 60 or 80 per cent 
of the oxide of manganese, 20 per cent of iron, and often a portion of 
silex, barytes, carbon, &c. 

Var. 3. EARTHY OXIDE OF MANGANESE. 

Earthy grey Manganese ore, J. Earthy grey oxide of Manganese, P. 
Earthy oxide of Manganese, C. 

Ext. Char.—* Colors, greyish brown, and blackish 
brown ; occurs massive, amorphous and botryoidal ; 
texture and fracture earthy ; more or less friable, and 
sometimes pulverulent ; soils the fingers strongly ; sp. 
gr. 2 to 3. 

Comp. It sometimes contains neatly one half oxide of iron, or other 
foreign substances. 

Obs. This variety is known to miners under the name of Wad. — 
Jameson says, that when it is dry, and mixed with one fourth of its 
weight of linseed oil, and moderately heated, it inflames. 

Var. 4. silvery oxide of manuanese. 
Manganese oxide* argentin, H. Argentine oxide of Manganese, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish white, or greyish yel- 
low ; occurs in delicate tufts, or filaments, sometimes 
United into small masses, or it is found incrusting other 
•minerals, in thin layers ; lustre silvery, hence the 
name ; brittle ; crumbles between the fingers. 

Oxide of Manganese is found Chiefly in primitive rocks, and most 
frequently among the ores of iron. It is very extensively diffused, and 



254 SILICIOUS OXIDE, AND CARBONATE OF MANGANESE. 

is often the coloring matter of other minerals. It however does not 
very often occur in large quantities at a place. 

Local Cornwall, Devonshire and Aberdeen. In Germany, France, 
Siberia, and indeed in almost every country. 

U. S. Lawrence County, Arkansas Territory. Near Greenburg, 
and near Big Sandy river, Ken Shenandoah County, and Albemarle 
County, Virg. Near Wilkesbarre ; also near Lancaster, and in Northr 
umberland County, Penn. Near Hamburg, N. J. Near Troy and 
near Ancram, and on the Island of New- York. N. Y. Monkton, Ver. 
crystalized and earthy. Also at Bennington, from whence large quan- 
tities are drawn for use.— Hall. Lebanon, Conn. Milton, Lynn, Deer- 
field, and Leverett, Mass. Also at Dorchester, Adams, Richmond 
and Plainfield, Mass. 

Species 2. SILICIOUS OXIDE OF MANGANESE 
Manganese oxide silicifere, H. Rhomboidal red Manganese, J. Si- 
liciferous oxide of Manganese, P. White Manganese, A. Silice- 
ous oxide of Manganese, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, pale red, rose red, reddish 
brown, and yellowish white ; occurs massive, composed 
of granular concretions ; also earthy, and it is said in 
lenticular crystals ; fracture conchoidal ; lustre, shi- 
ning, or nearly dull ; scratches glass, when compact ; 
sp. gr. 3.2. 

Chem. Char. Fusible on the edges ; with borax, gives a violet col- 
ored, translucent glass. 

Comp. Oxide of manganese 52.6 ; silex 39.6 ; oxide of iron 4.6; 
lime i.5 ; volatile matter, 2.75. — Berzelius. 

Local. Kapnic, in Transylvania, with magnetic oxide of iron, and 
garnets. Near Tavistock, in Devonshire, with the grey oxide of man- 
ganese. Also in Sweden, Siberia, &c. ■> 

U. S. Middlebury, Ver. Cummington, Mass. 

Species 3. CARBONATE OF xMANGANESE. 
Manganese oxide carbonatee, H. Carbonate of Manganese, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, rose red, reddish white, and 
brownish; occurs massive, composed of small shining 
crystalline grains, of a foliated structure ; also globu- 
lar, and reniform ; yields a little to the knife ; trans- 
lucent on the edges ; fracture conchoidal, and splin- 
tery ; sp. gr. 3.20. 

It is said also to occur in lenticular crystals. 

Chem. Char Infusible, but becomes brown ; with borax, gi?es a 
reddish violet bead. 

Comp. Oxide of manganese 48 ; carbonic acid 49 ; oxide of iron 
2.1 ; silex 0.9 — Lampidius. 

Local. Nagyag, and Kapnic in Transylvania, in a vein of native 
auriferous tellurium. 



SULPHURET OF MANGANESE. 255 

Var. 1. ALLAGITE. 

Allagit. Leonhard. Allagite, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, and green, changing by 
exposure, to pink brown, and pearl grey, and finally 
to dark grey, and black ; scratches glass ; but does 
not give sparks with steel. 

Chem. Char. The green is fusible, with difficulty into a black pear- 
ly glass ; the brown, with borax, into a violet blue glass. 

Comp. Oxide of manganese 75 ; silex 16 ; carbonic acid 7.50.— Du- 
Menil 

Local. The Hartz, in Switzerland. 

Far. 2. rhodonite. 
Rhodonit. Leonhard. Rhodonite, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, red, rose red, pink, or yellow- 
ish white ; occurs compact, and in fibrous masses ; 
fracture of the compact, splintery; individuals of the 
fibrous variety, easily separable ; slightly translucent ; 
lustre shining , scratches glass, and gives sparks with 
steel; sp.gr. 3.6. 

Comp. (The fibrous) Protoxide of manganese 49.87 ; silex 39 j 
carbonic acid 4 ; aIumineO.12 ; water 6 ; oxide of iron 0.25.— Brandts. 
Local. Stahlberg, in Switzerland. 

Var. 3. horn mangan. 
Horn Mangan. Leonhard, P. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, white, grey, and brown, of vari- 
ous shades : also greenish blue ; occurs compact ; frac- 
ture somewhat conchoid&l, and occasionally splintery ; 
translucent on the edges; lustre glistening, but 
becomes brilliant on exposure ; scratches glass faint- 
ly ; gives no sparks with steel ; sp. gr. 3. to 3.89. 

Chem. Char. Fusible on the edges, with phosphorescence : With 
borax yields a bead of a hyacinth red color. 

Comp. Protoxide of manganese 54.58 ; silex 34 ; carbonic acid 8 ; 
water 2 ; oxide of iron 0.5. — Brandts. 
Local. It occurs with the above varieties. 

Species 3. SULPHURET OF MANGANESE. 

Manganese sulfure, H. Sulphuret of Manganese, A. P. C. Pris* 

matic Manganese- Blende, J. HexahedraJ Glance-Blende, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, of the fresh fracture, steel grey, 
but becomes brownish black, by exposure; occurs 
massive, reniform, and botryoidal ; lustre shining, me- 



256 PHOSPHATE, AND CUPREOUS MANGANESE. 

tallic ; texture fine grained, or sometimes foliated ; frac- 
ture uneven ; yields to the knife ; opake ; sp. gr. 3.96. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, but dissolves with borax, g iving t vio- 
let blue glass. With nitrous acid, its powder yields sulphuretted 
hydrogen. 

Camp. Manganese slightly oxidated 85 ; snlphur 15.— VauqpcKn. 

Local. Nagyag, in Transylvania, with tellurium, blende, aad the 
other ores of manganese. Also in Cornwall. 

Species 4. PHOSPHATE OF MANGANESE. 
Manganese phosphate ferrifere, H. Phosphate of Manganese, A. P. 

C.J. M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, reddish, or blackish brown; 
powder brown, or reddish ; occurs massive ; structure 
lamellar ; fracture uneven ; translucent on the edges ; 
lustre resinous, and somewhat chatoyant ; mechanical 
division, tends to a rectangular prism; scratches glass; 
brittle ; sp. gr. 3-4. to 3.95 . 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with intumescence into a black enamel, 
which is magnetic ; soluble in nitric acid, without effervescence. 

Comp. Protoxide of manganese 32.6 ; phosphoric acid 82.8 ; pro- 
toxide of iron 31.9 ; phosphate of lime 3.2.~-BerzeUus. 

Local Limoges in France, in a coarse grained granite. It is said 
also to occur in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. 

Species 5. CUPREOUS MANGANESE. 
Cupreous Manganese, J. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, bluish black, streak unchanged; 
occurs massive, reniform, and in botryoidal groups ; 
texture compact ; fracture iiqperfect conchoidal ; bis- 
tre resinous ; opake ; not very brittle ; yields to the 
knife ; sp. gr. 3.19 to 3.21. 

Chem. Char. Becomes brown, but is infusible alone., To borax 
and salt of phosphorus, gives a mixture of purple and green colors. 

Comp. Black oxide of manganese 82 ; brown oxide of copper 13.50. 
— Lampidius. 

Local. In the tin mines of Schlaggenwald, in Bohemia. 

Genus 15. MOLYBDENA. 

The pure metal, which is obtained with great difficulty, is of a white 
color, tinged with yellow. On exposure to the air, it soon oxidates, 
but remains unaltered under water ; on exposure to continued beat, 
it is converted into a white oxide. By the action of sulphuric and ni- 
tric acid, it is converted into Molybdic acid, which has the form of a 
yellowish white powder. Sp. gr. of the pure metal 8,6. 



SULPHURET, AND OXIDE OF tfOLYBDENA. 257 

The trt* iff this nietti an few, and'thmtgh not unctmmm, fkey rare- 
ly 9ccm in any considerable quantities* 

Specks 1. SULPHURET OF MOLTBDENA; 
Moly bdene ealfure, H. Saiphuret of Moly bdena, P. €. 
Ext. Char. — Color, nearly that of fresh cut, metallic 
lead; occurs massive, or crystallized, in short hexahe- 
dral prisms ; structu re lamellar, or foliated ; cleavage 
perfect in one direction; lustre brilliant, and not sub- 
ject to tarnish ; folia easily separable, and somewhat 
flexible; unctuous to the touch;. leaves a metafile 
streak on paper ; opake; sp. gr, 4,5 to 4.7; often ap- 
pears, in spots, of dots* in other minerals, as in lime- 
stone, 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but sometimes gives out the odor of sul- 
phur, and if the heat be urged, emits white fumes. Soluble with ef- 
fervescence in carbonate of soda, it 19 converted into molybdic acid 
by the action of nitric acid. 

Camp. Moiybdena 60; sulphur 40.— Bathoiz. 

Dist Char. It resembles plumbago, but may be readily, and cer- 
tainly distinguished from h, by the blowpipe with borax. The mo- 
iybdena, in small scale* will adhere to the surface* of the globule of 
fused borax, without any change ; but the plumbago, dissolves, or sep- 
arates into minute particles, coating the surface of the borax, with 
a lead grey crust. Micaceous* iron* becomes magnetic before the 
blowpipe, which will always distinguish it from moiybdena. 

This mineral belongs to primitive rocks, as granite, gneiss, and 
primitive limestone. 

Local. Near Mont BTanC Near' Nptbefg, in Sweden, in a white 
steatite. Abo, in Finland, with hornblende. Chessy, in France, iri 
scienite. Cornwall, with tin and copper. Cumberland, with apa- 
tite, and iron ore. 

U. 8. Chester County, and Delaware County, Penn. Near Bal- 
timore, in granite. Near Philadelphia, in gneiss. On the Island of 
New York, and in the Highlands, If. Y. Also m West Chester, and 
Putnam Counties, and at Crownpoint East ffaddam, Say brook, and 
Brookfield, Conn. Shaftsbury, Mass. in six-sided tables or plates^— ^ 
Silliman. Also at Brimheld. Brunswick, Maine, in six-sided tables, 
and in foliated masses. — Cleveland. 

Species 2. OXIDE OF MOLYBDENA. 
Moiybdena ochre, J. Oxide. of Moiybdena, P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, straw, or sulphur yellow ; occurs 
pulverulent, and in friable crusts. 

Chem. Char. When heated, by the compound blowpipe, a snow- 
white oxide is eublimed.— Cleveland. 

33 



268 NAT1TE ANTIMONY. 

Obs. It has not been analyzed, but according to tbe observation of 
Berzelius, it behaves under the blowpipe, like pure molybdic acid. 
Local. Nummedalen, in Norway, on sulphuret of molybdena. And 
at Cory burg, in Scotland. 

U. 6. Brunswick, in Maine, with sulphuret of molybdena. 

Genus 16— ANTIMONY. 

Color of the pure metal, white ; occurs in foliated or lamellar mass- 
es, the lamella? being placed in irregular directions, often with 
broad shining faces, sometimes curved ; brittle, and easily reduced to 
a powder ; melting point, 800 deg. Fah. and at a higher heat, evapo- 
rates in form of a grey smoke ; soluble in the acids ; sp. gr. 6.8. 

Uses. It enters into the composition of printing types, of speculum 
metal, of Britannia ware, etc. In medicine it is universally employed, 
when united to tartaric acid, under tbe name of tartar emetic. 

Its ores are few, and its localities not very numerous. 

Species 1. NATIVE ANTIMONY. 

Antimoine* natif, H. Dodecahedral A ntimony , J. Native Antimony, 
A. P. C. Rhombohedral Antimony, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, tin white, but on exposure, be- 
comes yellowish, or brownish ; occurs reniform, amor- 
Shous, and in thin plates ; also crystallized in octohe- 
rons, and dodecahedrons ; lustre brilliant ; structure 
lamellar ; cleavage easily effected, in certain direc- 
tions ; brittle ; sp. gr. 6.7. 

Chem Char. Easily fusible with a grey inodorous vapor. With 
borax, it separates into small individual globules, and continues to 
emit white fumes from its own combustion, after the heat is removed ; 
on cooling, the globule becomes covered with minute crystals of the 
oxide of antimony. 

Comp. Antimony 93; silver 1; iron 0.25.— Klaprotk. 

Obs. It often contains a little arsenic, and some specimens leave 
a small globule of silver on the charcoal, after the antimony has es- 
caped. 

Dist Char. It resembles antimonial silver, but this always yields 
a globule of silver, under the blowpipe. The sulphuret of antimony, 
gives the odor of sulphur, which the native does not. It may also be 
taken for arsenical iron, and native bismuth. But the first emits the 
arsenical odor, and leaves a magnetic globule, and the bismuth has a 
tinge of copper-red. 

It is frund in primitive rocks, and is a rare ore. 

Local Sahlberg, in Sweden. Dauphiny, in France. Andreas- 
berg, in the Hartz. A 1 lemon t, near Grenoble. 

U. S. Harwinton, Conn, in broad plates, associated with sulphuret 
of antimony. — SiUiman. 



SULPHURET OF ANTIMONY. JKW 

Species 2. SULPHURET OF ANTIMONY. 

Antimoine sulfure, H. Prismatic Antimony-Glance, J. Sulpburet of 
Antimony j A. P. C. Prismatoidal Antimony-Glance, M. 

Ext. Char. — Qolor, lead grey, passing into steel grey; 
streak unchanged; often irridescent, from external 
tarnish ; occurs massive, composed of delicate threads, 
or needles, closely aggregated, and sometimes so fine 
as to resemble wool ; also, crystallized in rhombic 

{>risms, variously modified, and variously terminated ; 
ustre splendent ; fracture, and texture fibrous ; yields 
to the knife ; brittle, and easily reduced to powder; 
sp. gr. 4 to 4.80, 

Chem. Char. Melts in a candle. Before the blowpipe, emits the odor 
of sulphur, and is mostly volatalized, in the form of a white smoke. 

Comp. Antimony 74 ; sulphur 26. — Bergman. 

Dist. Char. The easy fusibility of this species, will easily distin- 
guish it from the minerals it most resembles, particularly, from the 
oxide of manganese. It differs from native antimony, in emitting the 
sulphureous odor when heated, and in being of a darker color. 

Var. 1. RADIATED SULPHURET OF ANTIMONY. 

Antimoine sulfure* aciculaire, H. Acicular Sulphuret of Antimony, P. 
Radiated Sulphuret of Antimony, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, lead grey, passing into steel grey; 
occurs in masses, composed of acicular, compressed, 
cylindrical crystals, radiating from a centre, or inter- 
secting each other, in various directions ; longitudin- 
al fracture, fibrous ; lustre of the faces very brilliant 

Obs. This variety is much more common than the above. 

Far. 2. plumose sulphuret of antimony. 

Antimoine sulfure capillaire, H. Plumoze Sulphuret of Antimony. 

P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark steel grey, or lead grey, of- 
ten tarnished purple, or blue ; occurs in very minute 
capillary crystals, investing the surfaces of other min- 
erals, giving them a feathery, or downy appearance ; 
brittle; soft; opake. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with a white vapor, into a black slag. 
Local. Uuel Boys mine, in Cornwall. It is rare. 

Var. 3. compact sulphuret of antimony. 

Antimoine sulfure compact, H. Sulphuret of Antimony, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, light lead grey ; fracture u ren* 

texture fine grained; lustre glimmering ; occu l 



260 SULPHURETTED OXIDE OF ANTIMONY. 

ive, and disseminated ; brittle ; yields to the knife ; 
sp gr. 4.3. 

Dist. Char. Easily distinguished from the steel-grained sulphu* 
ret of lead, by the white fumes it emits under the blowpipe. 

It is a rare variety. 

Sulphuret of antimony, is the ore, from which the antimony of 
commerce is obtained. It is found in primitive and secondary rocks, 
associated with the sulphurets of lead, and zinc, and with ores of 
iron, copper, and arsenic. 

Local Andreasberg, in the Hartz. Friberg, in Saxony. Schem- 
nitz, in Hungary. Nagyag, in Transylvania. Mexico. England. 
Scotland. Ireland. Spain, &c. 

U. S. Near Richmond, in Virg. Near Zanesville, Ohio. Har- 
winton, Conn, with native antimony. Near South Hadley, Mass 
On Saco river, Maine. 

Vat. 4. N ICKELIFEROUS «REY ANTIMONY. 

Antimoine sulfure nickelifere, H. Nickeliferous Sulphuret of Anti- 
mony, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, steel grey, inclining to silver 
white ; occurs in compact, or in broad plates ; cleavage, 
parallel to the planes ofthe hexahedron, perfect; lus- 
tre metallic ; brittle ; sp. gr. 6.56. 

Chem. Char. It is partly voiatalized before the blowpipe, during 
which the supporting charcoal is covered with a white coating ; at last 
it melts into a metallic globule, which communicates a bine color to 
the glass of borax. — Mohs. 

tomp. Antimony 43.80; sulphur 17.71 ; nickel 96.60; iron and 
manganese 1.89. — Stomeyer. 

Local. Near Treusburg, in Nassau, with galena, and copper. 

Obs. Sulphuret of antimony, sometimes contains various propor- 
tions of silver, or copper. One variety, found in the Pyrenees, is said 
to contain 20 per cent of copper. 

Species 3. SULPHURETTED OXIDE OP ANTIMONY. 

Antimoine oxid6 sulfure, H. Red Antimony, J. A. P. Prismatic 
Purple-Blende, M. Sulphuretted oxide of Antimony, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, cherry red, or brownish red, streak 
unchanged; surface, often irridescent, from tarnish; 
occurs in acicular prisms, radiating, or interlacing; 
feehly translucent; also, occurs massive, with a fi- 
brous, or granular structure ; lustre metallic adaman- 
tine ; brittle ; sp. gr. 4 to 4.6, - 

Chem. Char. Melts easily, and is entirely voiatalized, by continuing 
the heat. In nitric acid, i% becomes covered with * white coating, 
but does not entirely dissolve. 



OXIDE OF ANTIMONY. OXIDE OF CHROME. 261 

C*ntp. Antimony 67.60; oxygen 10.80; sulphur 19.70. —ifla- 
proth. 

Obs. It occurs with the sulphuret of antimony, which has indu- 
ced a belief, that it arises from the decomposition of that ore. 

Dist. Char. Cinnibar is of a deeper, or scarlet-red color, and is 
Tolatalized with a blue flame. Red oxide of copper, leaves a globule 
of the metal on the charcoal, and the red oxide of tin is infusible. 

Local Kapnic, in Transylvania. Allemont, in France. Hunga- 
ry. Saxony. Tuscany, &c. 

U. 8. Mear Leesburg, Vir. in detached masses, in the soil ; it 
has a deep ruby color.— Hay den. 

Species 4. OXIDE OF ANTIMONY. 

Antimoine oxyde, H. Oxide of Antimony, A. P. C. Prismatic 

White Antimony, J. Prismatic Antimony-Baryte, M, 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, yellowish white, or grey- 
ish, occurs massive, in acicular prisms, and in tabular 
crystals ; crystals commonly occur in radiated, or facic- 
ukr groups structure foliated, or fibrous 5 translucent - % 
lustre, shining pearly ; sp. gr. about 5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with ease, and volatile by the heat ; but it is 
sometimes volatile without fusion. 

Comp. Oxide of antimony 86; oxide of iron 3; silex 8.—Vau~ 
qudin 

Dist. Char. Its volatility and weight, will distinguish it from zeo- 
lite and stilbite. Carbonate of lead, is not volatile by the btywpipe. 

It is found with the other ores of antimony. 

Local. MaJazka, in Bohemia. Allemont, in France, &c. 

Genus 17.— CHROME. 

Color of the pure metal, between tin white, and steel grey. It is 
obtained from the native chromate of iron, with difficulty, and only in 
small quantities ; when this metal is oxidated to its fullest extent, it 
constitutes chromic acid, a crystalline salt of a beautiful aurora red 
color. The metal has a radiated, crystalline texture, and is hard, and 
brittle, sp. gr. about 6. 

Uses. The oxides of chrome, or chromic acid, form very beautiful, 
and useful colors, when combined with other metals, as iron, cobalt, 
lead, or mercury. Green, yellow, and red colors, are produced in this 
way, and are employed as pigments, and for the coloring of porce- 
lain ware.. The emerald, actinolite, and several other green miner- 
als, owe their colors to oxide of chrome. 

' Species 1. OXIDE OF CHROME. 
Oxide of Chrome, Mac CuUoch, P. C. 
' Ext. Chbr. — Colors, bright grass green, and pale yel- 
low ; occurs pulverulent, or compact ; translucent, 



262 NATIVE ARSENIC. 

when compact, and of a green color, bearing the marks 
of crystalline structure ; lustre, and appearance, like 
that of compact crystalline limestone. 

Chem. Char. The green, changes to yellow, by heat. Gives a 
green color to borax, and also to boiling alkali ; but the color is pre- 
cipitated by further boiling. 

Local Unst, one of the Shetland Isles, where it fills the cavities of 
the chromate of iron.— Mae Cutloch. 

Genus 18.— ARSENIC. 

Color of the metal, bluish white, like that of steel ; lustre brilliant; 
brittle ; soft ; may be reduced to powder, in a mortar ; when heated 
it emits the odour of garlic, and flies off in white fumes ; sublimes 
without melting ; oxidates, and turns dark, on exposure, but retain! 
its brilliancy for years, if closely sealed in a glass tube ; Sp. gr. 5.7. 

Uses. It enters into the composition of some metallic alloys, and its 
oxides are employed in the preparation of certain paints ; in the color- 
ing of glass, and in medicine, it is used under the name of Footer's 
Solution It is a violent poison, in all its modes of existence, except 
in that of a pure metal. 

Obs. No mines are wrought for the purpose of obtaining this metal. 
That used in commerce, which is the white oxide, is chiefly scraped, 
by condemned criminals, from the long chimnies of the cobalt smelt- 
ing furnaces in Saxony. 

Species 1. NATIVE ARSENIC. 
Arsenic natif, H. Native Arsenic, A. P.C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, tin white, inclining to steel grey, 
or lead gjrey ; externally, tarnished nearly black ; oc- 
curs reniform, botryoidal, in plates, and in concre- 
tions ; fracture uneven ; structure imperfectly foliated; 
or sometimes, concentric lamellar, and sometimes, 
with impressions of crystals ; yields to the knife; brit- 
tle ; lustre metallic ; sp. gr. 5.7. 

Chem. Char. Burns with a blue flame, yielding a dense white smoke, 
attended with the odor of garlic, and leaves on the charcoal, a minute 
portion of iron, silver, or gold. 

Dist. Char. From other native metals, it may readily be distinguish- 
ed, by its beginning to evaporate before it melts. Arsenical pyrites 
leaves a magnetic globule ; and arsenical antimonial silver, leaves a 
silver globule, both of which will shew that they are not the present 
species. 

It occurs chiefly in primitive rocks, with the ores of cobalt, silver, 
copper, &c. 



OXIDE, AND BULPHURET OF ARSENIC. 263 

Local. Konigsberg in Norway. In the Hartz. Bohemia. France. 
England, &c. 

U. 8. Martha's vineyard. 

Species 2. OXIDE OP ARSENIC. 

Arsenic oxid6, H. Oxide of Arsenic, J. P. C. Octohedral Arsenic 

Acid, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, snow white, or yellowish, reddish, 
or greenish white ; occurs earthy, capillary, and in- 
vesting; also crystallized in octahedrons, and in quad- 
rangular tables ; cleavage parallel to the planes of the 
octohedron; lustre vitreous ; texture fibrous, or gran- 
ular ; crystals often minute, and delicate ; translucent • 
opake. 

Chem. Char. Gives out the smell of garlic, and finally evaporates. — 
Soluble in about 80 parts of water. 

Dist. Char. Its solubility in water will distinguish it from pharma- 
colite, and other minerals which it resembles. 

Local. Andreasberg in the Hartz, with the ores of arsenic and lead, 
also in the Pyrenees. 

Obs. This is a very rare mineral, and perhaps, with the exception 
of the carbonate of barytes, which is also rare, the only instance, where 
nature has furnished, ready prepared, a violent poison in the mineral 
kingdom. 

Species 3. SULPHURET OP ARSENIC. 
Arsenic sulfure, H. Sulphuret of Arsenic, P. C. 
Of this species, there are two varieties, which differ chiefly in respect 
to color. They are both composed of metallic arsenic, and sulphur, 
though probably in different proportions. 

Var. 1. RED 8ULPHURET OF ARSENIC. 

Realgar Kirwan, P. Arsenic sulfur^ rouge, H. Red Orpiment, J. 
Realger, P. C. Hcmi Prismatic Sulphur, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, aurora red, scarlet, or blood red ; 
occurs amorphous, in concretions, and in flakes, or 
crusts ; also crystallized in the form of a four-sided 

})rism, with the terminal planes set obliquely on the 
ateral planes, and in six-sided prisms, both forms be- 
ing subject to a variety of modifications, from trunca- 
tion, and bevelment ; lustre shining, vitreous, or waxy ; 
streak, lemon yellow ; fracture of the compact, con- 
choidal ; semi-transparent, or opake ; soft ; often 
yields to the nail ; brittle ; sp. gr. 3.30 5 becomes elec- 
tric, by friction. 



264 8ULFHURET OF ARSENIC. 

Chem. Char. Melts easily, and burns witb a blue flame, and white 
smoke, attended with the odors of sulphur and garlic. In nitric acid, 
it becomes whitish. 

Comp. Arsenic 69; sulphur 31 , — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. Its color resembles that of chromate of lead, but the 
chromate is much heavier, and tinges borax green. The red ores of 
silver and mercury give a red streak, and seldom give the odor of ar- 
senic, like the present variety. They are also heavier than the present 
species. 

Uses. It is employed as a paint, and the Chinese form vessels, and 
images of it. >* 

Var. 2. yellow sulphuret of arsenic. 

Arsenic sulfure jaune, H. Orpiment, A. P. C. Yellow Orpimeit 
or Prismatoidal Sulphur, J. Prismatoidal Sulphur/ M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, lemon, or golden yellow ; occurs 
reniform, disseminated, and in plates ; also, it is said, 
in minute crystals ; lustre shining, sometimes brilliant, 
and metallic; structure foliated, or laminated, the 
laminae often curved, and easily separable, like those 
of mica ; flexible, but not elastic ; translucent \ by fric- 
tion, acquires negative electricity ; sp. gr. 3.4. 

Chem. Char. Burns, emitting the fumes of sulphur andt arsenic* 

Comp. Arsenic 57; sulphur 43. — Thenard. 

Dist. Char. It most resembles yeHow mica, but the layers of mica 
are flexible and elastic ; those of orpiment being easily broken. Mi- 
ca also gives no fumes when heated. Native sulphur has not a folia- 
ted structure, like orpiment, and is not so heavy. 

Uses. Orpiment is employed as a paint, bat for this purpose it is 
mostly prepared by art. 

Both varieties are found, chiefly in secondary, but sometimes in 
primitive rocks. Sometimes realger occurs among the products of 
volcanoes. 

Local. Realgar is found in the Harts, in the mines of Saxony, Bo- 
hemia, and Hungary, and on the North West coast of America. Al- 
so, among the volcanic matter of Etna, Vesuvius and Guadaloupe. 

Orpiment is also found in Suabia, in Piedmont, at Moldavia in 
Hungary, in China and in Nova Scotia, in America. 

Genus 19. COLUMBIUM.* 

Colambium, in the pnrest state, in which it has been obtained, is a 
metal of a dark iron grey color, which when rubbed against a line 
whetstone, or is scratched with a knife, puts on the metallic lustre. It 
scratches glass, is brittle, and is not acted on by any of the acids, or 
by any mixture of them : sp. gr. 6. 

■«— »» •" ■ ■ 
"From its being first discovered in America. 



FERRUGINOUS, AND ITTRIOtfS OXIDROF COLUMBIUM. 266 

Theores of Cohtmbium are few, and oeeur but rarefy, and in small 
fuantities. 

Species 1. FERRUGINOUS OXIDE OF COLUMBIUM. 

Tantale oxyde* ferro-manganesifere, H. Prismatic Tantalium-ore, M. 

J. Colnmbite, P. Ferruginous oxide of Columbium, C. 

Ext. Chtir. — Colors, greyish, and brownish, or bluish 
black; occurs amorphous, and in small crystalline 
masses, the forms of which are imperfect, four, and six- 
sided prisms, sometimes flattened, and variously modi- 
fied by truncation; structure imperfectly foliated; 
brittle ; lustre a little shining, but not metallic ; opake; 
sp. gr. 6 to 7. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, and suffers no change by the blowpipe 
alone. Partly soluble in heated sulphuric acid, (Moks.) If fused 
with potash, mixed with a little borax, the mass spreads on the char- 
coal, and passes from a brownish to a greenish color. With borax it 
dissolves with difficulty, and forms a bottle green glass. 

Cemp. (From New-London) Oxide of columbium 87 ; oxide of 
iron 21.— Hatehett. 

(From Sweden) Oxide of columbium 85 ; oxide of iron 12 ; oxide 
of manganese 8. — Vauquelin. 

Obs. Columbium was first discovered by Mr. Hatehett in a speci- 
men of unexamined ore, said to have been sent from Gov. Winthrop, 
of Connecticut, to Sir Hans SJoane. It was deposited in the British 
Museum, and analysed by Mr. Hatehett in 1801, who found that it 
was the ore of a new metal, to which He gave the name of Columbium 
in honor of this country. • 

2. After the discovery of Mr. Hatehett Mr. Ekeberg,a Swedish chem- 
ist, discovered the oxide of a new metal, in a specimen of ore, from 
Findland, and to which he gave the name of Tantalum. The ore it- 
self he called Tantalite. « 

3. In the year 1809, Dr. Wollaston, having obtained specimens of 
the ores of the two new metals from America, and from Finland, dis- 
covered that they differed, only in respect to localities, and that they 
were ores of the same metal. 

Local. Kemito, in Finlaud. Bodenmais, in Bavaria. 

U. 8. New-London and Haddam, Ct. At Haddam, it is embed- 
ed in granite; with garnet, chrysoberyl, and beryl. — Silliman. War* 
wick, N. Y — Robinson. 

Species 2. ITTRIOUS OXIDE OF COLUMBIUM. 

Tantale oxide yttrifere, H. Yttro-Columbite, P/ Yttro-Tantalite, J. 

M. Yttrious oxide of Columbium, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, iron black, yellowish brown, 
and blackish brown ; powder paler ; occurs in grains, 
in small masses, and in thin plates ; it is said also to 

34 



266 ITTRIOUS OXIDE OF COLUMBIUM* 

occur in rhombic prisms; lustre shining, metallic; 
opake ; scratches glass a little ; sp gr. 5,8 to 5.3. 

Var. 1. BLACK ITTRIOUS OXIDE OF COLUMBIUM. 

Black Yttro-tantalite, M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black, occurs disseminated, and 
in grains, seldom of the size of a hazlenut ; traces of 
crystallization indistinct ; fracture lamellar, in one di- 
rection, and coarse granular, in another ; lustre imper- 
fect, metallic ; opake ; streak grey; brittle; scratches 
glass; sp. gr. 5.3. 

Var. 2. YELLOW ITTRIOUS oxide OF COLUMBIUM. 

Yellow Yttro-tantalite, M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish brown, sometimes with 
jjreen spots, or stripes ; streak white ; occurs between 
felspar, in a state of laminae, seldom in grains, not ex- 
ceeding the size of a pepper corn ; longitudinal frac- 
ture foliated; cross fracture, fine grained; lustre resi- 
nous, on the surface, vitreous, on the fracture; no 
trace of crystallization ; distinctly scratched by glass; 
sp- gr. 5.8. 

Cham. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, both varieties are fusible 
into a yellowish glass. The black, froths and melts with soda, the 
yellow not. They are not acted upon by acids. 

Comp. (Black) Oxide of columbium 57 ; ittria 20.25 ; lime 6.25; 
oxide of uranium 0.50; tungstic acid and tin 8.25; oxide of iron 
3.50.— Berzelius. 

(Yellow) oxide of columbium 59 50 ; ittria 24.90 ; lime 3.29 ; ox- 
ide of urauium 6 23 ; tungstic acid and tin, 1.25 ; oxide of iron, 2.72. 
Berzelius. 

Local. These varieties are found at Ytterby in Sweden, imbedded 
in felspar. Also at Abo, and in Greenland. 

Germs 20.— CERIUM.* 

The characters of this substance, as a pure metal, are little known. 
The chemists have demonstrated, that such a metal exists, but its re- 
fractory nature is such, as to defy every means, heretofore used, to 
reduce it to the state of a pure metal. 

/ft? ores are various, but most of them are rare, and have been found 
hi only small quantities. 



* From the planet Ceres. 



SILICIOUS OXIDE OF CERIUM. ALLANITE. 267 

Species 1. SILICIOUS OXIDE OF CERIUM. 

Cerium oxyde silicif&re, H. Cerite, A. P. Indivisible Cerium- 
Ore, J. Uncleavable Cerium-Ore, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, rose red, brownish red, and 
flesh red, passing into grey ; streak nearly white ; oc- 
curs massive, and disseminated ; fracture compact; 
splintery ; translucent, or opake ; brittle ; texture gran- 
ular ; lustre shining ; scratches glass ; yields with dif- 
ficulty to the knife ; sp. gr. 4.9. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, dissolves into an orange 
colored globule, which grows pale on cooling. 

Comp. Oxide of cerium 68.59 ; silex 18 ; oxide of iron 2 ; lime 
1.25 ; water and carbonic acid 9.60. — Hisinger. 

Local. Westmoreland, in Sweden, with bismuth, mica, hornblende 
and molybdena. 

Species 2. ALLANITE. 
Allanite,* Thomson. Allanite, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, brownish, and greenish black ; 

J)owder greenish grey ; occurs massive, and crystal- 
ized in four, and six-sided prisms, variously terminat- 
ed ; fracture imperfect conchoidal 5 lustre shining res- 
ino-metallic ; scratches glass, and gives sparks with 
steel ; opake ; sp. gr. 3.5 to 4. 

Chem. Char. Becomes greenish yellow, and sometimes intumesces, 
and melts into a slag. 

Comp. Oxide of cerium 33 ; oxide of iron 25.40 ; silex 35.40 ; 
lime 9.20 ; alumine 4.10 — Thomson. 

Dist. Char. It resembles gadonolite, but according to Bournon, 
gadonolite, in thin pieces, is translucent, and of a fine green color, 
while the present species is commonly opake, but when translucent, 
is of a yellowish brown color. 

Local. West Greenland, in a granite rock. 

Var. 1. orthite. 
Orthite, Berzelius. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, ash grey, or brownish, from de- 
composition ; occurs in long straight seams, or layers ; 
texture impalpable ; fracture conchoidal ; lustre vitre- 
ous ; streak, brownish grey ; opake ; scratches glass 
with difficulty • sp. gr. 3.28. 

Chem. Char. Melts, with effervescence, into a black vescicular 
globule ; with borax, into a transparent glass. 

* In honor of Thou*? Altai, Esq. of Edinburgh. 



268 OXIDE, AND FLU ATE OF CERIUM. 

Comp. Oxide of cerium 19.44 ; silex 32 ; lime 7.84 ; alumine 
14.80; protoxide of iron 12.44; oxide of manganese 3.40^ ittrit 
3.44 ; water 5.36—Berzthus. 

Local. Finbo, in Sweden, along with albite in a gneiss rock. 

Species 3. ITTRIO-CALCAREOUS OXIDE OF CERIUM. 

Yttro-cerite, J. P. V. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish white, greyish red, and 
violet blue ; colors, sometimes mingled in the same 
specimen; occurs amorphous, and in crusts; texture 
granular ; structure lamellar ; lustre glistening ; frac- 
ture uneven ; yields to the knife ; sp. gr. 3,44. 

Chem. Char. Becomes white, bat is infusible alone. On adding t 
little gypsum, it fuses into a bead, which becomes white on cooling. 
In fine powder, soluble in muriatic acid, forming a yellow solution. 

Comp. Oxide of cerium 19.22; ittria 9.11 ; lime 47.63; fluoric 
acid 25. — Berzelius. 

Local. Finbo, in Sweden, disseminated in quartz. 

U. S. Franklin, N. J. discovered by Col. Gibbs.— SWimon. 

Species 4. FLU ATE OF CERIUM. 

Fluate of Cerium, Berzelius. Fluate of Cerium, P. C. M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, yellow, pale red, or deep red ; 

occurs in small masses, in plates, and in six-sided 

prisms; soft, some of the varieties, yielding to the nail. 

Obs. This is not quite a pore fluate, but contains a little ittria, or 

thorina. 

Var. I. NEUTRAL FLUATE OP CERIUM. 

Neutral Fluate of Cerium, P. C. M. 
Ext Char. — Color, reddish; occurs amorphous, in 
plates, and in six-sided prisms. 

Chem. Char. Color, changes to brown, but does not fuse alone ; 
with borax, and salt of phosphorus, gives a red or orange colored glo- 
bule, which becomes pale on cooling. — Mohs. It corrodes glass 
when heated in it. 

Comp. Fluate of protoxide of cerium 30.43 ; fluate of peroxide of 
cerium 68, with a trace of ittria. — Berzelius. 

Var. 2. SUB-FLUATE OP CERIUM. 

Sub-fluate of Cerium, BerxeUus. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellow; occurs in small masses, 
with traces of a crystalline structure ; resembles por- 
cellanite. 

Chem. Char. Behaves like the preceding variety, under the blow- 



OXIDE OF TITANIUM* 269 

pipe, except that its color changes in cooling, from dark brown, to 
red, and orange. 

Var. 3. fluate op ittria and cerium. 
Ext. Char. — Color, pale jred, passing into deep red ; 
occurs in masses, hardly exceeding the size of a pea > 
yields to the nail ; fractur^, and texture earthy. 

Ckem. Char. Corrodes glass, When heated in it ; with borax and 
■alt of phosphorus, forms a reddish, or yellowish bead. 

Local. These several varieties are found at Finbo, and Broddbo, 
in Sweden. 

Obs. The varieties of fluate of cerium, have but lately been dis- 
covered, and their chemical characters not yet fully examined. For 
the above short descriptions, the public are indebted to Berzelius, the 
discoverer of this new species. They are at present very rare, hav- 
ing been found only in the above localities, and in small quantities. 

Genus 21.— TITANIUM. 

This metal has hardly been seen in its pure metallic state. Lau- 
gier, exposed its oxide, mixed with combustible matter, to the highest 
heat of a forge for six hours, when a mass full of pores was obtained. 
This he considered metallic titanium. It was brittle, with a bright 
lustre, and in thin pieces, elastic : sp. gr. unknown. 

The ores of titanium, are considerably numerous, and are widely 
disseminated. 

No use has yet been made of any of them. 

Species 1. OXIDE OF TITANIUM. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, red, reddish hrown, yellowish red, 
and reddish grey ; also, indigo blue, pale blue, and dark 
red ; occurs massive, but more commonly, crystallized 
in octohedrons, or in prismatic crystals, imperfectly 
terminated ; fracture granular, or uneven, in one di- 
rection, and laminated in another ; texture foliated . 
lustre metallic, or adamantine ; opake, or translucent ; 
scratches glass ; sp. gr. 3*8 to 4.24. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, melts into a transpa- 
rent globule, either reddish, or tinged of various colors, according to 
the proportion 01 borax. 

Camp. Titanium 66.05 ; oxygen 33.95. — Rose. 

It is a pure oxide of titanium. 

Var. 1. RED OXIBE OF TITANIUM. 

Titane oxidS, H. Prismato-Pyramidal Titanium-Ore, J. Titan ite, 
A. P. Red Oxide of Titanium, C. Peritomous Titanium-Ore, M. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, red, reddish brown, or copper 



270 OXIDE OF TITANIUM. 

red, sometimes grey on the surface ; occurs crystal- 
lized, in four, six, or eight-sided prisms, sometimes ter- 
minated by four-sided pyramids, and sometimes with 
rounded terminations ; crystals often long, straight, acic- 
ular, and striated ; also occurs, in minute, reticulated 
crystals ; and in bent, or geniculated prisms ; structure 
lamellar ; lustre adamantine, or metallic ; fracture con- 
choidal, or uneven; translucent; scratches glass; 
brittle ; sp. gr. 4.24. 




Fig. 42. A geniculated crystal, or two crystals united base to base, 
forming an obtuse angle or knee. In other respects, tbere is noth- 
ing peculiar in the prisms which this variety presents. 

Chem. Char. Infusible by itself; with borax, melts into a reddish 
transparent glass. 

Comp. It is a pure oxide of titanium. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It differs from the silico-calcareous oxide of titanium, 
in being more transparent, in occurring in more perfect crystals, and 
in being harder. It resembles the red garnet, but this is fusible alone. 
The oxide of tin has a greater specific gravity, and decrepitates 
strongly when heated 

Obs. 1. Titanium, in connection with some other substances, often 
forms very beautiful specimens. 

2. The reticulated variety, composed of capillary or acicular crys- 
tals, is found investing, or penetrating other minerals. Sometimes 
it shoots through limpid pieces of quartz, the crystals crossing each 
other and forming a kind of net work ; hence the name, reticulated. 
Such specimens, when polished, sometimes display the crystals of 
titanite, of the size of needles, or even hairs, of a blood red color, and 
appearing as though they were shot into their places, when the quartz 
was perfectly soil. Some of these specimens, are singularly curious 
and beautiful. 

Titanite occurs chiefly in veins, in primitive rocks, and particular- 
ly in granite, gneiss, and quartz. 

Local St. Gothard, often reticulated in quartz. Tarentain, in' 
spat hose iron. Carpathian Mountains, in Hungary. Arendal, in 
Norway. Cairngorm, in Scotland. Fernbo, near Sahla, in Swe- 
den. 

U. S. Near Richmond, Vir. compact, blood red, in white quartz, 
— Bruce. Also in the Counties of Randolph, Amherst, Campbell, 
and Bedford, Vir. At some of these places, fine specimens are 



FERRUGINOUS OXIDE OF TITANIUM. 271 

found, some of which are near four inches long. — T. D. Porter. 
Near Baltimore, Md. London Grove, Chester County, Perm. 
Also in Delaware County, and at Kast Marlborough. Bergen Coun- 
ty, near Schuyler's copper mine, N. J. embedded in limestone. Its 
lustre is highly metallic. — Bruce. Near New Haven, and at Oxford, 
and Litchfield, Conn. At Oxford it is geniculated, and at Litchfield 
it is sometimes reticulated. Worthington, and Leyden, Mass. At 
Leyden, the crystals are four and eight-sided prisms. Near Kings- 
bridge, and on Hudson river, N. Y. color, from dark blood red to 
light red, sometimes geniculated, and sometimes acicular. — Bruce. 

Var. 2. OCTOHEDRAL OXIDE OP TITANIUM. 

Anatase, H. Pyramidal Titanium-Ore, J. M. Anatase. Octohe- 
drite, P. Octohedral Oxide of Titanium, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, various shades of brown, and 
blue ; also reddish ; by transmitted light, it is greenish 
yellow, or bluish ; occurs crystallized, in small acute 
octohedrons, with equal and similar isoceles triangular 
faces; one of the forms may be considered, as two elon- 
gated pyramids, with square bases, joined base to 
base; crystals variously modified by truncation; 
structure lamellar ; cleavage, parallel to the faces of 
the octohedron, and the common base of the two pyra- 
mids ; opake, or translucent ; lustre metallic adaman- 
tine ; scratches glass ; brittle ; sp. gr. 3.8. 

Chem. Char. Infusible by itself. With borax, it melts into a glo- 
bule, the color of which, seems to depend on the proportion of borax, 
with which it is fused. 

Dist. Char. It is harder than sulphuret of zinc, and softer than 
spindle. 

Chem. Char. Like the preceding variety, it is nearly a pure oxide 
of titanium. 

Obs. These two varieties have been hitherto arranged as separate 
species, but analysis seems to point but the propriety of placing them 
as varieties of each, since they differ little, except in color. 

Local Near Oisans, in Dauphiny, in veins of granite and gneiss* 
In New Castile. In Norway, and Brazil. It is a rare mineral. 

Species 2. FERRUGINOUS OXIDE OF TITANIUM. 
Titane oxyde ferrifere, H. Ferruginous Oxide of Titanium, C. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, black, and brownish black ; 
occurs in small grains, either rounded, or angular ; 
structure lamellar; opake ; brittle ; lustre glistening, or 
<Jull ; fracture foliated, in one direction, and conchoidal 
in the other ; sometimes magnetic. It is also said to oc- 
cur in prismatic crystals. Sp. gr. 4.27 to 4.67. 



272 FERRUGINOUS OXIDE OF TITANIUM. 

This species is divided into several varieties, which differ consider- 
ably in respect to their chemical characters. 

Var. 1. NIGRINE.* 

Nigrine, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black, or brownish black ; oc- 
curs in small loose, rounded, or angular masses ; struc- 
ture lamellar; cross fracture, flat conchoidal; lustre 
shining, adamantine ; opake 5 brittle 5 not magnetic ; 
sp. gr. 4.4. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone. With borax, melts into a translu- 
cent, hyacinth red globule. 

Comp. Oxide of titanium 84 ; oxide of iron 14 ; oxide of manga- 
nese 2. — Klaproth 

Dist. Char. Its want of magnetic power, will distinguish it from 
iron. 

Local. In Ceylon, and in the Uralian mountains, in granite. 
Ohlapian, in Transylvania, it is found in alluvial earths, with garnets, 
and cyanite. It is a rare ore. 

Var. 2. MEN ACCANITE.t 

Titane oxyd£ ferrifere, H. Menachanite, J. A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greyish black, or iron black j 
occurs in very small angular grains, resembling gun- 
powder; structure imperfectly lamellar; fracture fine 
grained, uneven ; lustre glistening, and metallic ; yields 
to the knife ; brittle ; opake ; attract^ the magnet, fee- 
bly ; sp. gr. about 4. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone. With borax, melts into a brownish 
green glass. 

Camp. Oxide of titanium 45.25 ; oxide of iron 51 ; silex 3.5 ; ox- 
ide of manganese 0.25. — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. From the above variety, it may be known by the dif- 
ferent color it gives borax, and from iron, by its weak magnetism. 

Local Near Menaccan, in Cornwall, aslo at Lanarth. Botany Bay, 
in New South Wales. 

Var. 3. iserene.J 

Iserene, J. C. P. 

Ext.Char. — Colors, iron black, and brownish black; 

occurs in angular grains and small rounded masses ; 

structure lamellar in one direction ; cross fracture, con- 



* From its black color, 
t Because, first found at Meoaccan, in Cornwall. 
t From ita being found at her, in Silesia. 



SILICO-CALCAREOUS OXIDE OF TITANIUM. 273 

choidal ; lustre brilliant, semi-metallic ; opake ; hard ; 
feebly magnetic. 

Chem. Char. Fusible alone, into a blackish brown, magnetic glass. 

Comp. Oxide of titanium 48 ; oxide of iron 48 ; oxide of uranium 
4. — Thomson. 

Dist. Char. Its fusibility, will distinguish it from the other two 
varieties, and its feeble magnetism, will show that it is not octohedral 
iron ore. 

Local. Iser, in Silesia. At Aberdeenshire, in Scotland. Isle of 
Fetlar, among the Shetlands. On the banks of the Mersey, opposite 
Liverpool. 

U. S. Near Richmond, Vir. East Marlborough, Penn. in calca- 
reous spar. It is both massive, and in cylindrical crystals, termina- 
ted by four-sided pyramids. — Jessup. Sparta, N. Y. — Cleveland. 

Specks 3. SILICO-CALCAREOUS OXIDE OP TITANIUM. 

Titane siliceo-calcaire, H. Prismatic Titanium-Ore, J. M. Sphene, 

A. P. Silico-Calcareous Oxide of Titanium, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, reddish grey, lilac grey, chesnut 
brown, and blackish grey ; colors dull ; also greenish, 
yellowish green, and greenish white ; occurs in mass- 
es, composed of angular prismatic pieces, with dis- 
tinct joints, easily separable ; and in crystals, of which 
the primary form is an oblique, rhombic prism ; se- 
condary forms, numerous ; viz. an oblique anguled 
four-sided prism, with an uncertain number of termin- 
al faces ; sometimes this prism is bevelled on the lat- 
eral angles, and sometimes on the angles of the extrem- 
ities ; sometimes the crystals are compressed into cu- 
neiform shapes, and sometimes by truncation thejr 
take nearly a hexahedral form ; structure, foliated with 
broad, smooth faces 5 lustre shining, but scarcely me- 
tallic ; cleavage easy ; cross fracture, uneven ; translu- 
cent on the edges ; crystals seldom very distinct, but 
commonly grouped and compressed ; scratches glass ; 
does not yield to the knife ; sp. gr. 3.50. 

Chem. Char. In small fragments, it is fusible, with slight efferves- 
cence, into a dark colored enamel. The dark varieties, turn yellow 
before melting. With borax, it turns yellowish, and sinks to the low- 
est part of the globule, but scarcely dissolves. 

Comp. Oxide of titanium 35 ; silex 35 ; lime 30 — Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It diners from the red oxide of titanium, in color, and in 
crystalline form. The oxide of tin, has more of the metallic lustre, 
and is much heavier, than the present species. The brown garnet is 
much harder, and does not possess its laminated structure. 
35 



274 CRICHLONITE. 

It occurs chiefly in primitive rocks, and is found in considerable 
quantities, at various localities. Sometimes it forms a part of the 
rock in which it is found. 

Local, Passau, in Bavaria. Arendal, in Norway, where it is found 
with magnetic iron, epidote, hornblende, and augite. It also occurs 
in England, Scotland, France, &c. 

U. 8. Newton, Sussex County, N. J. in yellowish rhomboidal 
prisms. Also at Wantage, in the same County. Kingsbridge. On 
Staten Island. Near Peekskill. At Ticonderoga, and near Lake 
George, N. Y. Also at Cold Spring, N. K where it presents the 
rhomboidal prismatic form, and from whence magnificent specimens 
of a dark brown color, and presenting broad flat faces, of several 
inches in extent, are found. Noble specimens from this locality, are 
among the collection of Dr. Barrett, of Middletown, who was its dis- 
coverer. Petapsco Falls, Md. And also at Bare-Hills near Baltimore. 
Near the falls of Schuylkill, five miles from Philadelphia* Also at 
London Grove, in Chester County. 

Species 4. CRICHTONITE* 
Crichtonite, J. P. CM. 
Ext. Char. — Color, velvet black; occurs in small 
crystals, in form of an acute rhomb, with the summits 
replaced, or otherwise modified ; structure foliated ; 
lustre shining; opake; cross fracture, conchoidal; 
scratches fluate of lime, but not glass. 

Local. Oisans, in France, in a primitive rock. 

Obs. It has not been analyzed. Mohs, has arranged it as an 
iron ore, and according to Berzelius, it affords the same results be* 
fore the blowpipe as titaniferous iron. Phillips, however, affirms, that 
it is understood to be a compound of titanium, and silex— a silicate of 
titanium. 

Genus 22— TELLURIUM* 

When pure, this metal is greyish white, between the coforsofcinc, 
and lead ; texture laminated like antimony, which it also resembles, 
in some of its properties. It melts at a temperature, somewhat above 
600 deg. Fah. sp. gr.6.11; brittle, and easily reduced to powder. 
Under the blowpipe, it burns with a bluish, or greenish flame, and U) 
volatalized, without the pungent odor, resembling that of horse ra- 
dish, by which the native tellurium is distinguished. It is soluble m 
the acids. 

Obs. It is found only in the native state, mixed, or alloyed with 
other metals. 



•In honor of Dr. Crichton. 

t From the Latin, Tetlus, tbt Earth. 



NATIVE TELLURIUM. 275 

Species 1. NATIVE TELLURIUM. 

TeUore nalif auro-ferrifere, H. Hexahedral Tellurium, J. Native 

Tellurium, A. P. C. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, tin white, passing into lead grey ; 
occurs massive, and in minute crystals, which are com- 
monly aggregated, or grouped; primary form, un- 
known, owing to the minuteness of the crystals ; se- 
condary forms, the octohedron, variously modified ; 
also, occurs in crystalline grains, and plates; lustre, 
strongly metallic ; structure foliated; yields to the 
knife; brittle; sp. gr. 5.7 to 6.11. 

Chem. Char, Fusible, and volatile, with a dense white vapor. 
Emits the smell of horse radish, only when it is alloyed with selenium. 

Comp. Tellurium 92.55 ; iron 7.20 ; gold 0.25 —Klaproth. 

Dist. Char. It does not occur like native antimony, in broad folia- 
ted plates, neither is it as hard, or as heavy, as antimony. Its color 
will distinguish it from native bismuth. 

Local. Frecbay, in Transylvania, where it is found in a gangue of 
quartz and porphyry. 

U. S. Huntington, in Conn, associated with ferrugineous oxide of 
tungsten, native bismuth, and native silver. — Silliman. 

VOT. 1. AURO-ARGENTIFEROUS NATIVE TELLURIUM. 

Tellure natif auro-argentifere, H. Graphic Tellurium, J. A. P. 
Prismatic Antimony Glance, M. Auro- Argentiferous Native Tel- 
lurium, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, steel grey, sometimes approach- 
ing tin white; occurs crystallized in the form of four, 
or six-sided prisms, sometimes variously modified ; 
lustre metallic ; structure foliated ; crystals very mi- 
nute; fracture uneven ; yields to the knife • sp. gr. 5.7, 

Ob*. The crystals of this variety are arranged so as to resemble 
written characters, hence the name graphic tellurium. 

Chem. Char. Fusible into a grey globule, with the emission of white 
vapor, which covers the charcoal, and is an oxide of tellurium. Fh 
nally there remains on the charcoal a globule of malleable metal, 
which is an alloy of gold and silver. 

Comp. Tellurium 60 ; gold 30 ; silver \0— Klaproth. 

Local. Offenbanya, in Transylvania, only, where it occurs with na- 
tive gold, grey copper, and iron pyrites, in porphyry. 

Obs. This is a valuable ore, and is worked for the gold and silver 
it contains. 



276 OXIDE OP TUNGSTEN. TUNGSTATE OP IRON. 

Var. 2. AURO-PLUMBIFEROUS NATIVB TELLURIUM. 

Tellure nttif auro-plumbifere, H. Prismatic Black, and Yellow 
Tellurium, J. Black and Yellow Tellurium, A. P. Auro-Plum- 
biferous Native Tellurium, C. 

Ext. Char.— Colors, silver white, passing into yel- 
lowish grey, lead grey, and iron black ; occurs in small 
four-sided prisms, and in hexahedral tables, or plates; 
lustre, shining metallic ; structure foliated ; yields to 
the knife ; sp. gr. 8 to 10. 

Chan. Char. Fusible, with the escape of white fumes, leaving a 
metallic globule, composed of gold, silver and lead. 

Comp. (Yellowish) Tellurium 44.75 ; gold 26.75; lead 19.5; sil- 
ver 8.5 ; sulphur 0.5. (Blackish) Tellurium 32.2 ; gold 9 ; lead 54 ; 
copper 1 .3 ; sulphur 3.— Klaproth. 

It has been found only at Nagyag, in Transylvania, where it occurs 
with gold, native arsenic, manganese, and the other variety of this 
species. 

Genus 23.— TUNGSTEN. 

This metal has scarcely been reduced to its pure metallic state. In 
nature it is found highly oxyginated, and performing the office of an 
acid, forming the tung states of iron and lime. It is also found in the 
state of an oxide. According to Joyce its sp. gr. is 17.15. 
Species 1. OXIDE OF TUNGSTEN. 

Oxide of Tungsten. — Silliman. Yellow oxide of Tungsten, C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, various shades of yellow, as 
orange, or chrome yellow; occurs massive, and pul- 
verulent ; fracture of the massive, conchoidal, or small 
foliated; lustre adamantine; brittle; sp. gr. when 
pure, 6 ; has neither taste nor smell. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, «nd insoluble in acids. Soluble in warm 
liquid ammonia, from whence it is precipitated, white, by acids, but 
becomes yellow by standing. 

Local It has been found only at Huntington, in Conn, in a gangue 
of quartz, at Lane's mine. It is associated with the other ores of 
tungsten, all the known varieties of which are found at the same lo- 
cality. . 

Obs. This new ore of tungsten was discovered by Benj. Silliman,L.L. 
D. ofN. Haven, and by him first described in his Journal of Science. 

Species 2. TUNGSTATE OF IRON. 

Scheelin ferrugine, H. Prismatic Wolfram, J. Wolfram, P. Fer- 
ruginous oxide of Tungsten, C. Prismatic Scheelium-ore, H. 
Ext. Char. — Color, brownish black, or nearly black; 

occurs massive, and crystallized ; primitive form, which 



CALCAREOUS OXIDE OF TUNGSTEN. 277 

it sometimes presents, the rectangular four-sided 
prism ; modifications various ; sometimes the crystals 
are terminated by truncated pyramids ; sometimes the 
prism is so modified as to have ten sides ; and some- 
times, it is in broad six-sided pyramids, terminated by 
four-sided summits ; structure foliated ; lustre some- 
what metallic ; when massive, it presents the aspect of 
manganese, or masses of iron ore ; yields to the knife; 
opake; very heavy; sp.gr. 7.15. 

Cher*. Char. Fusible, with difficulty, into a dark scoria ; easily solu- 
ble in glass of borax. 

Comp. Tungstic acid 78.77 ; protoxide of iron 18.32 ; protoxide 
of manganese 6.22 ; silex 1.25. — Berzelius. 

Dist. Char. It resembles oxide of tin, but this, by the continued 
action of the blowpipe is reducible to the metallic state. It also resem- 
bles the carbonate, and oxide of iron, but these are magnetic, or be- 
come so when heated. 

Local. It occurs in Cornwall, in all the tin mines ; also, according 
to Mohs, in almost every one of the Saxon and Bohemian tin mines, 
and in Siberia. 

U S. Huntington, Ct. where it is found massive and in oclohedral 
crystals. — Silliman. 

Species 3. CALCAREOUS OXIDE OF TUNGSTEN. 
Scheelin calcaire, H. Tungsten, A. P. Pyramidal Tungsten, J. — 

Pyramidial Scheelium Baryte, M. Calcareous oxide of Tung- 
sten, C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, passing into yellowish 
grey, and reddish brown ; occurs crystallized, and 
massive ; primitive form, the acute octohedron ; se- 
condary forms, the octohedron, bounded by isosceles 
triangles ; the cuniform octohedron, and the octohe- 
dron, variously modified by truncation ; structure im- 
perfectly foliated; lustre vitreous, or adamantine; 
translucent ; yields to the knife ; brittle ; sp. gr. 5 to 6. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but decrepitates, and turns white and opake. 
By digestion with nitric acid, it forms a yellow powder, which is the 
peroxide of tungsten. With borax it forms a white transparent glass. 

Comp. Tungstic acid 80.42 ; lime 19.40, — Berzelius. 

Dist Char. It may be distinguished from the light varieties of the 
oxide of tin by the yellow powder, which it forms with nitric acid. — 
The carbonate of lead effervesces with acids, the tungstate of lime 
does not effervesce. The sulphate of barytes, is fusible, and is inso- 
luble in acids. 

This ore is found in primitive rocks only, and is associated with the 
ores of tin, tungstate of iron, haematite and arsenic. 



278 NATIVE PALLADIUM. 

Local Oisans, in France, Cornwall, in England, Bitsberg in Swe- 
den, &c. 

U. S. Huntington, Conn, in a gangue of qnartz, with the oxides of 
tungsten. 

(For a particular account of the ores of tungsten as they occur in 
Huntington, see Silliman's Journal, vol. 1.) 

Genus 2 4.— PALLADIUM.* 

Color, greyish white, much resembling that of platina. It is duc- 
tile, without much elasticity, lustre metallic ; structure fibrous, occurs 
native and alloying, native platina. 

Species 1. NATIVE PALLADIUM. 
Native Palladium. — Wottaston. * Palladium, J. M. Native Palladium, 

PC. 
Ext. Char. — Color, steel grey, inclining to silver 
white ; cccurs in grains, composed of diverging fibres ; 
lustre metallic ; sp. gr. 1 1.8 to 12.14. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone, but melts with sulphur, or with ar- 
senic, into a brittle mass. With nitro-muriatic acid, it forms a deep 
red solution, from which it is precipitated in the metallic state by ail 
the metals, except gold, silver and platina. 

Dist. Char. The red solution, which it forms with aqua-regia, will 
distinguish it from all the metals which it resembles. 

Genus 25— IRIDIUM. t 

Alloy of Iridium and Osmium. — WoUaston. 
Color, greyish white, a little darker than platina ; 
occurs in flattish grains, and according to Mobs, in six- 
sided prisms, with six-sided pyramids, combined in 
a parallel position, with two isosceles ; lustre metallic ; 
brittle ; harder than platina ; structure foliated ; sp. 
gr. 19.5. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with nitre, when it becomes black, bat again 
acquires its original color if heated on charcoal. Not dissolved by 
aqua-regia, until after fusion with potash or soda. 

Dist. Char. It resembles platina, but platina is malleable and solu- 
ble in aqua-regia. 

Obs. 1. This metal is an alloy of iridium and osmium, and is found 
with native platina in South America. 

2. Of Osmium little is known in its metallic state. Its oxide has 

•From the planel Pallas. 

tFrom iris the rainbow, in allusion to the change of colors ft gives while dis* 
solving in acids. 



CADMIUM. SELENIUM. 279 

been obtained by dissolving platina in nitro muriatic acid, and distil- 
ling the black powder which remains with nitre. It possesses some 
properties different from those of any other metal. 

Rhodium. This metal, like those above named, has been but little 
examined. Its specific gravity is 11. It is infusible alone even by 
the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe. With arsenic it becomes easily fusible, 
and after long continued heat the arsenic is driven off, leaving the 
rhodium in a striated porous mass. It is soluble in the acids, but not 
malleable. The solutions do not crystallize, but when mixed with 
water, or alcohol, give a fine red color. 

Genus 26— CJADMIUM. 

This metal has been obtained from some of the ores of zinc, in 
which it exists in small quantities. Its color is tin white, it is mal- 
leable and ductile, and bears a fine polish. By the blowpipe it rea- 
dily inflames, and passes off in the form of a dense vapor, which when 
collected is found to be a brown oxide oi the metal. Sp. gr. of the 
pure metal S.6. 

This metal was discovered a few years since, by Stromeyer. 

Genus 27— SELENIUM. 

This metal was first noticed in some iron ore from Pahlun, by Ber- 
zelius. When pure it is of a deep brown color, with a metallic lustre. 
It fuses at 220 deg. Fah and if slowly cooled assumes a crystalline 
texture. When warmed, it becomes so soft as to be kneaded by the 
fingers, and may even be drawn out into threads. It sublimes before 
the blowpipe giving out a strong disagreeable odor, rest mbling that 
of horse radish. This odor is good test of the presence of selenium. 



CLASS VII. 



COMBUSTIBLE MINERALS. 

The Minerals belonging to this Class, combine with oxygen, and tni- 
dergo combustion, under ordinary circumstances, not requiring, like 
most of the metals, a high temperature, or the aid of pure oxygen, 
to effect their combustion. The GJass includes substances widely dif- 
fering from each other, in their external characters, and chemical 
properties. In general, their chief ingredients, are sulphur, and 
carbon. 

Species 1. NATIVE SULPHUR. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellow, passing into orange, 
greenish, or greyish 5 occurs in nodular masses, and in 
crystals ; form, an acute pyramidal octahedron, with 
scalene triangular faces, and its varieties ; fracture un- 
even, passing into splintery ; translucent, or transpar- 
ent ; lustre shining, resinous ; acquires negative elec- 
tricity, by friction; gives the sulphureous odor, when 
rubbed ; sp. gr. 2 ; refraction, double, through paral- 
lel faces. 





Fig. 1. The pyramidal octahedron, with scalene, triangular faces. 
This is the primitive form. 

Fig. 2. The same, with the summits truncated. 

Fig. 3. The same, with the summits replaced, by four triangular 
planes, forming a low pyramid. 

Fig. 4. In this form, the solid angles are replaced, by rhombic 
planes. 

Chem. Char. It burns with a bluish flame, giving oat sulphureous 
acid gas, which has the property of bleaching vegetable substances. 

It is found in veins, in primitive, and secondary rocks. 

Local Murcia, and Arragon, in Spain, where it occurs in splen- 
did crystals, in a deposite of gypsum, and marie. Suabia, Hunga- 
ry, and Peru, in mica-slate, and granite. Gibraltar, in swinestone. 

U. 8. At the coal mines, near Richmond, Fir. Chatham, Conn, of 



VOLCANIC SULPHUR. DIAMOND. 281 

«. greenish color, m masses, intermixed with quartz. Barren hill, 
Montgomery County, Penn. granelar, or pulverulent, with reddish 
white quartz. — Shaeffer. In the waters of Clifton springs, Farming- 
ton, N. F- — Mitchell. Also near West Point, in the cavities of a fer- 
ruginous granite rock. — Douglass. 

Species 2. VOLCANIC SULPHUR. 

Volcanic Sulphur, P. 

Exl. Char. — Color, yellow, or yellowish red ; occurs 

massive, investing, cellular, ana in small crystals, of 

the same form as those of native sulphur. In its other 

characters, it agrees with native sulphur. 

It is found in the fissures of lava, in volcanic countries. 

Local. Iceland, Italy, Gaudaloupe, Nevis, Solfatara, and more or 
less, in almost every volcanic district. 

Obs. Volcanic sulphur, probably owes it origin, to the decomposi- 
tion of metallic sulphurets, by the heat of burning mountains. It is 
found lining the fissures of lava, and other volcanic products, being 
elevated from the depths below, by sublimation. 

Perhaps the most remarkable deposit of volcanic sulphur, is that of 
Solfatara, near Naples, in a kind of sunken plain, surrounded by rocks, 
Which is regarded as the crater of an ancient volcano ; and from it, 
since the age of Pliny, bas been obtained a considerable proportion of 
the sulphur used in Europe. — Phillips. 

In the plain within the crater of Soltafara, smoke issues from many 
parts, as also from its sides ; here, by means of stones, and tiles, heap- 
ed over the crevices, through which the smoke passes, they collect 
sal ammoniac ; and from the sand of the plain, they extract sulphur, 
and alum. — Hamilton. 

Specks 3. DIAMOND. 
Diamant, H. Diamond, P. C. Octohedral Diamond, J. M. 

Exl. Char.— Colorless, or of a yellowish, bluish, yel- 
lowish green, clove brown, brownish black, Prussian 
blue, or rose red color ; occurs crystallized, and in 
roundish grains, which often present indications of 
crystalline faces ; form, the octohedron, with its varie- 
ties ; faces often convex ; structure perfectly lamellar, 
with cleavage parallel to all the planes of an octohe- 
dron ; transparent, translucent, or opake ; sp. gr. 3.5. 
It is the hardest of all known substances. Refraction 
simple. 

Chem. Char. At a white heat, its combustion is slowly effected. 
When burned in oxygen gas, the combination forms carbonic acid 
Cat, hence, its composition is pure carbon. 
36 



282 DIAMOND. 

The secondary forms of the diamond, are very numerous. The 
following are among the most common. 

S 







J\>. 5. The primitive form, a regular octohedron. 

Fig. 6. This figure is intended to exhibit the laminated structure 
of the diamond, when cleaved. 

Fig. 7. The octohedron, with the edges replaced by interrupted, 
narrow, convex surfaces. This is the most common truncated ?a- 
riety. 

Fig. 8. The primitive octohedron, so modified, as to present forty- 
eight curvilinear faces, each face of the primitive, being divided, by 
elevated edges, into six smaller ones. 

Obs. 1. The diamond is commonly found in alluvial deposites, or 
among the sand and pebbles of running streams. Little, or nothing, 
is therefore known of its geological situation, since in these cases, it 
has been removed from the place where it Was originally formed. A 
specimen in the possession of Mr. Heuland, is said to be imbedded 
in a compact variety of iron ore, but this is by no means thought to be 
its original gangue. 

& The mode of searching for diamonds, in Brazil, is described by 
Mawe. In that country, the diamond mines are the beds of certain 
rivers, which in the summer season, become dry. During this sea- 
son, the gravel, or soil, which has bef n deposited by the heavy rains, 
is removed, and placed in heaps on the nearest plain. When the rain 
commences, and the water becomes abundant, the miners wash this 
soil in small conical bowls, until all the mud, and earthy particles, are 
carried off, and the gravel is entirely clean. It is then carefully 
searched for the diamonds, and particles of gold, both of which are 
at, or near, the bottom of the vessel. 

3. In India the diamond mines extend through a long tract of 
country, from Bengal to Cape Cormorin. The chief ofthese, are 
now, between Golconda, and Masulipatam, where the diamond! are 
found in beds of ferruginous sand or gravel. Fifty yean ago, there 
were more than twenty places in the kingdom of Golconda, in which 
diamonds of different sizes were found, and fifty places were also 
wrought in the kingdom of Visapour. Many ofthese mines are now 
abandoned, there being none but small diamonds found in them. 
At present, the diamonds of Pastael, twenty miles from Golconda, at 
the foot of the Gate mountains, are most in request — Phillips. 

The following list contains all the known Diamonds, of remarka- 
ble size, existing. 

1. The great diamond brought from India, and for which the In- 
dia Company asked £30,000, was by far the largest in Europe, ex- 
cept the Pitt diamond, belonging to the French crown. Its weight 



DIAMOND. 



183 



is 89 3-4 carats, and its worth at .£80 the carat, would be £637,000, 
The following figures represent the size and shape of this diamond. 




The upper figure, is a geometrical view of the diamond, from its 
upper face ; the lower figure is a perspective view, taken in the direc- 
tion of the dotted lines x. y. of the upper figure. The letters A, B, 
C, set against the angles of the figure, and, a. b. c. against the inter- 
mediate sides, respectively refer the same parts of the figure to each 
other. D, both in the geometrical, and perspective drawing, marks 
the upper, or flat face ; and the inclined position of the latter, in the 
perspective view, indicates the direction of the plane. 

♦ Shaw's, Nature displayed. 

2. One of the largest diamonds, hitherto known, is in the posses- 
sion of the Rajah of Mattan, in the Island of Borneo, where it was 
found about a century since. It js shaped like an egg, with an in- 
_dente<l hollow, near the smaller end. It is of the finest water, and . 
weighs, 367 carats, or 2 oz. 169 grs. Troy. 

For this diamond, the Governor of Batavia, offered the Rajah, one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, two large brigs of war, with their 
guns, and ammunition, and a certain number of great guns, and a 
quantity of ammunition besides. The Rajah, however, refused, part- 
ly, perhaps, because the stone was considered to possess miraculous 
powers, the water in which it was dipped, being an imaginary remedy, 
for all diseases. The fortune of his family, was also supposed to be 
connected with this stone. 

3 The Queen of Portugal, was said to have possessed a diamond, 
weighing eleven ounces, which, according to the rule of estimating its 
value, at £80 the carat, would be worth, £224,000,000, sterling. 
This stone, is however, said to be a white topaz. — Bingley. 

4. The Pitt Diamond, was brought from India, by George Pitt, Esq. 
and sold by him, to the Regent Duke of Orleans, for about £100,000 
sterling. It is the same which was set in the hUt of Napolean's state 
sword. 



281 



DIAMOND. 



5. The sceptre of the Emperor of Riwit, is adorned with a dia- 
mond, about the size of a pigeon's egg. It bad once been the eye of 
an eastern idol, and is said to have been stolen by a French grena- 
dier, who contrived to become one of the priests of the idol, for this 
purpose. Count Orloff, bought it for Queen Catharine, fo .£90,000 
sterling, and an annuity of £4000 a year, during the life of the person 
who sold it. 

6. A Diamond, in possession of the Great Mogul, is, said to weigh 
about 280 carats, and is valued at .£700,000 sterling. This diamond, 
in the rough, weighed, 793 carats. 

7. The King of Portugal, possesses a Diamond, weighing, 215 
carats. 

The following, is a part of the inventory of the croum jewels of 
France, according to the estimate of a commission of jewellers, op* 
pointed by the National Assembly, in 1791. 



1. Le Regent, or the Pitt diamond, 

2. Le Sancy, a translucent diamond, 
cut in facets, 

3. A rich sky blue brilliant, 

4. A pear-shaped diamond, of a peach 
blossom color, 

5. The Mirror of Portugal, 

6. A brilliant diamond, 

7. A diamond, cut in facets, 

8. A colorless brilliant, . 

9. A peach blossom brilliant, 

10. A brownish brilliant, 

11. A yellowish brilliant, 

12. A wine colored brilliant, 

13. Fifteen brilliants, weighing 
from 5 to 1 carats each, 

14. 1631 small diamonds, weighing 
in all, 

15. A pale blue brilliant, 

16. An Epaulette, containing 9 larger, 
and 197 smaller brilliants, 

Obs. The above list will serve to show the immense disproportion 
there is, between the value of small, and large diamonds, and also, how 
their value is increased, or diminished, by transparency, and by color. 
Thus, number 8, is more than seven times as valuable a* nwnber 9, 
because it is colorless. 

Rule for estimating the value of Diamonds. — Diamonds are valu- 
ed by the carat A carat is 4 grains. The estimate » made by 
squaring the number of carats, and multiplying the result, by tto 
price of a single carat. Thus the price increases in a much 
greater proportion than the weight. 

The price of a small rough diamond, fit for polishing, is £2, the 
carat. One weighing 2 carats, is worth, 2>< 2=4X %£.=££. Om 



Weight, 


Estimated at 


in carats. 


Dolls. 


136 14-15, 


2,220,000. 


33 11-16, 


185,000. 


67 2-16, 


555,000. 


24 13-10, 


37,000. 


21 2-16, 


46,250. 


2612-16. 


32,750. 


28 1-16. 


46,250. 


14 14*16. 


32,750. 


14 12-16. 


5,550. 


13 8-16. 


6,475. 


11 2-16. 


1,850. 


18 9-16. 


13,875. 




154,105 


426. 


I4£87. 


31 12-16. 


55,000. 



8,605. 



MINERAL CHARCOAL. CARBURET OP IRON. 285 

of 4 carats, 4X 4r=16X 2=3Q£. One of 10 carats, 10X 10 = 
lttOtX 2=200£. 

The value of small diamonds, cut and polished, ia from £6, to £8, 
the carat. One weighing 10 carats, or 40 grains, would therefore be 
worth, 10 X 16=100 x 6=^600, or 92,666,64, at ,£6 the carat. 
But some large, and beautiful diamonds, are valued at ^80 the carat 

The first attempt to polish the diamond was made, by rubbing two 
against each other. In this way, after years of incessant labor, a dia- 
mond was polished. At the present time, diamonds are cut, with 
copper wire, coated with diamond bort, or dust, and polished on a 
wheel, with the same. 

When cut and polished, diamonds are divided by jewellers, into 
brilliant, rose, and table diamonds, depending on the form and num- 
ber of their artificial faces. 

The colored varieties are seldom cut and polished for jewelry, but 
are powdered, for polishing the transparent variety. 

When a diamond is perfectly colorless, and transparent, it is said 
to be of theirs* water. 

Diamonds are set without a back, and when worn as head dresses, 
&c. are placed on black velvet 

Species 5. MINERAL CHARCOAL. 
Mineral Charcoal, A. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black, or greyish black ; consists 
of charcoal, with various proportions of earth, and iron ; 
but without bitumen ; lustre glimmering ; structure fi- 
brous, with a texture like wood. It is a little heavier 
than common charcoal. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe, it is reduced to ashes, without 
either flame, or smoke. 

It occurs in thin layers, in several formations of mineral coal. 
Sometimes, the two kinds are found attached to each other. 

Species 5. CARBURET OP IRON. GRAPHITE. 

Graphit, H. Graphite, C. Plumbago, P. 

Eat* Char. — Color, steel grey, passing into iron 

black ; occurs in amorphous, or reniform masses, or 

disseminated in other minerals; also, according to 

Phillips, in regular six-sided crystals, with striated 

summits; lustre glittering, metallic; fracture uneven, 

granular, or foliated ; unctuous to the touch ; soils the 

fingers; writes on paper or wood; opake; conducts 

electricity ; sp, gr. 2, 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe, slowly consumes, leaving a small 
portion of oxide of iron on the charcoal. With borax, it dissolves and 
•oats the outside of the globule, metallic black. 

Comp. Carbon 96 ; iron 4.— Saussure. 



286 ANTHRACITE. 

Dist Char. It resembles sulphuret of molybdena, but is common- 
ly less brilliant. The two minerals, are readily distinguished by the 
blowpipe, with borax. The graphite slowly dissolves, or separates 
into small particles, which incrust the surface of the borax. The 
moly&deaa adheres to the surface in distinct brilliant scales, not be- 
ing in the least altered by the heat. 

Obs. This mineral is very improperly called black-lead, from its 
resemblance to that metal. 

It is found chiefly in primitive rocks. 

Local. Bavaria, Germany, Piedmont, Calabria, Bohemia, Austria, 
England, &c. 

One of the most remarkable repositories of graphite, is at Borrow- 
dale, in Cumberland, Eng. where it forms a considerable mountain. 
From this place, a great proportion of that used in commerce is 
taken. 

U. S. Cornwall, Conn, in considerable quantities. — Brace. Tol- 
land, Sharon, and Hebron, Conn. Two miles from Holland meeting- 
house, Mass. Chester, and Mount Monad nock, N. H. Sutton, da 
of a good quality. — Cleveland, Transylvania, Buck's County, Ptr. 
in considerable quantity. — Conrad. From this graphite, good pencils 
have been made in New York. — Cleveland. Near Lake Champlain, 
near the city of New York, and near Lake George, N. Y. At the 
latter locality, it is sometimes found in masses weighing 12 pounds, 
and is very compact. — Gibbs. 

Uses. The fine kinds of graphite are sawn into thin plates, one 
edge qf which is then inserted into a groove, in a small semi-cylinder 
of cedar wood, which is then sawn off in a line with the wood, and the 
other half glued on. In this manner, the common black lead pen* 
oils are made. Crayons, are made by melting the refuse, or sawings, 
with sulphur, and then casting it into moulds. These are easily dis- 
tinguished, when rubbed, or heated, by their sulphureous smell. 

Graphite, is also used to form crucibles, which are much less liable 
to fail at high degrees of heat, than those made of clay and sand. 

Species $. ANTHRACITE* 
Anthracite, H. Glance Coal, J. Anthracite, Blind Coal, P. An- 
thracite, C. Non-Bituminous Mineral-Coal, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, greyish black; occurs massive, 
slaty, and columnar ; lustre metallic ; often presenting 
irised, or tarnished, splendid metallic colors, consist- 
ing of red, blue, and yellow, intermixed; easily fran- 
gible ; sometimes soils the fingers ; opake ; sp. gr. 1.40 
to 1.60. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe, it slowly disappears without 
flame, smoke, or smell. When burning in a wind furnace, the small 
quantity of water which it contains, is decomposed, and the hydrogen 
gives a feeble flame. 

* From the Greek ; confuting of carbon. 



ANTHRACITE. 287 

Comp. From 72 to 95 per cent, of carbon ; the residue being ox- 
- ide of iron , silex, and alumine. 

Dist. Char. It resembles graphite, but its fracture presents.a more 
shining and conchoidal surface. With borax, it floats on the surface 
.without change, while the graphite, slowly dissolves and coats the 
surface. It is heavier than common mineral coal, which also gives 
out a bituminous odor before the blowpipe. 

There are three varieties of anthracite. 

Var. 1. Slaty Anthracite.—* Structure imperfectly slaty in one di- 
rection, and in which, it may be cleaved into layers, of greater, or less 
thickness ; cross fracture conchoidal, or uneven ; lustre metallic. 

Obs. This perhaps, is the most common variety of this species. A 
great proportion of the Rhode Island anthracite, is of this kind. 

Var. 2. Massive Anthracite. — This variety agrees with the de- 
scription of the species, with the addition of a compact texture, and a 
conchoidal or undulating fracture. 

Obs. 1. The fracture often resembles that of glas3, or obsidian, the 
point where it is struck, being surrounded by wave-like, undulations, 
like those produced by dropping a stone into a calm sheet of water. 

2 The Lehigh coal, belongs to this variety. 

Var. 3. Columnar Anthracite. — It occurs in the form of short pris- 
matic concretions, sometimes perfectly plane and straight, sometimes 
curved ; color, iron black ; sometimes displaying the prismatic colors , 
sod, light, and brittle ; fracture flat conchoidal. 

Anthracite, is found chiefly in primitive rocks, though sometimes 
in those of secondary formations. 

Local. Near Allemont, in France, anthracite forms layers in a bed 
of black slate, at an elevation of about 7,500 feet above the level of 
the sea. In England, it is found in the coal formations of Walsal, in 
Staffordshire. In Scotland, at Carlton Hill, near Edinburgh, and in 
several other places. In Wales, there are several formations of an- 
thracite. It also occurs in Holland, Norway, Switzerland, Savoy, 
Spain, &c. 

Obs. In England, it is called stone coal t in Scotland, blind coal, 
and in Ireland, Kilkenny coal. 

U. S The anthracite formation of Pennsylvania, is very exten- 
sive. From the northeast branch of the Susquehannah, it extends 
eastward about 30 miles, and westward from the same river, about 2 
or 3 miles. It extends down the Susquehannah, to about 10 miles 
below Sunbury. The waters of the rivers Fishing, Lehigh, Muncey, 
and Schuylkill, pass through this formation. On the Schuylkill, it 
extends to about 20 miles above Reading. At Wilkesbarre, the an- 
thracite appears at the surface, and there forms a bed, from 20 to 30 
feet thick. Mines are worked at Wilkesbarre, and at the heads of 
the Lehigh, and Schuylkill rivers. " At Wilkesbarre, the price is 
12 1-2 cents the bushel. At Philadelphia, it has been sold at 50 or 
60 cents the bushel ; but by improvement in the navigation of the 
"rivers, its price must be lowered to "^5 or 30 cents. — Cooper. 

This anthracite is of a jet black color, sometimes inclining to lead 
grey ; lustre shining, sometimes splendent, and semi-metallic ; not 
very brittle ; ddes not soil the hands ; specific gravity, about 1 .60. 



m HUi BflNERAL OIL. 

It boms without smoke or flame, and when once ignited, which is 
readily done with charcoal, it makes a very intense beat, and con- 
sumes so slowly, as to require replenishing, only 3 or 4 times in 24 
hours. 

The use of Lehigh coal, is strongly recommended by many practi- 
cal mechanics, and particularly by Founders and Blacksmiths, Wire 
makers, &c. 

From the certificate, of Messrs. White 4* Hazard, proprie t or s of 
a Wire Manufactory, and Rolling and Slitting Mill, near Philadel- 
phia, it appears on actual experiment, that it takes only five busheli 
of this coal, to heat 10 cwt. of bar iron, for rolling, and thai for this 
purpose, Lehigh coal at 90 cents the bushel, is as cheap as Virginia 
coal, at 2 1-2 cents the bushel. ' 

From the certificate of Mr. David Hess, it appears that a peck of 
this coal, with a small proportion of charcoal, is sufficient to manu- 
facture 8 gun barrels. 

Mr. Smith, states in his certificate, that, " In forging twenty plough 
devices, he used a full heaped half bushel, of this coal, weighing 
451 bs. and that in making the same number of devices with char- 
coal, he used six bushels, and took two hours more time.*' 

SMiman's Journal, FW. 4. 

In Portsmouth, Rhode Island, reposes a bed of anthracite, which 
has been worked, more or less, for many years. Its color varies from 
lead grey, to greyish black ; structure slaty ; sometimes breaks into 
small rhomboidal fragments, the general surface of the fractured faces 
being uneven, or hackly. It soils the fingers, and is easily broken. 
Its specific gravity, according to Dr. Meade, is from 1 45 to 1.75; 
and its composition, about 94 per cent, of carbon, without any con- 
tamination from sulphur. The remainder appears to be chiefly iron, 
and silex. 

According to the experiments, of Mr. Marcus Bull, of Philadelphia, 
the comparative value of the Rhode Island, and Lehigh anthracites, 
for fuel, is as 71 to 99. 

Species 7. MINERAL OIL. 
Mineral Oil, P. 
There are two varieties of this species, viz. naptha, and petroleum. 
Var. 1. NAPTHA. 
Bitume lignide blanchatre, H. Naptha, J. P. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish, or wine yellow ; some- 
times without color, and transparent ; it exhales a 
strong bituminous odor, and burns with a blue flame, 
and much smoke, leaving no residuum. It swims on 
water, sp. gr. from 0.71 to 0.85. water being 1000. 

Ohs. It is exceedingly inflammable, and takes fire, even on the ap- 
proach of flame. 

Cump. Carbon 87.21 ; hydrogen 12.79. — Saussure. 



i 



MINERAL 6VU. 289 

.04*. 1. When distilled and made perfectly pure, it contains nei- 
ther water, nor oxygen, in any other form. 

% Advantage was taken of this circumstance, by Sir Humphrey 
Davey, in order to preserve the new metals, potassium, and sodium, 
which are instantly decomposed by water, or any other substance con- 
taining oxygen, but are kept for any length of time, when covered 
with naptha. 

3. Plutarch, in his life of Alexander, relates how astonished and 
delighted that monarch was, when at Ecbatana, the people laid a 
train of naptha through the street, and set it on fire. 

4. Pliny and Galen suppose, that this was the substance, with 
which Medea destroyed Creusa, the daughter of Creon. She sent 
that unfortunate princess a robe, besmeared with a substance which 
burst into flames, as soon as she approached the altar, where incense 
was burning, and thus was miserably destroyed. 

5. Beckmann, has related several instances where effects, consid- 
ered magical, were produced by the extreme inflammability of this 
substance. 

Local. Copious springs of naptha, occur on the Caspian sea. The 
earth in that vicinity, constantly exhales its vapor, and it is said that 
the inhabitants, by concentrating this vapor, and passing it through 
tubes, have perpetual lights, and that they cook their food by this 
kind of fire. It is collected by digging wells, a few yards deep. It is 
also found in Sicily, Dalmatia, Hungary, Siberia, &c- The streets of 
Genoa, are said to be lighted with it, instead of oil. — Phillips. 

Var. 2. PETROLEUM. 
Bitume liquide brun et noiratre, H. Petroleum, A P. C. 
Ext. Char. — This is a black, bituminous semi-fluid, 
with a strong odor, especially when heated. It is very 
combustible, and burns with a copious, thick and black 
smoke, leaving a small quantity of coaly residue. By 
distillation, it yields a colorless fluid, which resembles 
naptha, in many of its properties, and probably does 
not differ materially from that substance. 

It is found in many countries, particularly in the vicinity of coal 
formations 

Local. France, at several places. England. St. Catharine's Well, 
at Edinburgh. Bavaria. Switzerland. Near Parma, in Italy. 

But it is most plentifully found in Asia. In the Birman Empire, 
in one neighborhood, there is 520 vveJIs in full activity, into which 
petroleum flows from over coal formations. The quantity of petrole- 
um, annually produced by them, amounts to more than 400,000 hogs- 
heads. In that section of country, it is used instead of oil for lamps; 
mixed with earth, or ashes, it is used for fuel.. — Phillips. 
' Obs. It is said that when naptha is exposed to the air, it becomes 
brown ; thickens, and passes into petroleum. It has already been 
6bserved, that petroleum when distilled, yields a fluid much resent* 
37 



290 BITUMEN. 

bling naptha. It is most probable, therefore, that naptha becomes pe- 
troleum, after the loss of its more pure and volatile particles. 

U. S. Robertson, enumerates 1 1 localities of petroleum in the 
United States. Only the most important can be mentioned. 

Five miles from Scottsville, Ken. It is found on a spring of water, 
and sells at 25 cents the gallon. — Jessup. Seneca Lake, N. Y. It is 
called Seneca oil, and is collected in considerable quantities.-— 
Cleveland. Medina County, Ohio, and in several other places in that 
state. 

Species 8. BITUMEN. 
Bitume, H. Black Mineral Resin, J. Bitumen, P. C. 
Of this species there are three varieties, viz. Earthy, Elastic, and 
Compact In most of their properties they agree ; but differ in their 
external characters. 

Var. 1. EARTHY BITUMEN. 

Earthy Pitch, J. Earthy Bitumen, P. 
Ext . Char. — Color, blackish brown ; fracture earthy, 
and uneven ; soft enough to take an impression from 
the nail. It burns with a clear brisk flame, emits an 
agreeable odor, and leaves much soot. It appears to 
consist of inflammable matter, mingled with a consid- 
erable proportion of earthy substances. — Phillrp*. 

Local. Persia, where it is collected with preat care, and sent to the 
king as a remedy for wounds. Also, in France, England, and in 
the Hartz. 

Var. 2 elastic bitumen. 

Bitume elastique, H. Elastic Bitumen, P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, black or brownish black ; soft; 

J fields easily to pressure, and is flexible, and elastic, 
ike India rubber; burns easily and rapidly, with a 
thick black smoke, and strongly bituminous odor. In 
a gentle heat it melts, loses its elasticity, and is con- 
verted into a substance, like petroleum, or asphaltum. 

Obs. It effaces the marks of a lead pencil, like India rubber, and 
has hence been called mineral caoutchouc. 
Local. Odin mine, Derbyshire, Eng. 

Var. 3. compact bitumen, asphaltum. 

Bitume solide, H. Compact Bitumen, P. 

Ext Char. — Color, jet black, black, or brownish 

black ; occurs massive ; fracture conchoidal ; lustre 

shining, resinous ; opake ; very brittle; when rubbed, 

or heated, gives out a bituminous odor, like that of 



MINERAL COAL. 291 

naptha; when burned, it leaves a small quantity of 
ashes. 

Comp. It consists chiefly, According to Phillips, of bituminous oil, 
hydrogen gas, and carbon, but often contains a little oxide of iron, and 
earth. 

Local. Lake Asphaltites, or the Dead Sea, in Judea. Barbadoes, 
and Trinidad, in the West Indies. Cape St. Antoine, in Cuba. 
Neufchatel, in Switzerland. Cornwall, in England. 

06s. At Trinidad, there is a lake covered with asphaltum, three 
miles in circumference. It is divided by cracks, or fissures, of un- 
known depth, filled with fresh water, and containing several species 
of fish. Sometimes it contains pieces of unaltered wood, showing 
that it was once soft ; indeed, in one part of the lake, the petroleum is 
fluid at the present day. In general, it may be easily cut, and its in- 
terior is oily and vesicular. When mixed with oil, tallow, or tar, it ac- 
quires fluidity, and is used as pitch. — Nugent. 

Uses. The ancients employed this substance as a cement in build* 
ing. It is the opinion of historians, that the bricks of the walls of 
Babylon were cemented with asphaltum. The Egyptians, are said 
to have made use of it, as an ingredient in the process of embalming. 
At the present time, it is used in the composition of a particular kind 
of paint, and when mixed with tar or oil, it is used instead of pitch, 
for coating the bottoms of vessels. 

Species 9. MINERAL COAL. 
Houille, H. Black Coal, J. A. P. Coal, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black, or brownish black ; occurs 
massive, and slaty ; lustre shining, often with an irri- 
descent tarnish, and pseudo-metallic lustre, which is 
sometimes, very beautiful ; fracture, large conchoidaL," 
or uneven; yields to the knife, but not to the nail ; ear 
oily broken; opake ; sp. gr. about 1.30. 

Chem Char. Most varieties of coal burn easily, and with more or 
less flame. When submitted to distillation, they yield, carburetted 
hydrogen, a bituminous oil, a quantity of mineral tar, and a portion 
of ammonia. 

Comp. From 97 to 40 per cent, of carbon ; from 47 to 9 per cent, 
of volatile matter, and from 3 to 13 per cent, of ashes.| 

There are several varieties of this species, depending chiefly on color 
and purity. 

Far. I. BLACK COAL. 

Black Coal. Coarse Coal, P. Coarse Coal,. J. C. 
Ext. 67wir.— Color, black, often with an irridescent 
tarnish; occurs massive; fracture in one, and some- 
times in two directions, slaty ; fragments, after cleav- 
age, rhombic, or cubic ; cross fracture, imperfectly 



292 MINERAL COAL* 

conchoidal, or uneven ; sometimes contains layers of 
mineral carbon ; sp. gr. 1 .15. 

Chern. Char. Burns with a bright flame, and much smoke, but 
does not swell and agglutinate. 

Comp. Carbon 75.28; hydrogen 4.18; azote 15.96; oxygen 4.58, 
— Thomson. 

Obs. This is the most abundant, and common of all the varieties 
of coal, and is the principal fuel of many countries, particularly of 
England. 

Var. 2. cannel* coal. 

Houille compacte, H. Cannel Coal, J. P. C. Candle Coal, A. 

Ext. Char. — Color, black; texture compact; frac- 
ture, large conchoidal ; lustre glistening, and resinous ; 
hard, and brittle ; bears a fine polish ; sp. gr. 1.23 to 
127. 

Comp. Carbon 75.2; bitumen 21.68 ; ashes 312. — Kirwan. 

Obs. It decrepitates, when first heated, and burns without soften- 
ing, with a bright flame, and rather pleasant odor. 

It is sometimes worked into ink-stands, snuff-boxes, toys, &c. 

Local Wigan, and Whitehaven, Eng. GiJmerton, and other 
places, in Scotland. 

Obs. 1. Coal is found chiefly among secondary rocks, where it oc- 
curs in beds of various extent and thickness. 

2. In many instances, these beds lie one over another, with earth 
interposed between them. At Whitehaven, in England, 20 distinct 
beds have been explored, lying one above the other. Near Liege, 
there are 60 beds, occurring in the same manner. 

3. It is a general observation, that the layers of slate, which form 
the roofs of coal beds, bear impressions of vegetables, and particular- 
ly of ferns. 

4. Coal, is sometimes found in highly elevated situations. Ac- 
cording to Brongniart, it occurs on the Cordilleras, in South Amer- 
ica, at the height of more than 13,000. feet above the level of the 
sea. 

5. The deepest coal mines, are said to be those of Namar, one of 
which is 2,400 feet deep. — Pinkerton. 

6. Coal mines are subject to spontaneous combustion, probably in 
consequence of the decomposition of the pyritee, which some coal 
beds contain in abundance. Some mines are known to have been 
on fire for years, and then to have ceased burning. 

7. Heaps of coal, when large, and exposed to a small quantity of 
moisture, are subject to the same accident. 

8. The coal mine at Whitehaven, England, is 1200 feet deep, and 
extends more than 5,000 feet under the sea. 

* Cannel, is a corruptioo of candle. It is sometimes used to give light, instead 
ofeandles. 



LIGNITE. 293 

The United States, contain many coal formations, which have 
been explored, more or less, extensively. 

In Virginia , at least 25 shafts have been sunk for the raising of 
coal, within an extent of 70 miles. At Heth's mine, according to 
Grammcr, the bed of coal is 50 feet thick, and one of the shafts is 
350 feet deep. The strata which cover the coal are sandstone, and 
argillaceous slate, often exhibiting vegetable impressions. Pure 
charcoal, says the same writer, in the form of sticks or logs, is fre- 
quently associated with the coal. 

In Ohio % coal is found in different parts of the state. In some 
cases, three successive beds are found, separated from each other, by 
argillaceous slate, bearing vegetable impressions. The bed nearest 
the surface, according to Atwater, burns well, agglutinates, and 
leaves only a small residuum ; that of the second bed, is coarse, burns 
with a flame less bright, and leaves a greater residuum ; while that of 
the third bed, though much more abundant, is inferior in quality. 

In Pennsylvania, the country watered by the western branch of 
the Susquehannah, is chiefly a coal formation. Indeed, coal, in great- 
er or less quantities, is supposed to underlay about one third of this 
state. At Pittsburg, where it is found on, or near the surface, it is 
pretty extensively explored, as an article of fuel. 

In Connecticut, a coal formation, commencing at New Haven, 
crosses Connecticut river at Middle town, and embracing a width of 
several miles on each side of the river, extends to some distance 
above Northampton, in Massachusetts. — Sittiman. 

Within the above described tract of country, coal has been found 
at Durham, Middletown, Chatham, Hartford, Farmington, Windsor, 
Enfield, and South Hadley. The quantities found, have been small, 
and have occurred, sometimes in veins, between strata of clay slate, 
and sometimes in detached pieces. That of Windsor, is a vein in 
clayslate, and is about an inch thick at the surface. A small quan- 
tity found in Farmington, is very full of bitumen, and burns with a 
bright blaze, and black smoke. 

Origin of Coal. — All naturalists, says Jameson, are now agreed, 
that the greater part of coal is derived from vegetables, which have 
been altered by certain natural operations, hitherto but imperfectly 
known. 

It often happens, that charcoal is found with perfect mineral coal. 
In some instances, one side of a specimen, will be mineral coal, and 
the other side, charcoal. In several coal mines, the remains of trees, 
either petrified, or partly penetrated with bituminous matter, have 
been discovered. Indeed, most of the phenomena observed, on a 
close examination of this subject, indicate the vegetable origin of 
coal. 

Species 10. LIGNITE. 
Lignite, W. C. Brown Coal, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, brown, or brownish black; oc- 
curs massive; structure woody; burns with a weak 



294 LIGNITE. 

flame, and the odor of peat. The compact varieties, 
are black, with a resinous lustre, and imperfectly con- 
choidal, or uneven fracture. The less compact kinds, 
are brown, and without lustre. 

Chem. Char. It barns with flame, but does not swell and aggluti- 
nate like coal. The odor is not bituminous, but like that of decay- 
ed vegetation, and similar to that of peat 

Comp. Carbon 45 ; water 30 ; oily bitumen 10 ; gases 15. 
There is, however, much difference in the composition of the several 
varieties. 

Obs. The external characters of lignite, together with its chemi- 
cal properties, evince that it is of vegetable origin. Indeed, the 
branches of trees, but little changed, are sometimes found among it. 
Lignite, admits of the following varieties. 

Var. 1. BRITTLE LIGNITE. 

Moor Goal, J. P. Brittle Lignite, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, brownish black; occurs mas- 
sive ; surface always cracked ; easily broken into cu- 
bic pieces ; structure ligneous. 

Chem. Char. It burns easily, but emits a very disagreeable odor. 
Smiths cannot use it, in their forges. 

Obs. It is found in sand beds, and argillaceous marl. By expo* 
sure to the air, it falls in pieces. 

Local, France, and Bohemia. 

Var. 2. fibrous lignite. 

Bituminous Wood, J. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, brown, or clove brown ; texture 

and form, that of wood ; longitudinal fracture, fibrous; 

cross fracture, uneven, displaying the annual circles 

of the tree ; opake ; brittle, friable, and light 

Obs. It is easier to break, than wood ; under the knife, it assumes 
a kind of lustre. — Brongniart. 

Local. Bovey, in England. Iceland. Munden, in Hanover. Near 
Paris. Abundant in the Amber mines of Prussia. 

Obs. 1. At Bovey, Brongniart says, there are 17 thick beds of lig- 
nite, which are at the depth of about 66 feet. 

2. It is very abundant in Iceland. In many instances, the trunks 
of the trees are perfect, being merely compressed into an oval shape. 

3. This variety passes by imperceptible degrees, into those, which 
are more distinctly carbonaceous. - In many instances, the several 
varieties are found together, and sometimes the same specimen will 
show the brittle and fibrous varieties 

4. The coal, says Shaw, in the centre of the lowest bed, is of a 
black color, nearly as heavy as pit coal, makes a strong and durable 
fire, and is in all respects, a perfect mineral coal. The other beds 



JET. 



205 



i of a chocolate color, not 00 heavy, and with mora of the 
appearance of wood, consisting of pieces which lie crossing each 
other, in all directions. Some pieces are found, which have the 
knots of wood in them, in one part, while another portion of the same 
piece, is converted into perfect mineral coal. 80 that nature in this 
instance, is seen in the very act of forming mineral coal, from vegeta- 
ble matter.— Short $ Nature Displayed, Vol. 2. 

5. At Cape Sable, Md. there is a bed of lignite, from 3 1-2 to 4 feet 
thick, composed of jet, brittle lignite, bituminous wood, and brown 
ligmite.— IVoosf. 

Vat. 3. EARTHY LIGNITE. 

Earth Coal, J. Earthy Lignite, C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black, or brownish black ; oc- 
curs massive \ fracture, and aspect, earthy ; texture 
fine grained ; smooth to the touch ; somewhat friable ; 
when burned, emits a disagreeable odor. It is nearly 
as light as water. 

Local. Near Cologne. Hessia. Bohemia, Saxony, Iceland, &c. 

* Obs 1. It forms very extensive beds in the environs of Cologne, 

where it is covered with a bed of pebbles, of quartz, and jasper, and 

embraces trunks of trees, of a black, or reddish color, and compressed 

into an oval shape. — Cleveland. 

2. This lignite is used as fuel ; also for painting in distemper, and 
oil. The Dutch use it to adulterate their snuff, which is said to give 
it a much esteemed fineness, and softness. 

3 Faujues observes, that the trunks of trees, which are found in 
beds of lignite, are always deprived of their branches, hence he con- 
chides that they have been conveyed by the ocean. 

4. The same author relates, that nuts which now belong only to 
Hindostan, and China, together with a kind of frankincense, are 
(bund in the bed at Cologne. — See PinkertotCs Petrology. 

5. Authors agree, that lignite is an entirely different formatioa 
from that of coal, and that it is in fact, a deposit of wood, which has 
been covered by earth, and in consequence, undergone a change by 
which it only approximates to coal. It is, however, most probable, 
that in time, it will be completely mineralized and converted into 
coal. 

Species 11. JET. 
Jayet, H. Pitch Coal, J. Jet, P. C. 
Ext Char. — Color, jet, or pitch black ; occurs in 
masses, or thin layers ; texture compact ; fracture 
conchoidal, and undulated; lustre shining; perfectly 
opake ; sometimes the texture is ligneous, and the 
specimen is in the form of the branch of a tree. It be- 
comes weakly electric by friction ; sp. gr. 1.25. 



296 DY80DILE. AMBER. 

Ckem. Char. It barns with a greenish flame, and emits a strong bi- 
tuminous smell. 

It is found with coal, of the newest formation, and sometimes with 
lignite, and amber. 

Local Various places in England. Aude, in France. Various 
places in Germany. Silesia, Hessia, Italy, Spain, and Prussia. 

Obs. Brongniart says, that jet, proper to be worked, is found in mas- 
ses, the weight of which seldom exceeds 50 pounds. 

Uses. It bears a fine polish, and is worked into trinkets, and mourn- 
ing ornaments. In France, in the Department of Aude, 1200 per- 
sons are employed in fabricating the jet, which is found there, into 
rosaries, buttons, ear-rings, snuff-boxes, bracelets, &c. — Journal des 
Mines. 

Species 12. DVSODILE. 
Dysodile, Cordier. Dysodile, P. C. 
Ext Char. — Color, greenish grey, or yellowish ; oc- 
curs massive ; structure compact, or laminated, some- 
times both ; extremely fragile ; gives an argillaceous 
odor, when breathed on;sp. gr. 1.146. 

Chem. Char. It burns with flame, and gives an insupportably fetid 
odor, leaving a residue of about one half its weight. Macerated in 
water, it becomes translucent, and its laminae, flexible. 

Local Near Syracuse, in Sicily, in secondary limestone. 

Specie* 13. AMBER. 
Succin, H. Amber, A. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, wine yellow, greenish, or yel- 
lowish white, or reddish brown ; occurs in nodules, or 
roundish masses, of various sizes, from grains, to that 
of a man's head ; texture compact ; transparent, or 
translucent ; fracture perfectly conchoidal ; lustre re- 
sinous ; becomes strongly electric by friction ; bears a 
high polish. 

Chem. Char. It burns silently, and with little smoke. While 
burning, it emits a bituminous odor, which is not unpleasant. Solu- 
ble in oils, when gently heated. 

Dist. Char. It resembles copal, but this, while burning, crackles, 
and emits an aromatic resinous odor ; while amber burns silently, 
and emits an odor, distinctly bituminous. 

Local Greenland. Moravia. Poland. France. Prussia. 

Obs. It is found among sand and gravel, accompanied with lignite, 
bitumine and jet. 

2. In Prussia, a mine of amber is explored to the depth of more 
than 100 feet. Under a stratum of sand and clay 20 feet thick, there 
succeeds a stratum of trees 40 or 50 feet thick. The wood is partly 
decomposed, and is impregnated with pyrites and bitumen, and is of 



s blackish brown color. Under the stratum of trees, and sometimes 
attached to them, the amber is found ; it is most probable therefore 
that it has proceeded from the vegetable juices. — Phillips. 

The amber pits of Prussia, are said to afford the King, a revenue 
of 26,000 dollars, annually.— Parkes. 

U. S. At Cape Sable, in Ann-Arundel County, Md. It occurs ut 
abed oC lignite, and is found in grains, or masses, sometimes 4 or 5 
tacfees in diameter. — Troost. Cleveland. Near Trenton, N. J. and 
Camden, opposite to Philadelphia. At the latter place, a transparent 
specimen was found, several inches in diameter. — Woodbridge. That 
found near Trenton, occurs in small grains, and rests on lignite, or 
carbonated wood*, or eten penetrates it 

Uses. It is cut into articles of ornament and dress, as ear rings, 
bracelets, beads, amulets, &c. It bears a high polish, and was an- 
ciently considered the most precious of jewels. The greatest quan- 
tity at present is purchased by the Armenian, and Grecian mer- 
chants.— -Jameson. 

Obs. It often contains insects of various species, in a state of com- 
plete preservation. These are sometimes introduced by art, in order 
to increase the value of the specimen. 

2. There is no doubt but gum copal is often sold for amber, as when 
cut and polished, the pale varieties of amber cannot easily be distin- 
guished from copal. By attending attentively to the distinctive char- 
acters above pointed out, the two substances may readily be distin- 
guished. 

Species 13. HATCHETINE^ 
Hatchetine, Conybeare. Hatchetine, C. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, yellowish white, wax yellow, op 
greenish yellow; occurs in flakes like spermaceti, or 
in grains, like broken bees-wax ; lustre of the flaky 
kind, pearly; of the granular, dull, and opake; pos- 
sesses neither odor, nor elasticity ; hardness, equal to 
soft tallow ; melts in hot water, below 170 deg. ; very 
light ; soluble in ether. 

Ckem. Char. When distilled over the naked flame of the spirit 
lamp, it assumes the bituminous smell, and yields a butyraceous sub- 
stance, of a greenish yellow color. 

Local South Wales ; where it is found in small veins, in iron- 
stone. 

Obs. Its discover, the Rev. Mr. Conybeare, considers it a new sub* 
stance, and as distinct from petroleum, or elastic bitumen. 

Species 14. MELLITE. HONEY-STONEt 
Ext. Char. — Color, various shades of honey yellow; 
occurs granular, and crystallized in the form of an ob- 

* After Chas. Hatchett, F. R, S, 
t la allusion to its color. 
38 



298 RETINA8PHALT. FOSSIL COPAL. 

tuse octohedron, of which the common base of the two 
pyramids is square ; cleavage parallel to all the planes 
of the octohedron; surface, not brilliant; cross frac- 
ture, conchoidal ; translucent 5 softer than amber ; sp. 
gr. 1.6. 

Chem* Char. Before the blowpipe, it becomes opake and white, 
with Mack spots, and is finally reduced to ashes. When burned in 
the open air, neither smoke, nor flame is observed, and it acquires an 
appearance like chalk. 

Comp. Mellitic acid and water 84 ; alumine 16. — Klaproth. 

Local. — District of Saol, Switzerland, only, in bituminous wood. 

Species 15. RETINASPHALT. 
Retinasphalt, Haichett 
Ext. Char. — Color, brownish yellow; occurs in ir- 
regular opake masses ; lustre glistening ; fracture im- 
perfectly conchoidal ; brittle, and soft ; a little heavier 
than water. 

Chem Char. When placed on hot iron, it melts, smokes, and burns 
with a bright flame, giving out a fragrant odor. — Phillips. 

Comp. Resin 55 ; asphaltum 42 ; earth 3. — Haichett. 

Local Bowery Tracy, in Devonshire, adhering to brown coal, in 
layers about a line in thickness. 

Species 16. FOSSIL COPAL. 
Fossil Copal, P. Highgate Resin, A. 
Ext. Char. — Color, yellowish, or brownish • occurs 
in irregular pieces ; somewhat translucent ; lustre res- 
inous ; brittle ; yields easily to the knife ; sp. gr. 1.046. 

Chem. Char. Melts into a limpid fluid ; burns with a clear yellow 
flame and much smoke, like other resins. 

Local. Highgate Hill, near London, in abed of blue clay. A1m 
Wolchow, in Moravia. 



APPENDIX. 

Some of the following named minerals, are new, and their characters 
doubtful; others are imperfectly described; others have not been 
analyzed, and others came to the knowledge of the writer, too 
late to be inserted in their proper places. 

Species 1. ARFWEDSONITE. 
Arfvedsonite, — Brooke, M. Arfwedsonite, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, black, without any perceptible 
shade of green ; occurs in crystalline shapes, but not in 
regular crystals; cleavage parallel to the planes of a 
rhombic prism, an angle of which, measures 123 deg, 
55 min. ; planes of cleavage* brilliant ; not so hard as 
hornblende. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with ease, into a black globule ; with borax, 
gives a glass, colored by iron ; with salt of phosphorus, a globule, 
which becomes colorless on cooling, Leaving a skeleton of silex on 
the charcoal. 

Dist Char. It differs from hornblende, in being a pure black, in- 
stead of greenish ; and also in the quantity of its angles. On these 
* accounts, it has separated from hornblende, of which it was consider- 
ed a variety. 

Local. Greenland, where it is associated with sodalite, and horn- 
blende. 

Species 2. BABINGTONITE. 
Babingtonite, — Levy, Ann. Phil. vol. XL. 

Ext. Char.— Color, black, often greenish ; occurs in 
short, eight-sided prismatic crystals ; cleavage dis- 
tinct in two directions ; fracture, imperfect conchoi- 
dal ; translucent, or in larger crystals, opake ; hard- 
ness, nearly that of felspar. 

Camp. Silex, iron, manganese, and lime, with a trace of titanium. 
— Children. 

It occurs at Arendal, in Norway, in small crystals, disposed on the 
surface of crystals of albite. 

Species 3. BARYTO-CALCITE. 

Baryto-Calcite, — Brooke, Ann. Phil. Vol. XLIV. Hemi-prismatio 

Hal-Baryte, M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, white, greyish, yellowish, or 



300 APPENDIX. 

greenish ; occurs massive, and in eight-sided prismat- 
ic cr^s? * Is, terminated obtusely; cleavage, more or 
less perfect, in two directions ; fracture uneven, im- 
perfect co:ichoidal ; certain faces of the cleavage, stri- 
ated ; lustre, vitreous, inclining to resinous; translu- 
cent, or transparent ; yields to the knife ; ©p gr. 34SS. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with boraa, gives a dear glus- 
Comp. Carbonate of bary tes 65.9 ; carbonate of lime 33.6. — (S& 
dren. 
Local. It is found at Marston-Moor, in Cumberland, Eng. 

Species 4. BRRGMANITE. 
Bergoianite, J C. M. 
Ext Char. — Color, several tints of grey, passing in- 
to white, and brick red ; occurs massive ; fracture 
uneven ; texture fine grained ; lustre pearly ; appears 
like a mixture of several earthy substances ; scratches 
glass, and even quartz ; sp. gr. 2.3. 

Chem Char. Becomes white, and melts without effervescence injo a 
colorless glass. 
Local. Near Stavern, in Norway, with felspar,, and quartz. 
Obs. It is considered a variety of Wernerite. 

Species 5. BLOEDITE. 
Bloedite, M. 
Exl.CIiar. — Color, between flesh red, and brick red; 
occurs massive ; structure thin columnar ; fracture 
uneven, splintery; translucent; becomes white, wd 
opake, by decomposition ; lustre foiotly vitreous ; soft. 
Comp. Sulphate of manganese 36.66 ; sulphate of Soda 33.34 ; 
protosulphate of manganese 0.33; muriate of soda 22; water 0.34. 
— John. 
Local. Upper Austria, with gypsum, and polyhalite. 

Species 6. BREWSTERITE. 
Brewsterite, — Brooke, P. Kou phone -Spar, Jf. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, inclining to grey, and yel- 
low; occurs in small prismatic crystals, gener^JJy ter- 
minated by two planes ; cleavage, perfect in pne direc- 
tion, and imperfect in another ; translucent, transpa- 
rent; lustre vitreous, or pearly; yields to the knife; 
sp. gr. 2.12 to 2.20. 

Chem. Char. Loses its water — becomes opake, then froths, and 
swells, but does not melt. 



APPENDIX. 301 

Local. It is found ia crystals,* and crystalline coats, at Strontian, 
in. Scotland. 
Obs. It was formerly considered, as a variety of apophylite. 

Species 7. BROOKITE. 

Brookite. — Levy. Ann. Phil. Feb. 1325. 

JEtf. C&ar.— ^Color, hair brown, passing into deep 

orange yellow ; streak yellowish white ; occurs in short 

prismatic crystals; lustre adamantine > brittle; yields 

to the knife. 

Obs. It contains titanium, but has not been analyzed. Fine crys- 
tals of this substance, have lately been found at Snowdon, in Wales. 

Specks 8. BUCR&ANDITE— Levy. -Ann. Phil. Feb. 1824. 
Bucklandite, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, dark brown, approaching black ; 
occurs in six-sided prismatic crystals, terminated by 
two principal faces ; cleavage not observable ; opake ; 
scratches glass ; resembles augite. 

Local Near Arendal in Norway, with felspar, and carbonate of 
lime. 

Species 9. BROCHANTITE. 
Brochantite. — Levy. Ann. Phil. Oct. 1824. Brochanite, M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, emerald green ; occurs in hexa- 
fredral prists, with modified pyramidal terminations ; 
one face of the pyramid, blackish and dull, the others, 
smooth and shining ; traces of cleavage, parallel to 
the djull face ; transparent ; yields easily to the knife. 

(BwPr According to the experiments of Mr, Children, it consists of 
si|Jf>fewric apiji, and oside of copper, with, perhaps, a quantity of alu- 
mm> Gf sije*. It is insoluble in water, 

Species 10. CH1ASTOLITE* MACLIJ. 
Chiastolite, J. A. P.\ Made, H. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, of the exterior, white, greyish, 
or yellowish white ; of the interior, black, or bluish 
black \ occurs in crystals only ; form, four-sided 
prisms, which appear square, but are slightly rhombic j 
each crystal, whep broken across, exhibits another 
crystal, running through its axis, whose sides corres- 
pond with those of the exterior; sometimes, from the 

* Frog) Ifee Qreek, in allusion to tbe form of X, on the end of the crystals. 



302 



APPENDIX. 



angles of the inner crystal, there runs a small black, 
or bluish line, which reaches the corresponding angle 
of the outer crystal, or crust, thus forming four lines of 
the color of the inner square, reaching to each corner 
of the outer one, and dividing it diagonally into four 
parts. In some crystals, at each corner, and just un- 
der the surface of the external rhomb, there is also a 
srn.ill black crystal, which is joined by the line run- 
ning from the central square, or rhomb ; so that the 
crystal consists of five rhombic prisms, of a black col- 
or, one in the middle, and one at each corner, embed- 
ded in a greyish whfte substance, the whole appear- 
ing externally, as one square, or slightly rhombic 
prism; structure lamellar; scratches glass; crystals 
often several inches long, and perfectly straight ; sp* 
gr. 2.94. 



Fig. 1. Represents the dark lines, running from each angle of the 
central prism, to the several angles of the exterior one- 

Fig. 2. The same, with the addition of a small prism, at each 
corner of the external prism. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; but melts with borax, into a trans- 
parent glass. 

It is found embedded in clay-slate, and sometimes in mica-slate. 

Local. Portugal, Britanny, in the Pyrennees, Spain. On the Skid- 
daw Mountain, in Cumberland, and in several other places in England. 

U. S. Sterling, Mass. in abundance, in a dark, bluish argillite. 
Bellows Falls, Croyden, Cornish, Charlestown, Langdon, and Al- 
stead, N. H. Brunswick, and Georgetown, Maine. — HaU. 

£a Species 11. CHLOROPAL, 
Chloropal, — Brandes, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, pistachio green ; occurs massive ; 
fracture conchoidal, or earthy ; translucent on the 
edges, or opake ; hardness about equal to that of fluor j 
brittle ; sp. gr. from 1.7, to 2. 

Comp. Silex 46 ; oxide of iron 35.30 ; manganese 2 ; alnmine 1 ; 
water 18 ; potash a trace. — Brandes. 

Obs. This substance, is remarkable for a very singular magnetic 
property. When taken from its original repositories, it breaks pretty 
readily into a kind of parallelopipeds, (he upper end, and two adjoin- 



APPENDIX. 303 

ing lateral edges, having the opposite magnetic poles, from the other 
two edges, and the lower end. It is not phosphorescent. — Mohs. 
Local Hungary, associated with opal. 

Species 12. COBALTIC GALENA. 
Cobaltic Galena, or Cobaltic Lead-Glance, J. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, lead grey, inclining to blue ; oc- 
curs massive, and in very small moss-like grouped crys- 
tals; lustre metallic, and when recently fractured, 
splendent ; opake ; soft ; sectile ; soils the fingers a 
little ; sp. gr. 8.14. 

Chem. Char. Reducible on charcoal to metallic lead, attended 
with the arsenical odor ; with borax, givQs a blue bead. 

Comp. Lead 62.89; arsenic 22.47 ; sulphur 0.47 ; iron 2.11; co- 
balt 0.94 ; arsenical pyrites 1.44 — Du Menil 

Local. Near Clausthal, in the Hartz, in a vein of clay-slate, and 
brown spar, traversing grey-wacke. 

Species 13. CHLOROPILEITE.* 

Chlorophaeite, — Mac Cuttuck, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, when newly broken, pistachio 

Sreen, passing into muddy green ; transparent ; turns 
ark after a few hours exposure, and soon becomes 
quite black ; occurs in small nodules ; fracture, when 
transparent, conchoidal ; when dull, earthy or granu- 
lar 5 soft, scratched by a quill ; brittle ; sp. gr. 2. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe, it is entirely refractory, neither 
crackling, nor changing color, or transparency. With muriatic acid, 
it shows indications of iron. 

Comp. It appears to be composed, chiefly of silex, with proportions 
of iron, and alumine. 

Local. The Isle of Rum, and Fife, in Scotland. It occurs in 
amygdaloid, or black indurated clay-stone, generally in round nodules, 
' from the size of a raddish seed, to that of a pea, and upwards. 

U. S. ChlorophsBite, has been discovered in this country, in Gill, 
Mass. by Prof. Hitchcock. It occurs in trap rock, near Turner's 
Falls. 

Species 14. COMPTONITE.t 
Comptonite, Brewster. P. C. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, or whitish ; occurs in small 
crystals ; transparent, or translucent ; primary form, 
the right rectangular prism ; secondary forms the six- 
sided prism, or table, with obtuse terminations ; cleaves 

* From the Greek^in allusion to its appearing green, when newly broken. 
t In honor of Lord Compton. 



304 APPENDIX. 

in two directions ; fracture small conchoidal, uneren ,» 
lustre vitreous ; yields easily to the knife. 

Chem. Char. Before the blowpipe, it first gives off water, intumes- 
ces a little, and becomes opake, then it melts imperfectly iuto a vesi- 
cular glass. The globule obtained with borax, is transparent, but 
vesicular ; that with salt of phosphorus, contains a skeleton of silica, 
and becomes opake on cooling. With a little soda, it melts imper- 
fectly, but with a larger quantity, it becomes infusible. — Mohs. If 
exposed in the state of powder to the action of nitric acid, it forms a 
gelatine. — Brewster. 

Obs. It appears to belong to the zeolite family. 

Local. It has hitherto been found only at Mount Vesuvius, lining 
the cavities of an amygdaloidal rock. 

Species 15. COUZERANITE. 
Couzeranite, Leonhard. P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, indigo blue, passing into greyish 
black ; occurs in rectangular prisms, of which the lat- 
eral edges are sometimes replaced by planes, occa- 
sionally so deep, as to impart to the crystal, the form 
of a rhombic prism, having two of its lateral edges 
replaced ; opake, or in thin portions, translucent; lus- 
tre shining -, crystals fasciculated, rarely single ; soft? 
scratched by apatite. 

Chem. Char. Infusible. Becomes softer in acids, bat is insolu- 
ble. 

Local It occurs in the country, heretofore called, Des Conzerans, 
in steep defiles of Saleix, particularly on the sides of the road to Port 
d* Aulus.— Phillips. 

Species 16. FUCITE. 
Fucit, Schumacher. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, greyish, or greenish black ; oc- 
curs in four, or six-sided prisms, which yield to me- 
chanical division, parallel to the lateral planes of a 
rhombic prism, of about 87 deg. and 93 deg. ; opake ; 
soft ; sp . gr. 2.5. to 3, 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but becomes shining, and enamel like. 

Obs. Phillips, thinks it may prove to be a variety of augite. It is 
said to resemble pinite. 

Local Near Arendal, in Norway, in rolled masses of granular 
quart?. 

Species 17. FORESTERITE. 

Foresterite, Levy. Ann. Phil. Vol. XXXVII. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, or colorless; occurs in 



APPENDIX. 306 

small prismatic crystals, with obtuse terminations, re- 
sembling those of strontian ; transparent, or translu- 
cent ; lustre brilliant ; cleaves in one direction ; an- 
gles agree nearly, with those of prismatic corundum ; 
scratches quartz. 

Camp. According to Children, it is composed of silex and mag- 
nesia. 

Local. Mount Vesurius, where it was discovered by L6vy, associ- 
ated with pleonaste, and augite. 

Species 17. GMELINITE.* 
Sarcolite, Vauquelin. Hydrolite, De Dree. Gmelinite, Brewster. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, white, passing into flesh red ; oc- 
curs in very short six-sided prisms, terminated by 
low six-sided pyramids, with truncated summits ; the 
figure differs from a dodecahedron, with isoceles, tri- 
angular faces, only in having a short prism between the 
pyramids ; and in the truncation of their summits • sur- 
face streaked ; cleavage distinct in one direction ; lus- 
tre vitreous ; translucent ; yields easily to the knife ; 
sp. gr. 2.05. 

Chem. Char. When held in the flame of a candle, it flies off in nu- 
merous scales. 

Cotnp. Silex 50 ; alumine 20 ; lime 4.5 ; soda 4.5 ; water 21.— 
Vauquelin. 

Cfbs. This mineral appears to be a variety of analcime. Accord- 
ing to Mohs, Gmelinite has no connection with the sarcolite of Vau- 
quelin, or the hydrolite of De Dree, though by some, it has been con- 
sidered the same mineral. 

Local. Glenarm, in the County of Antrim, in Ireland, in amygda- 
loid. 

Speck* 18. HISINGERITE.t 

Hisingerit, Berzelius. Hisingerite, P. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, black ; occurs massive ; cleav- 
age distinct in one direction ; fracture earthy 5 streak 
greenish grey ; soft; sectile-, sp. gr. 3. 

Chem. Char. Becomes magnetic, when gently heated. Fusible 
into a dull, opake, black globule. With borax, yields a yellowish 
green glass. 

Comp. Oxide of iron 51.50 ; silex 27.50 ; alumine 5.50 ; oxide of 

* In honor of the celebrated Gmelin. 
t In honor of the chemist, Hisinger. 
39 



306 APPENDIX. 

manganese 0.77 ; volatile matter 11.75 ; magnesia, a trace. — Bent? 
tius. 

Local. Sudermanland, with rhomb spar. 

Species 19. HOPEITE* 
Hopcite, Brewster. Trans. Roy. Soc. Vol. X. 
Ext. Char. — Color, greyish white; streak white; 
occurs in prismatic crystals, with pyramidal termina- 
tions ; lustre vitreous, or pearly ; transparent or trans- 
lucent ; cleavage perfect in one direction, and less so 
in another; one of the prismatic faces deeply striated, 
the others smooth ; very soft ; sectile ; sp. gr. 2.75. 

Chcm. Char. Fusible, with borax, into a transparent glass. Alone, 
it gives off water before the blowpipe, and then melt* into a transpa- 
rent globule, which tinges the flame green. With salt of phosphorus, 
it gives no skeleton of silez ; but melts with it in all proportions. 
With solution of cobalt, it forms a fine blue glass. 

Camp. Hopeite, therefore, seems to be a compound of some of the 
stronger acids, as phosphoric, or boracic acid ; of zinc ; an earthy 
base ; a little cadmium, and a great deal of water. — Mohs. 

Species 20. HUMITKt 
Humite, Bournon. Humite, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, various shades of yellow or yel- 
lowish white, passing into reddish brown ; occurs in 
small prismatic crystals, modified, by a great number 
of transverse, or oblique planes ; primary form, aright 
rhombic prism of 60 deg. and 1 20 deg. ; fracture im- 
perfect conchoidal ; lustre vitreous; transparent, 'or 
translucent ; brittle ; harder than felspar. 

Chcm. Char. Alone, it is infusible, but becomes opake on the out* 
side ; with borax, it gives a clear glass. 
Local. Mount Somma, with brownish mica. 

Species 21. HUMBOLDITE. 

Ilumboldite, Levy. Ann. Phil. Feb. 1823. Humboldite, P. M. 

Kxt. CJtar. — Color, yellowish, and translucent, or 
colorless and transparent, sometimes nearly opake ; 
occurs in small crystals of a rhombic form, often, 
variously and peculiarly modified ; primitive form, the 
oblique rhombic prism; traces of cleavage parallel to 
the shorter diagonal of the prism ; crystals irregularly 

* In honor of Dr. Hope, 
t In honor of Sir Abraham Hume. 



APPENDIX. 307 

aggregated, and seldom separate ; scratches fluor, but 
not glass. 

Comp. According to the experiments of Dr. Wollaston, it consists 
of nearly the same constituents, as borate of lime. 

Local. It has been lately discovered, associated with calcareous 
spar and apophylite, in trap rocks, near Sonthofen, in the Tyrol. 

Species 22. HYALOSIDERITE. 
Hyalosiderite, Edin. Jour, of Science, Vol. I. 
Ext. Char. — Color, reddish, or yellowish brown ; 
surface tarnished brass, or gold yellow ; occurs in six- 
sided prisms, terminated by six-sided pyramids ; lustre 
vitreous, on the surface, metallic ; cleavage indistinct ; 
streak cinnamon color ; translucent on the edges ; 
yields to the knife ; sp. gr. 2.87. 

Chem. Char. Becomes black, and melts into a dark magnetic glo- 
bule. 

Comp. Silex 31. 63; protoxide of iron 29.71 ; magnesia 32.40; 
alumine 2.21 ; oxide of manganese 0.48; potash 2.78; chrome, a 
trace. — Wakhner. 

Local. Near Sasbach, in Brisgau, in a brown basaltic amygda- 
loid. 

Species 23. KUPFERINDIG. 
Kupferindig, Breithaupt. M . 
Ext. Char. — Color, indigo blue, inclining to blackish 
blue ; occurs massive, in plates, and in implanted 
spheroidal shapes, with a crystalline surface ; fracture, 
flat conchoidal, uneven; texture compact; opake; 
lustre resinous ; not very soft; yields to the knife ; sp. 
gr. 3.80. 

Chem. Char. Burns with a bluish flame, before it becomes red hot; 
and melts into a globule which is strongly agitated, and emits sparks ; 
finally, it yields a button of copper. 

Local Sangerhausen, in Thuringia. 

Species 24. LEVYNE* 
Levyne, Brewster. Ed. Jour, of Science, Vol. II. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white ; streak unchanged ; oc- 
curs in rhomboidal crystals, of which the angles meas- 
ure 136 deg. 1 min., 117 deg. 24 min. and 109 deg. 13 
min. ; cleavage indistinct ; fracture imperfect conchoi- 
dal ; lustre vitreous ; brittle ; soft ; semi-transparent. 

Chem. Char. With salt of phosphoros, it yields a transparent skele- 

1 »'■ ■ i ■ ■ ' ' '* ■ ■' I., i ■ 

* In honor of Mr. Levy. 



308 APPENDIX. 

ton of silex, which becomes opake on cooling. When heated in a 
glass tube, it gives off water, and becomes opake. On charcoal alone, 
it swells a little, but does not melt 
Local. Dalsnypen, in Faroe. 

Species 25. ICE-SPAR.* 
Eis-path, W. Ice-spar, P. M. 
Ext. CAw.— Color, greyish, or yellowish white ; oc- 
curs massive, and in flattish crystals, of which the 
primitive differs little from a right rhombic prism ; ex- 
ternal form, small, thin, six-sided tables, the broader 
planes of which are striated, and the opposite narrow 
faces bevelled ; lustre shining ; transparent ; structure 
imperfectly foliated ; very brittle ; scratches glass. 

Ch*M. Char. Becomes vitreous, translucent, and white, and fuses 
with difficulty on the edges, into a blebby glass ; with borax gives a 
diaphanous glass. 

Local. Mount Somma, near Naples, with nepheline, meionite and 
mica. 

Obs. It is considered a variety of felspar. 

Species 26. KNEBELITE* 
Knebelite, P. M. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, white, brownish red, 
green, and brown, often spotted ; occurs massive, with 
an uneven, and cellular surface; lustre glistening ; 
fracture imperfectly conchoidal ; opake ; hard ; brit- 
tle. sp.gr. 3.71. 

Comp. Silex 32.5 ; protoxide of iron 32 ; protoxide of manganese 
35. — Dobereiner. 

Obs. No locality of this mineral is given. 

Species 27. KONILITE.J 
Konilite, Dr. Mac Cullock, P. 
Ext Char. — Color white; occurs in the form of a 
loose powder, somewhat coarser than the silex obtain- 
ed from silicated alkalies ; it is gritty between the 
teeth, but not so hard as to scratch glass. 

Chem. Char. Very easily fusible into a transparent colorless glass. 
Muriatic acid, dissolved a small quantity 6f it, but what remained was 
still fusible. 

Comp. On attempting to analyze a small quantity, Dr. Mac Cullock 
found that it consisted chiefly of silex. 

* From its resemblance to ice, and ita brittleness. 
t After Major Von Knebel. 
From the Greek, in allusion to its form of a powder. 



APPENDIX. 309 

Obs. Dr. Mac Cullock obserrcs, that it is difficult to account for 
the great fusibility of this mineral, unless it should contain a portion 
of some new aJkaJi v as it was found not to contain any of the common 
alkalies, boracic acid, nor any trace of metallic matter. 

Species 28. LIGURITE.* 

Ligurite, Leonhard, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, apple green, sometimes speck- 
led externally ; occurs in oblique rhombic prisms of 
140 deg. and 40 deg, occasionally modified by trunca- 
tion ; fracture uneven ; lustre vitreous $ powder, and 
streak, greyish white ; translucent, or transparent ; not 
electric by heat, or friction ; does not phosphoresce on 
live coals ; hardness, about that of quartz ; sp. gr. 3.40. 

Comp. Silex 57.45 ; alumine 7.36 ; lime 25.30 ; magnesia 2.56 ; 
oxide of iron 3.00 ; oxide of manganese 0.50. — Viviani. 

Obs. According to Leonhard, it is considered as a gem in respect 
to hardness, transparency, and color. 

Local. On the banks of the Stura in the Appenines, in a talcose 
rock. 

Species 29. HARGARITE. 

Margarite Fucks, P. Rhomboidal Pearl-Mica, J. Rhombohedral 

Pearl-Mica, M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, pale pearl-grey, passing into red- 
dish, and yellowish white ; occurs in small crystalline 
laminae, intersecting each other in various directions ; 
cleavage perfect in one direction ; lustre pearly on 
one of the faces, and vitreous on the others ; brittle ; 
soft ; sp. gr. about 3. 

Comp. Silex 37 ; alumine 40.50 ; oxide of iron 4.50 ; lime 8.96 ; 
soda 1.24 ; water 1. — Du Menil. 
Local. Sterzing, in the Tyrol, in foliated chlorite. 

Species 30. MELLIUTRt 

Mellilite J. P. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, yellow, honey or orange yellow ; 

occurs in small square prisms, with the lateral edges 

truncated ; opake ; gives sparks with steel $ crystals 

usually coatea externally, with brown oxide of iron. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, without ebullition, into a greenish glass. In 
powder, forms a jelly with nitric acid. 

* From Ltgnria, the country in which it is found. 
t Mellilite, Lat. from its being of a honey yellow. 



310 APPENDIX. 

Comp. Silez 38 ; lime 19; magnesia 19.40 ; alumine 2.90 ; oxide 
of iron 12.10 ; oxide of titanium 4 ; oxide of manganese 2. — Carpi. < 

Local. Capo di Bove, near Rome, in the fissures of compact black 
lava. 

Obs. Another mineral, called mellite or honey-stone, on account of 
its color, is a mellate of alumine, and a very different substance from 
the present species. 

Species 3\. OMPHACITE. 
Omphacit, W. Omphacite, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, green, of various shades, often 
deep grass green ; occurs massive, composed of small 
crystalline filaments ; translucent ; transparent on the 
edges; cleavage parallel to the sides of a rhombic 
prism. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with difficulty. 

Local. Near Hoff, in the Tyrol, with actynolite, garnet and mica. 

Species 32. PICROLITE. 
Picrolith, Hausmann. Picrolite, P. M. 

Ext. Char. — Color, leek-green, passing into yellow ; 
occurs massive ; structure compact, or fibrous ; fracture 
splintery ; lustre glimmering, and a little pearly ; trans- 
lucent on the edges ; brittle ; varies from soft, to pret- 
ty hard. 

Chem. Char. Colors borax green, but the colpr disappears on cool* 
ing. 

Comp. Silex 40.04 ; magnesia 38.80 ; protoxide of iron 8.28 ; car- 
bonic acid 4.70 ; water Q.Q8.—Almroth. 

Local. Taberg and iS'ordmarken, in Sweden, in the bedsofocto- 
hedral iron ore. 

Species 33. PICROSMINE.* 
Picrosmin, Raiding tr. Mohs' Mineralogy. 

Ext. Char. — Colors, greenish white, greenish grey, 
oil green, leek, and blackish green ; occurs massive ; 
structure fibrous, passing into compact; cleavage per- 
fect in one direction, and less so in two others ; frac- 
ture fine, uneven, or earthy ; lustre pearly on one of the 
faces, and vitreous on the other; streak white ; opake, 
or translucent on the edges ; soft ; very sectile ; sp. 
gr. 2.59 to 2.66, 

Chem. Char. Infusible, but emits water and becomes first black, 

* From the Greek, signifying bUter odor, in allusion to the peculiar smell it 
emits, when moistened. 



APPENDIX. 311 

then white and opake, and acquires considerable hardness. Soluble 
with salt of phosphorus, except a skeleton of silex. When heated 
with solution of cobalt, it assumes a pale red color. 

Obs. Haidinger supposes that several varieties of the common as- 
bestus of Werner, should be referred to this species. 

Local. Near Presnitz, in Bohemia, in an iron mine. 

Species 34. SILICIOUS HYDRATE OP ALUMINE. 
Siliciferoua Hydrate of Alumine, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, with a tinge of yellow, or 
blue ; occurs massive ; when dry, the lustre is resi- 
nous, and it absorbs about one eighth of its weight of 
water - f adheres to the tongue ; fracture earthy ; on ex- 
posure, becomes friable, and loses about 40 per. cent, 
of its weight. 

Chem. Char. Infusible ; forms a jelly with acids. 
Comp. Alumine 44.5; silex 15; water 40.5. — Berthier. 
Local. In the Pyrenees, on the bank of the river Oo, in a lead 
' mine. 

Var. 1. SEVERITE. 
Severite, P. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white ; occurs massive ; frac- 
ture earthy ; texture fine grained ; translucent ; re- 
sembles lithomage, but is a little harder ; lustre, none ; 
yields to the knife ; brittle ; polishes by friction ; ad- 
heres to the tongue ; has no argillaceous odor, when 
breathed on ; does not form a paste with water. 

Chem. Char. It does not effervesce with acids, nor is its color 
changed by heat. When newly fractured, it is said to diffuse an odor 
like that of apples. 

Comp. Silex 50 ; alumine 22 ; water 26. — Pefletier. 

Local. Near St. Sever* in France, in small masses, in a gravel soil. 

Var. 2. LENZINlTE.t 

Lenzinile, P. 

/ This has been divided into two sub-varieties, viz. Opaline and Ar- 
gillaceous. 

Sub- Var. 1. opaline lenzinite. 
Ext. Char — Color, milk-white ; occurs in small mas- 
ses ; fracture flat conchoidal; surface dull; tex- 
ture earthy; transparent, or translucent ; yields to the 

« Henee the name, Severite. f In honor of the mineralogist, Ltnsxits. 



312 APPENDIX. 

knife ; easily reduced to a white powder ; adheres to 
the tongue ; sp. gr. 2.10. 

Chem. Char, When heated in a crucible, loses 25 per cent of its 
weight, and becomes so hard as to scratch glass. When thrown into 
water, it divides. 

Sub- Var. 2. argillaceous lknzinite. 
Ext. Char. — Color, snow white, sometimes tinged 
yellowish, with oxide of iron ; occurs in small pieces ; 
fracture earthy ; lustre dull ; becomes polished oy rub- 
bing; translucent on the edges; unctuous to the 
touch ; brittle ; adheres strongly to the tongue ; breaks 
to pieces in water, but does not become more translu- 
cent; sp. gr. 1.80. 

Chem. Char. Exposed to a red heat, it becomes hard enough to 
scratch glass ; but undergoes no other change. 

Comp Silex 99 ; alumine 35.5 ; water 25.0 ; lime 0.05.— JbAns. 
Local. Both varieties occur at Kail, in Eifeld. 

Var. 3. KOLLYRITE. 
Kollyrite, Lucas. Bt. P. H. 
Ext. Char. — Color, white ; occurs compact ; ap- 
pears like clay ; water may be obtained from it on 
pressure ; retains its water so strongly, that it takes a 
month or more, for a small piece to dry, when it sepa- 
rates into columnar pieces, like starch ; absorbs wa- 
ter, with a hissing noise, and becomes translucent 

Chem. Char. Infusible ; soluble in nitrie acid without efferves- 
cence. 

Comp. Alumine 45 ; silex 14 ; water 40 — Klaproth. 
Local In Thuringia and Sheimnitz, in Hungary. 

' Var. 4. ALLOPftANE. 

Allophane, Stromeyer. 
Ext. Char. — Colorless, and semi-transparent; or 
sometimes blue, green, or brown ; occurs massive ; 
but shews signs of prismatic forms; lustre somewhat 
vitreous; brittle; sp. gr. 1.85. 

Chem. Char. Intumesces, and falls into powder, but alone, is infu- 
sible ; with borax melts into a colorless glass 

amp. Alumine 32 20; silex 29.92 ; water 41.30; carbonate of 
copper 3.05 ; and a little line, sulphate of lime, and hydrate of iron. 
&tr:mieycr. 

Obs. This was probably a green variety of this mineral, as it con- 
tained copper. 

Local. Thuringia, in a bed of lime stone. 



APPENDIX. 313 

Species S5. SOMERVILLITE. 
Somervillitc, Brooke. Brande's Journal, Vol. XVI. Somervillite, M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, pale dull yellow; occurs in octa- 
hedral crystals, with isosceles triangular faces, various- 
ly truncated, so as to resemble some varieties of the ox- 
ide of tin; cleavage, perfect in only one direction ; lus- 
tre glassy ; scratches glass. 

Chem. Char. Fusible alone, into a grey globule ; with borax, into 
a colorless one. 

Local. Mount Vesuvius, with black mica. 

Species 36. SPHiERULITE.* 
Sphsrulite, P. M. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, grey, and brown, of various 
shades ; occurs in spheroidal, or botryoidal masses, 
and in fibrous concretions ; fracture splintery ; struc- 
ture fibrous, or compact; opake, or translucent ; lustre 
none ; brittle ; scratches quartz slightly : sp. gr. 2.50. 
Chem. Char. Nearly infusible, the sharp edges only become glaz- 
ed 

Comp. In composition, it is said to be nearly related to obsidian. 
Local. Near Schemnitz, in Hungary, imbedded in pitchstone. 

Species 37. SORDAWALLITE. 

Sordawallite, Nordenskiold. Ed. Phil. Jour. Vol. IX. Sordawallite, 

P. M. ft 

Ext. Char. — Color, greenish, or greyish black ; o^ 
curs massive; fracture conchoidal;. texture compact; 
no trace of cleavage ; lustre vitreous, and a little metal- 
lic ; brittle ; hardness equal to that of glass : sp. gr. 
2.53. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with difficulty, into a blackish globule. With 
borax, yields a green glass ; with a small quantity of soda, a blackish 
green globule, and with a larger quantity, a rough slaggy mass. Be* 
comes reddish, on exposure. 

Comp. Silex 49.40; alumine 13.80; peroxide of iron 19.17; mag- 
nesia 10.67 ; phosphoric acid 2.67 ; water 4.38. — Nordenskiold. 

Lical. Sordawala, in the government of Wiborg, in Finland. It 
occurs in thin layers, in a primitive rock. 

Species 38. THULITE. 
Thulite, Brooke. Thulite, M. C. 
Ext. Char. — Color, rose red ; occurs in crystalline 



* Probably because it ocean in spherical messes. 
40 



314 APPENDIX. 

masses; cleavage, parallel to the lateral planes of a 
rhombic of 87 cleg. 3^ min. and 92 deg. 30miri.; not so 
hard as quartz , yields to the knife with difficulty. 

Obs r No proper account of this mineral, has been given. It is said 
to come from Norway. 

Species 39. TORRELITE. 

Torrelite, Renwick. Ann. N. Y. Lyceum. 

Ext Char. — Color, vermillion red, powder, rose red ; 

occurs disseminated, and in small fragments ; fracture 

granular ; in some specimens fine, and in others coarse 

grained ; slightly magnetic ; scratches glass. 

, Chem. Char. Infusible alone ; with borax, forms a glass, of green 
eolor, while hot, but which becomes colorless on cooling. 

Comp. Silex 32.60 ; peroxide of cerium 12.32 ; protoxide of iron 
21.00; alumine 3.6S ; lime 24.08 ; water 3.50; loss 28*— Ren- 
wick. 

Loral Andover Iron mine, Sussex County, iV. J. where it is inti- 
mately connected with, and disseminated through the ore.-. 

Obs. The present species, was first analyzed, and named, by Prof. 
Renwick, of Columbia College. 

Prof. Renwick, makes the following observations, on the general 
aspect of this ore. 

" This ore appears, at first glance, to be composed of three very 
distinct substances. The first ia intermediate, in appearance between 
yAe granular Franklinite, and the large grained magnetic ore, of Gor. 
T, ickerson's mine, at Succasinny : on a cursory examination, it seems 
fo be a protoxide of iron, with a slight trace of zinc. The second, is 
an amorphous quartz, tinged with a color, varying from a. pale rgae 
color, to a deep vermillion. The third, is of a dull ver,million red. 
and of a granular fracture ; in some specimens, fine, in others, coarse 
grained. This last, was chosen as the subject of examination." 

Prof. Renwick, named it Torrelite, in honor of Prof. Torrey, of 
West Point. 

Species 40. VERMICULITE.* . 
Vermiculite, Webb. Sill Jour. feci. Vol. VII. 
Ext Char — Colors, yellowish, or greenish" white, and 
dark brown, or bl ickish, interspersed, givihg the mass a 
brownish cast ; occurs massive ; texture COttipact, in- 
terspersed with laminae, or scales resemftlfrig ffiitft ; 
lustre glistening, or dull ; powder yellowish, mixed with 
shining scales ; emits an argillaceous odor, when mois- 
tened. 

* la allusion to iu vermicular, or wormlike motion, when heated. 



APPENDIX. 315 



•i 



Chem. Char. Under the blowpipe, swells, and shoots out excrescen- 
Oes, having a vermicular motion, and resembling worms. - ! ' 

Obs. This appears to be a new variety of talc, discovered by HJr. 
Webb, of Mass The name chosen by BIr. Webb, has been inserted, 
in conformity to the genera) rule, that if a man discovers a new min- 
eral, he has a right to name it. 'the property, however, on which 
this name is founded, is by no means peculiar to the present mineral. 
The Skolezite of Fuchs, was named from the same property, and at 
least, one variety of zeolite, behaves in the same manner, before the 
blowpipe. «• '. . *• 

JLocal. Worcester, Mass. 

Species 41. WAGNERITE. 
Wagnerit, Fuchs. Schweigger's Journal. Wagner ite, M. 
Ext. Char. — Color, several shades of yellow, some- 
times orange yellow, and sometimes inclining to grey ; 
occurs in crystals ; form unknown ; lustre vitreous ; 
translucent ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 3.1 1. ' 

Comp. Phosphoric acid 41.72 ; fluoric acid 6.50 ; magnesia 46.60 ; 
oxide of iron 5 ; oxide of manganese 0.50. — Fuchs. 

Local. Near Werfef , in Salzburg, where it is found with quartz, in 
clay-slate. This is its only known locality. 

Species 42. WITHAMITE* 
Withamite, Brewster. Edin. Jour. Sci. Vol. II. 
Ext. Char.— £!olor, carmine red, and pale straw yel- 
low, in two different directions, perpendicular t to eacjh 
other, and to the lengthened prisms ; occurs in minute 
prismatic crystals, aggregated into globular masses, 
radiating from their centres ; lustre vitreous ; translu- 
cent ; brittle ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 3.13. 

Chem. Char. Swells, but fuses with difficulty, into a dark, green* 
ish grey, scoria Salt of phosphorus dissolves it with effervescence, 
into a globule, which contains a skeleton of silver, and becomes opake 
on cooling. 

Local. Glencoe, in Scotland, in a trap rock. 

Species 43. ZEAGONITE. 
Gismondin, Leonhard. Zeagonite, Gismondine, P. M. 
Ext Char.— -Colors, white, greyish, and pale smalt 
blue ; occurs in semi-globular masses ; also, crystalliz- 
ed in the form of the octohedron, with a square base ; 
angles sometimes truncated ; lustre adamantine ; cleav- 
age, imperfect in two directions ; brittle ; fracture con- 

* In compliment to Mr. Witham, who discovered it. 



316 APPENDIX. 

choidal ; translucent ; crystals small ; hardness equal 
to that of quartz. 

Chem. Char Infusible, but phosphoresces, and becomes friable. 

Comp. Silex 41.4 , lime 48.6 •, alumine 2.5 ; magnesia 15; ox- 
ide of iron 2 5. — Carpi. 

Obs. Prof Mohs, has little doubt, from the quantity of the angles 
of zeagonite, that it is a variety of zircon. Its composition, however, 
is entirely different, that of zircon being 70 parts zirconia, while the 
present species, contains not a particle of that earth. 

Local. Capo de Bos, near Rome, in the cavities of a volcanic 
rock. 

Species U. ZURLITE. 
Zurlit, Leonhard. Zurlite, P. M. 
Ext. Char.— Color, asparagus green; occurs in four-sided 
rectangular prisms, sometimes flattened, and occasion- 
ally with truncated angles; cleavage indistinct; also, oc- 
curs in botryoidal masses; fracture conchoidal, pas- 
sing into uneven ; texture compact, and corneous ; sur- 
face rough, and covered with a white coating ; yields 
to quartz, but gives sparks with steel : sp. gr. 3.27. 

Chem. Char. Fusible with borax, into a blackish glass. Nitrons acid 
dissolves it in part, with effervescence, and assumes a yellow color. 

Local. Mount Vesuvius, with calcareous spar, where is was first 
discovered by Remondini, and described by him in the Memoirs of 
the Academy of Naples. 



ADDENDA. 

Account of some new Vesuvian Minerals, by Seigniors Monticelli 
and Covelli, of Naples. 

(Our account of these Minerals, is an extract of Dr. J. Van Ren- 
sellaer's translation, published in Silliman's Journal, for Nov. 1826.) 

Species 1. BREISLAKITE. 
Ext Char. — Colors, brownish, or reddish brown ; ap- 
pears like down ; under the microscope, appears in 
the form of extremely small, straight acicular crystals, 
of a red color, which are placed in the interstices of 
other extremely small crystals ; capillary, contorted, 
and brown. 

Chem. Char. Hot nitric acid, reduces it to an impalpable powder 
which on cooling, is precipitated. Before the blowpipe, it melts into 
a black enamel. 

Camp. Silex, alumine, and a little iron .—Wollaston. 

Local It lines the small bubbles found in the lava of Scalla, on 
Vesuvius. 

Species 2. HUMBOLDTILHITE.* 
Umboldilite. 
Ext. Char. — Color, brown, tending to brownish yel- 
low ; occurs in six, eight, and twelve-sided prisms, 
sometimes so short, as to become tabular, also cylin- 
drical and massive; primitive form, a right rectangular 
prism, with a square base ; translucent in mass, trans- 
parent in thin laminae ; lustre vitreous ; fracture vitre- 
ous, and conchoidal ; fragments irregular, and acumin- 
ated ; scratches glass: sp. gr. 3.104. 

Chem. Char. Fusible, with effervescence, but does not form a glo- 
bule. With nitric acid, it is converted into a jelly. 

Comp. Silex 51.16; lime 31.67; magnesia 8.83; alumine 0.50; 
oxide of iron 2.00. — Monticelli and Covelli. 

Dist. Char. It approaches by its primitive form, anhydrous sul- 
pb&te of lime, cryolite, cymophane, chrysolite, stilhite, dipyre, and 
analcime. From the first two, it is distinguished by its chemical, 
and physical character*. Cymophane, and chrysolite, do not form a 

11 I I I ■! J jj 

♦In honor of Baron Humboldt. Humboldtine, and Humboldtite, have alrea- 
dy been noticed. i-\.. . „ , 



318 



ADDENDA. 



jelly with acids, and are infusible ; stilbite and analcirae, do not form 
a jelly with acids ; and dipyre contains no magnesia in its composi- 
tion. In chemical composition, umboldilite, is similar to augite, sah- 
lite, hornblende, and melilite, but from these species, it is also distin- 
guished by its forming a jelly with acids. 

Local Vesuvius, in lava, associated with zurlite, augite, Thomson- 
ite, mica, &c. 

Species 3. DAVINA.* 
Davyne. 
Ext. Char. — Colors, brown, or white ; occurs in six, 
and twelve-sided crystals, also annular ; primitive 
form, the regular hexahedral prism ; transparent, trans- 
lucent, or opake ; lustre of the transparent crystals, 
opaline, of the opake, pearly ; structure lamellar, the 
laminae being parallel to the axis of the prism *, lamel- 
lar structure of the opake, very obvious ; transverse 
fracture, unequal ; longitudinal fracture, lam^l^r; 
scratches glass : sp. gr. 2.25; refraction double. 

Chem. Char. Forms a yellowish jelly, with nitric acid. Efferves- 
ces at fust, owing to admixture. Fusible, with effervescence, into a 
porous, opaline enamel. Crystals retain their transparency, at a white 
heat. 

Comp. Silex 42.91 ; alumine 33.28; lime 12.02; iron 01.25; 
water 07.43 ; loss 03.11.— MonticeUi and Covelli. 

Dist. Char. Sommite, which it resembles, is hardly acted on at 
all, by nitric acid, while this acid dissolves 50 per cent, of Davina. It 
differs from Thomson ite, in retaining its transparency when heated, 
and in being harder. From pseudo-sommite, it differs in being more 
easily fusible, and in possessing an opaline or pearly lustre. 

Local. Vesuvius, associated with Wollastonite, calcareous spar, pa- 
mice, black spinelle, and mica. 

Species 4. CAVOLINITKt 
Ext. Char. — Color, white, and opake ; lustre pearly, 
or silky ; longitudinal fracture, fibrous; transverse 
fracture, rough and unequal ; occurs in six, and twelve- 
sided prisms, with obtuse, or low pyramidal termina- 
tions, prisms sometimes very short ; also occurs annu- 
lar ; primitive form, the regular hexahedron, the height 
of the prism being less than its breadth; cleavage, par- 
allel to the axis of the prism; crystals, small, passing 
into microscopic ; scratches glass : sp. gr. 2 J 5. 

*In honor of Sir Humphrey Davy. 

t In honor of Philipo Cavolini, the Neapolitan naturalist. 



ADDENDA. 319 

tfcem.Char. Easily fusible, with effervescence, into an enamel, 
with the aspect of porcelain With nitric acid, forms a jelly. 

lHst. Char. It has the same primitive, with sommite, Davina, and 
jpinite, but is distinguished from them all, by its structure, aspect, and 
chemical composition. 

Obs. The analysis of Cavolinite, say the authors, as well as its ac- 
tion before the blowpipe, leads to the presumption, that this new spe- 
cies, is a double silicate of alumine, and potash. 

Local. Vesuvius, in the interior of calcareous balls, accompanied 
by garnets, and isocrase, &c. 

Species 5. CHRISTIANITE. 
Ext Char. — Colors, brown, yellow, and reddish •, oc- 
curs in four, eight, and twelve-sided prisms, variously 
modified by truncation ; primitive, an oblique rectan- 
gular prism; lustre ordinary, or dull on the superfices; 
transverse fracture, vitreous, longitudinal fracture, la- 
mellar ; is scratched by quartz ; crystals small ; trans- 
lucent, or transparent : sp. gr. 2.77 ; refraction double, 
through the laminae. 

Chem. Char. Infusible alone. With borax, affords a brown, globu- 
lar, opake, button, translucent at the edges. With nitrate of co- 
balt, the edges most exposed to heat, assume a beautiful blue. Sul- 
phuric acid, converts it into an imperfect vesicular jelly, considerably 
increasing its balk. Dissolves partially in nitric acid. 

Dist. Char. Phosphate of lime, which it resembles, dissolves en- 
tirely in nitric acid Chondrodite, is entirely insoluble in nitric 
acid. Topaz is harder, and has a higher sp: gr. than Christianite, 
and from the zeolites, felspar, and sommite, it is distinguished by its 
infusibility. 

Local. Vesuvius, in small geodes of granitoid aggregates, composed 
chiefly of augite and mica, which occur in the matter, ejected from 
the volcano. 

Species 6. BIOTINA* 
Ext. Char. — Colors, topaz yellow, brown and color- 
less ; translucent, or transparent ; occurs according to 
Monticelli and Cavelli; 1. Bis-marginate. 2. Tri-tetrahe- 
dral. 3. Sei-duodecimal. 4. Octo-duodecimal. 5. Octo- 
sesdecimal. 6. Amphi-hexahedral. 7. Amphi-octohe- 
dral. 8. Quad ri -duodecimal. Primitive form, an obtuse 
rhomboid; fracture vitreous, tending to conchoidal; 
fragments angular; lustre vivid; refraction double: 
sp.gr. 3.11. 

* In honor of the distinguished French naturalist! Biot. 



320 ADDENDA. 

Chem. Char. Infusible, and unalterable by the blowpipe. Nitric 
acid, partially dissolves it, without forming a jelly. 

Dist Char. The carbonates of lime, barytes, and strontian, effer- 
vesce with acids, which Biotina does not. It is less hard than quartz ; 
and" chabasie fuses before the blowpipe. Phosphate of lime, dissolves 
perfectly in acids ; Biotina dissolves but partially. Qiotina diners 
from crysolite, and Brucite, in respect to primitive form, and exter- 
nal aspect. Crysoberyl, scratches quartz. 

Local. Mount Vesuvius. 



*■-*■ 



INDEX. 



page. 

Abrazite, 315 

Achmite, 171 

Acidiferous Earthy Minerals, 89 

Actynolite, 61 

acicular, 62 

Waded, 61 

asbestiform, 62 

massive 62 

Adamant inn spar, ' 63 

Adhesive slate, 44 

Adularia 148 

Agalmaiolite, 153 

Agaric mineral, 91 

Agate, IS 

brecciated, " 

fortification, 19 

moss, " 

ribbon, 18 

Alabaster, 92 

Albin, 144 

Albite, 172 

Alkaline fluate of lime, 138 

Allagite, 255 

Allanite, 267 

Allochrite, 28 

Allophane, 312 

Almandine, 24 

Alum, 137 

Alum slate, 44 

Alurainate of lead, hydrous, 204 

Aluminous oxide of lead, " 

Aluminous slate, 44 

Alum stone, 138 

Alumine and potash, sulphate 

of, 136 

Alumine, fluatee alkaline, 138 

sulfatee alkaline, 137 

Alumine, sub-phosphate «of, 119 

Alumine, 118 

silicious hydrate of, 311 

sub-sulphate of, 118 

Aluminite, 

Amalgam, native, 177 

41 





pa*e. 


Amazon stone, 


149 


Amber, 


296 


Amblygonite, 


139 


Amethyst, 


4 


oriental, 


4 


Amianthoide, 


53 


Amianthus, 


64 


Ammonia, muriate of, 


135 


sulphate of, 


n 


Ammoniaque muriatle, 


tt 


sulfate, 


it 


Amphibole, 


66 


actinote, 


61 


Amphigene, 


142 


Analcime, 


161 


Anatase, 


271 


Andalusite, 


143 


Anhydrite, 


115 


compact, 


116 


granular, 


tt 


fibrous, 


tt 


silicious, 


tt 


Anhydrous gypsum, 


IIS 


Anhydrous carbonate of cop- 


per, 


tt 


Anhydrous sulphate of lime, 


tt 


Anhydrous sulphate of soda 


and lime, 


139 


Anorthite, 


151 


Anthracite, 


286 


columnar, 


287 


massive, 


tt 


slaty, 


tt , 


Antimoiue', 


258 


natif, 


tt 


oxide, 


261 


oxide sulfure* capillaire, 


259 


oxide sulfur^, 


260 


sulfure, 


259 


Antimonial sulphuret of lead 


, 202 


Antimonial silver, 


180 


Antimonial grey copper, 


190 


Antimony, 


258 



322 



INDEX. 



pure 

dodecahedal, 258 

native, " 

nickeliferous grey, 260 

oxide of, 261 

prismatic, 180 

prismatic white, 261 

red, 260 

rhombohedral, 258 

sulphurct of, 259 

sulphuretted oxide of, 260 

Apatite, 107 

rhombohedral, " 

Aphrite, 92 

Aplome, 27 

Apophylite, 143 

Aquamarine 86 

Arfwedsonite, 299 

Argent, antimonial, 180 

antimonie sulfure, 183 

muriate, 185 

natif, 179 

carbonatee, 184 

arsenical, 181 

Argent, 

sulfure\ 182 
Argentiferous arsenical iron, 221 
Argentiferous copper-glance, " 

Argental mercury, 177 

"Argentine, 91 

Argile, calcifere, 100 

glaise, 50 

schisteuse novaculaire, 43 

schisteuse graph ique, 45 

Argillaceous oxide of iron, 231 

columnar, " 

lenticular, 232 

nodular, " 

pisiform, 231 
Argillaceous muriate of silver, 185 

Argillaceous slate, 41 

Argillite, 42 

shining, " 

Arragonite, 102 

Arseniate of cobalt, 218 

Arseniate of copper, 197 

fibrous, 1«9 

martial, 200 

octohedral, 197 

oblique prismatic, 199 



right prism atie, 199 

rhomboidal 198 

A rseniate of iron, 239 

Arseniate of lead, 2( 9 

reniform, 210 

Arseniate of lime, 1 18 

Arseniate of nickel, 215 

Arsenic, 262 

native, " 

oxide of, 263 

sulphuret of, " 

Arsenic natif, 262 

oxice\ 263 

sulfure* rouge, " 

sulfure jaune, 264 

Arsenical cobalt, 218 

iron, 221 

nickel, 215 

Arsenico-antimonial silver, 181 

Arsenical grey copper, 190 

silver, antimonial, J81 

Arseniate of nickel, 215 

Asbeste, 64 

Asbestus, « 

Asbestiform actynolite, 62 

Asparagus stone, 108 

Asphaltum, 290 

Atacamite, 195 

Augite, 53 

oblique edged, " 

Augite-spar, " 
paratomous, 53—63 

prismatoidal, 37 

Automolite, 73 

Axe-stone, 166 

Axinite, 38 

prismatic, " 

Azurite, 78 
Azure-spar, dodecahedral, 39 

Azure copper-ore; J92 



Babingtonite, 

Baikalite, 

Balas ruby, 

Barystrontianite, 

Baryte carbonate, 
sulfa tee, 
prismatic, 
rhomboidal, 



55 

77 

127 

122 

123 

<< 

188 



INDEX. 



323 





p«K*. 




pa*e. 


Barytes, 


122 


iron, earthy, 


237 


carbonate of, 


(< 


vitriol, 




sulphate of. 


123 


Bog iron ore, 


233 


Baryto-calcite, 


299 


compact, 


tt 


Basalt, 


164 


friable, 


tt 


Basaltic hornblende, 


57 


pitchy, » 


235 


Basinite, 


45 


Bole, 


49 


Bergmanite, 


300 


Boracite, 


121 


Beryl, 


86 


octohedral, 


tt 


Biotina, 


319 


Borate of lime, 


117 


Bismuth, 


212 


silicious, 


tt 


native, 


(t 


of magnesia, 


121 


cupriferous sulphuret 


of, 213 


of soda, 


132 


oxide of 


214 


Borax, 


tt 


octohedral, 


212 


Botryolite, 


117 


plumbocupreou8 sulphu- 


Breislakite, 


317 


ret of, 


213 


Brewsterite, 


300 


sulphuret of, 


tt 


Brittle sulphuret of silver, 


183 


Bismuthic silver 


181 


Brochantite, 


301 


Bitter spar, 


104 


Brookite, 


tt 


Bitumen, 


290 


Brown coal, 


293 


compact, 


tt 


haematite, 


227 


earthy, 


tt 


iron ore , 


tt 


elastic, 


tt 


oxide of iron, 


tt 


Bifume, 


tt 


Brown spar, 


105 


elastique, 


tt 


Brucite, 


80 


solide, 


tt 


Bucklandite, 


301 


Bituminous limestone, 


98 


Bucholzite, 


143 


• marlite, 


101 


Butter milk silver, 


185 


shale, 


43 


Byssolite, 


53 


wood, 


294 






Black coal, 


291 


Cacholong, 


15 


cobalt-ochre, 


218 


Cadmium, 


279 


copper, 


188 


Cairngorm stone, 


5 


iron ore, 


233 


Calaite, 


69 


compact, 


it 


Calamine, 




fibrous, 


tt 


prismatic, 


248 


lead, 


286 


rhomboidal, 


249 


oxide of manganese, 


252 


Calamite, 


60 


tellurium, 


276 


Calcareous spar, 


89 


Blende, 


245 


tufa, 


101 


cadmiferous, 


247 


Calcareous oxide of tungsten, 276 


black, 


tt 


Calp, 


98 


fibrous, 


tt 


< annel coal, 


292 


mammillated, 


tt 


Carbonate of barytes, 


122 


phosphorescent, 


246 


Of copper, blue, 


192 


Blind coal, 


286 


of copper, green, 


193 


Bloedite, 


300 


of iron, 


236 


Blue GarbonaU of copper, 


192 


Carbonate of lead, 


204 



324 



INDEX. 



acicular, 

earthy, 
Carbonate of lime, 

bituminous, 

concreted, 

ferro-magnesian, 

fetid, 

granular, 

magnesian, 

silicious, 

stalactical, 
Carbonate of manganese, 

of silver, 

of soda, 

of strontian, 

of zinc, 
Carbonate of magnesia, 

compact, 

crystallized, 

earthy, 

pulverulent, 
Carbonate of strontian, 

barytiCj 
Carbonated muriate of lead, 
Carbuncle, 
Carbonate of iron, 
Carnelian, 
Carpholite, 
Cat's-eye, 
Cavolinite, 
Celestine, 

fibrous, 

foliated, 
Cerite, 
Cerium, 

fluate of, 

ittrio-calcareous oxide < 

silicious oxide of, 
Ceylanite, 
Chabasie, 
Chalcedony, 
Chalk, 

Charcoal, mineral, 
Chaux carbonatee, 

arr aconite, 

borates siliceuse, 

bituminiE^re, 

i:.ini:;ri.:lJ':itMH.T, 

crayeuse, 



page. 




page. 


205 


fibreuse, 


91 


tt 


fetide, 


98 


89 


fluat6e, 


109 


98 


globuli forme, 


99 


99 


magnesifere, 


103 


105 


phosphate, 


107 


98 


nitrate, 


117 


93 


saccaroide, 


93 


103 


spongieuse, 


91 


107 


Chaux fluat£e, 


109 


92 


phosphatee, 


107 


254 


sulfate, 


112 


184 


compacte, 


113 


131 


C helms ford ite, 


J07 


1J6 


Chiastolite, 


301 


249 


Chinese figure stone, 


153 


120 


Chlorite, 


151 


it 


common, 


tt 


a 


crystallized, 


tt 


121 


slate, 


155 


tt 


Chlorophasite, 


303 


126 


Chlorophane, 


HI 


127 


Chloropal, 


302 


J, 207 


Christian^ 


319 


24 


Chromate of iron, 


238 


285 


Chromate of lead, 


211 


17 


cupreous, 


212 


22 


of lead and copper, 


it 


8 


of iron, 


238 


318 


Chrome, 


261 


127 


oxide of, 


CC 


128 


Chrysoberyl, 


75 


n 


Chryaocolla, 


194 


267 


Chrysolite, 


79 


26V* 


prismatic, 


it 


268 


Chry so prase. 


17 


of, 268 


Cimolite, 


50 


267 


Cinnabar, 


177 


77 


Cinnamon-stone, 


• 29 


167 


Citrine, 


5 


13 


Class I. 


1 


100 


II. 


m 


285 


III. 


ISO 


89 


IV. 


187 


102 


V. 


141 


117 


VI. 


174 


98 


VII. 


280 


92 


Clay, 


46 


100 


indurated, 


«( 



INDEX. 



325 





page. 




p»«re. 


porcelain, 


46 


black, 


188 


iron, 


45 


blue carbonate of, 


192 


Clay-slate, 


- 41 


green carbonate of, 


193 


Clay-stone, 


46 


ferruginous sulphuret 




Clevelandite, 


171 


of, 


189 


Clinkstone, 


162 


hydrous phosphate of, 


197 


Coal, 




lenticular, 


<< 


black, 


291 


martial arseniate of, 


200 


blind, 


286 


muriate of, 


195 


brown, 


293 


native, 


186 


cannel, 


292 


oblique prismatic arsen- 


coarse, 


291 


iate of, 


199 


glance, 


286 


octohedral, 


186 


mineral, 


291 


octohedral arseniate of, 


197 


slate, 


287 


phosphate of, 


196 


stone, 


tt 


purple, 


188 


Cobalt, 


216 


pyrites, 


it 


arseniate of, 


218 


rhoinboidal arseniate of, 


198 


arsenical, 


216 


Copper, red oxide of, 


191 


earthy, 


218 


seleniuret of, and silver 


, 184 


1 grey arsenical, 


217 


sulphate "f, 


196 


Cobalt arseniate, 


216 


sulphuret of 4 


187 


Cobalt gris, 


217 


variegated vitreous, 


187 


oxide of, 


218 


Copper-glance, 




prismatic red, 


it 


green, 


194 


red, 


<* 


prismatic, 


187 


sulphate of, 


219 


rhoinboidal 


n 


sulphuiet of, 


218 


tetrahedral, 


189 


tin white, 


216 


Copper, grey, 


189 


Cobalt-kies, 


218 


antimonial grey, 


190 


Cobalt-pyrites, 


21G 


arsenical grey, 


n 


hexahedral, 


217 


white, 


it 


octohedral, 


216 


Copper-ore, 


191 


Cobalt-mica, prismatic , 


218 


octohedral, 


u 


Cobakic galena, 


303 


Copper-pyritPSj 


188 


Coccolite, 


56 


Copper-mica r prismatic, 


198 


white, 


<( 


Corindon, 


68 


Colophon ite, 


28 


granulaire, 


n 


Columbia, 


265 


Corneous lead-ore, . 


207 


Columbiferous oxide of tin, 


244 


Corundum, 


68 


Columbium, 


264 


rhombohcdral 


66 


ferruginous oxide of, 


265 


Couz^ranite, 


304 


ittrious oxide of. 


<( 


Crichtonite, 


274 


Common salt, 


133 


Cronstedite, 


234 


Comptonite, 


31)3 


Cross stone, 


52 


Condorcite, 


00 


Cryolite, 


138 


Condrodite, 


(< 


pyramidal, 


it 


Copper, 


186 


Cuivre arseniate, 


197 


arseniate of, 


197 


carbonate bleu, 


192 



:s-2(> 



INDEX. 





pa«e. 




page. 


carbonate vert, 


193 


prismatic, 


85 


dioptase, 


195 


rhomboidal, 


87 


gris, 


1*9 


Emerald-malachite, 




muriatl, 


195 


rhombohedral, 


195 


natif, 


185 


rhomboidal, 


87 


oxid6 rouge, 


191 


Emeraude, 


tt 


phosphate^ 


196 


Emery, 


68 


pyriteux hepatique, 


188 


Epidote, 


37 


sulfate, 


196 


manganesian, 


38 


sulfure, 


187 


granular, 


tc 


Cupreous bismuth, 


213 


Epsom salt, prismatic, 


121 


cbromate of lead, 


212 


Ebonite, 


29 


manganese, 


256 


Etain oxid6, 


242 


seleniuret of silver, 


184 


sulfure, 


244 


sulphate of lead, 


207 


Eucairite, 


184 


sulphato-carbonate of 




Euclase, 


85 


lead, 


206 


Eudyalite, 


160 


Cyanite, 


71 






Cymophane, 


75 


Fahlunite, 


52 






Fassaite, 


55 


Datholite, 


117 


Feldspath apyre. 


143 


Davina, 


318 


Feldspar, 


146 


Davyne, 


tt 


common, 


147 


Derbyshire spar, 


196 


compact, 


150 


Diallage, 


63 


fetid, 


tc 


green, 


(( 


green; 


149 


metalloidal, 


tt 


glassy, 


148 


Diamant, 


281 


opalescent, 


149 


Diamond, 


tt 


prismatic, 


146 


Diaspore, 


69 


pyramidal, 


3&-170 


Diopside, 


54 


silicious, 


171 


Dioptase, 


195 


Fer arsenical, 


221 


Dipyre, 


41 


arseniate, 


239 


Disthene-spar, 


71 


chromate, 


238 


prismatic, 


a 


muriate, 


235 


Dodecahedral, azure-spar, 


39 


natif, 


219 


corundum, 


76 


oligiste, 


226 


garnet, 


24 


oxide rouge, 


229 


mercury, 


177 


oxidule, 


224 


Dolomite, 


103 


phosphate, 


236 


compact, 


104 


sulfate, 


238 


Dysodile, 


296 


sulfure, 


221 


Dysthene-spar, prismatic, 


17 


sulfure epigeno, 


223 






sulfure magnatique, 


<t 


Earth, fuller's, 


48 


Ferro-magnesian carbonate of 


Earth foam, 


93 


lime, 


105 


Egeran, 


30 


Ferruginous arseniate of cop- 


Emerald, 


87 


per. 


200 


copper,. 


195 







INDEX. 



327 





page. 




page. 


Ferruginous oxide of tita- 


Gmelinite, 


303 


nium, 


271 


Gold, 


175 


oxide of tungsten, 


276 


argentiferous, 


176 


quartz, 


5 


hexahedral, 


175 


Fibrolite, 


70 


native, 


<< 


Figure stone, 


153 


Graphic slate, 


45 


Fire opal, 


10 


Graphite, 


2cJ5 


Flint, 


12 


Grey antimony, 




swimming, 


7 


cobalt, 


217 


Flinty slate, 


45 


- copper, 


190 


Floatstone, 


7 


Green earth, 


155 


Flos ferri, 


103 


diallage, 


63 


Filiate of cerium, 


208 


G r ccn carbonate of copper, 


193 


Fluate of lime, 


109 


Green oxide of uranium, 


241 


alkaline, 


a 


Grenat, 


24 


crystallised, 


tt 


Grenatite, 


72 


compact, 


110 


Grossular, 


26 


nodular, 


<< 


Gurhonan, 


104 


Fluate of soda and alumine, 


138 


Gypsum, 


113 


Fossil copal, 


298 


anhydrous, 


115 


Foresterite, 


304 


axifrangible, 


112 


Frankliuite, 


234 


compact, 


113 


Fuller's earth, 


48 


earthy, 


114 


Fucite, 


304 


fibrous, 


112 






granular, 


113 


Gabronite, 


1G8 


snowy, 


114 


Gadonolite, 


88 


scaly, 


n 


prismatic, 


(< 






Gahnite, 


73 


Habroneme-malachite, 




Galena, 


201 


hemi-prismatic, 


193 


compact, 


202 


prismatic, 122—196 


granular, 


it 


Hal-baryte, 


122 


specular, 


tt 


di-prismatic, 


tt 


Garnet, 


24 


peritomous, 


126 


common, 


25 


prismatoidal, 


127 


manganesian, 


27 


Ilarmotome, 


52 


precious, 


24 


Hatchetine, 


297 


Syrian, 


tt 


Haiiyne, 


144 


Garnet, dodecahedral, 


tt 


Heavy spar, 


123 


pyramidal, 


29 


Hedenbergite, 


58 


Gehlenite, 


31 


Heliotrope, 


16 


Gennesee oil, 




Hematite, 




Gibbsite, 


70 


brown, 


227 


Gieseckite, 


146 


red, 


229 


Girasol, 


10 


Hepatic cinnabar, 


178 


Gltiberite, 


139 


Hepatite, 


125 


Glaber's salt, 


132 


Heulandite, 


33 


- prismatic, 


tt 


Highgate resin, 


298 


Glimmer, 


141 


Hexahedral cobalt pyrites, 


217 



328 



INDEX. 





p«e«. 




pw. 


gold, 


175 


clay, 


46 


kouphonc-spar, 


101 


hydrous sulphuric 


oxide 


load-glance. 


201 


of, 


235 


lirocone-malachitc, 


239 


hydrous oxide of, 


234 


prarl-kerate, 


1S5 


magnetic, 


224 


rock-salt, 


133 


meteoric, 


22 


silver, 


179 


micaceous, 


227 


silver-uhnce, 


1S2 


native, 


219 


Hexahedral zeolite, 


101 


octohedral, 


if 


1 1 i^injcrito, 


:;o5 


oxalate of, 


240 


II'i||«\ 




phosphate of, 


236 


ll'iucv stone, 


297 


pyrites, 


223 


Ho|>cite, 


300 


specular oxide of, 


226 


Hornblende, 


50 


sulphate of, 


238 


basaltic, 


57 


sulphuret of, 


221 


slate, 


it 


titaniferous oxydulated, 225 


H>irusilver, 


185 


tungstate of, 


276 


Jl'imstone, 


21 


Iron, oxide of, 


224 


Horn mangan, 


255 


brown, 


227 


Humite, 


300 


magnetic, 


224 


Humboldtinc, 


240 


sandy, 


225 


Ilumbolclite, 


300 


earthy, 


i« 


Humboldtilhite, 


317 


sparry, 


236 


Hyacinth, 


34 


specular, 


226 


Hyalite, 


h 


micaceous, 


227 


Uyalosidcrite, 


307 


fibrous brown, 


it 


J 1 yd rate of magnesia, 


81 


compact, 


223 


Hydrargillite, 


119 


scaly, 


if 


Hydrous oxide of iron, 


234 


ochery, 


229 


Hydrophane, 


11 


red, 


tt 


Hydrous phosphate of copper, 197 


Iron-ore, 


224 


Hyperthene, 


02 


black, 


223 






blue, 


236 


Ice-spar, 


308 


bog, 


233 


Ichthyophthalmitc, 


143 


dodecahedral, 


222 


Idocrase, 


29 


lenticular, 


232 


Indi:iuite, 


39 


magnetic, 


224 


Indivisible cerium-ore, 


2(57 


micaceous, 


227 


Indicolite, 


158 


octohedral, 


224 


Iolite, 


78 


pitchy, 


235 


prisma'to-rhomboidal, 


n 


prismatic, 


221 


Iridium, 


278 


red, 


229 


Iron, 


219 


rhombohedral, 


226 


argrillacpous oxide of, 


231 


rhomboidal, 


<{ 


arseniate of, 


239 


specular, 


u 


arsenical, 


221 


Iron pyrites, 


223 


chromate of, 


238 


common, 


221 


carbonate of, 


2W 


hexahedral, 


(C 


carburet of, 


285 







INDEX. 



329 



pne«. 
magnetic, 223 

prismatic, 

radiated, 222 

rhombohedral, 223 

Iarene, , 272 

Ittrio-calcareous oxide of ceri- 
um, 268 



Jade, 

Jade nephritique, 

Jargon, 

Jargoon, 

Jasper, 

common, 

Egyptian, 

oriental, 

porcelain, 

striped, 

ribbon, 

ruin, 
Jayet, 
Jenite, 
Jefferson ite, 
Jet, 

Kaolin, 

Karpholite, 

Killinite, 

Knebelite, 

Kollyrite, 

Konilite, 

Kouphone-spar, 
axotomous, 
hemi-prismatic, 
hexahedral, 
paratomous, 
prismatic, 
rhombohedral, 
trapezoidal, 

Koupholite, 

Kyanite, 

prismatic, 

Kupferindig, 

Labrador opal, 
felspar, 
hornbleude, 

Lapis Lazuli, 

Latialite, 



166 

106 

85 
<( 

19 

K 

20 
16 
20 



295 
23 
23 

295 

47 

22 
160 
308 
312 
308 

32 
143 

33 
161 

82 

33 
167 
142 

32 

71 

tt 

307 

149 

149 

62 

39 

144 



page. 

Laumonite, 41 

Lava, 163 

Lazulite, 78 

Lazulilh, " 

Lead, 200 

aluminous oxide of, 104 

arseniate of, 209 

blue, 

carbonate of, 204 

chromate of, 211 

corneous, 207 

cupreous sulphate of, " 
cupreous sulphato-carbo- 

nate of, 207 

molybdate of, 210 

murio-carbonate of, 207 

native, 201 

phosphate of, 208 

sulphate of, 207 

sulphato-tri-carbonate of, " 
sulphato-carbonate of, 206 
sulphuret of, 201 

Lead and copper.chromate of, 212 
Lead, native red oxide of, 204 



Lead-baryto, 210 

di-prismatic, 204 

hemi-prismatic, 211 

prismatic, 206 

pyramidal, 210 

rhombohedral, 208 
Lead-glance, 

hexahedral, 209 
Lead-spar, 

di-prismatic, 204 

red, 211 

rhomboidal, 208 

Lenzinite, " 311 

argillaceous, 312 

opaline, 311 

Lepidolite, 168 

Lepidolithe, 168 

Leucite, 142 

Levyne, 307 

Ligurite, 309 

Lignite, 293 

brittle, 294 

earthy, 295 

fibrous, 294 



330 



INDEX. 





p«£ft. 




page. 


Linrniform asbestus, 


65 


Magnetic sulphuret of iron, 


223 


Lime, 


89 


Malachite, 


193 


arseniate of, 


118 


compact, 


194 


borate of, 


117 


fibrous, 


193 


carbonate of, 


89 


Manganese, 


252 


fluate of, 


109 


black oxide of, 


« 


nitrate of, 


117 


carbonate of, 


254 


phosphate of, 


107 


cupreous, 


950 


sulphate of, 


112 


grey oxide of, 


252 


Lime-haloide, 




phosphate of, 


256 


macrotypous, 


105 


rhornboidal red ( 


254 


prismatic, 


103 


silicious oxide of, 


n 


rhombohedral, 


89 


sulphuret of, 


255 


Limestone, 


95 


Manganese^ carbonate. 


254 


argiilo-ferruginous, 


98 


oxide metalloid^, 


252 


bituminous, 


<( 


phosphate ferriftre, 


256 


common, 


r95 


sulfure, 


255 


compact, 


(( 


Manganesian garnet, 


27 


granular, 


93 


Marble, 


93 


lias, 


99 


Caen, 


97 


magnesian, 


105 


Egyptian, 


93 


Liricone-malachite, 




elastic, 


94 


prismatic, 


197 


black, 


96 


Lithomarge, 


48 


breccia, 


94 


Loadstone, 


2 -'4 


Carrara, 


tt 


Loam. 


51 


Fiorito, 


96 


Lucullite, prismatic, 


101 


Florentine, 


tt 


Ludus Helmonti, 


100 


green antique, 


94 


Lumachella, 


94 


Lauguedoc, 


97 


Lydjau stone, 


45 


Laconian, 


94 


Lythrodes, 


159 


lumachella, 


u 




* 


Luni, 


<• 


Made, 


301 


Middlebury, 


95 


Maclurite, 


80 


Narbonne, 


97 


Madreporite, 


101 


New Haven, 


94 


Magnesia, 


120 


Parian, 


If 


Magnesia, borate of, 


U\ 


panno di morto, 


96 


carbonate of, 


120 


Pentelican, 


94 


hydrate of, 


81 


Philadelphia, 


tt 


native, 


{< 


Pentworth, 


96 


sulphate of, 


121 


Potowmac, 


94 


Magnesian limestone, 


103 


ruin, 


97 


Magnesie boratee, 


121 


statuary, 


93 


car bona tee, 


320 


Stockbridge, 


95 


sulfatee, 


121 


St. Baum, 


97 


Magnesite, 


120 


feeneca Lake, 


67 


Magnetic iron, 


224 


secondary, 


96 


Magnet, native, * 


t( 


Thomaston, 


95 


Magnetic oxide of iron, 


C( 


translucent.. 


94 



INDEX. 



331 





pa pp. 




pnjre. 


Yorkshire, 


06 


sulphuret of, 


257 


verde antique, 


94 


Molybdene sulfure. 


<( 


Marble, conchitic, 


96 


Molybdrc silver, 


181 


Marie, 


100 


Montmatrite, 


114 


bituminous, 


10 


Moonstone, 


148 


Martial pyrites, 


222 


Moorcoal, 


294 


Martial arseniate of copper, 


200 


Mountain cork, 


65 


Margarite, 


309 


blue, 


193 


Massive phosphate of lime, 


109 


leather, 


65 


M|ionite, 


170 


meal, 


50 


Melanite, 


27 


paper, 


66 


Mellilite, 


309 


Muller's glass, 


8 


Meilite, 


£97 


Muriacite, 


115 


Menilite, 


12 


Muriate of ammonia, 


135 


Menaccanite, 


272 


of copper, 


195 


Mercure, argental, 


177 


of mercury, 


179 


hepatique, 


178 


of silver, 


184 


muriate, 


189 


of soda, 


133 


natif, 


177 


Muriate of iron, native, 


235 


sulfure 


<■ 


Murio-carbonate of lead, 


207 


Mercury, 


<( 


Muscovy glass, 


142 


muriate of, 


179 






native, 


177 


Nacrite, 


144 


sulphuret of, 


tt 


Naptiia, 


288 


Mesolinc, 


168 


Native antimony. 


258 


Mesolite, 


34 


arsenic. 


262 


Mesotype, 


33 


bismuth, 


212 


Metals, 


174 


copper, 


186 


Metalloidal diallage, 


63 


gold, 


175 


Meteoric iron, 


220 


iron, 


219 


Mica, 


141 


lead, 


201 


rhomboidal, 


a 


minium. 


204 


Micaceous oxide of iron, 


227 


nickel, 


214 


Miemite, 


104 


palladium, 


278 


Michffilite, 


22 


platma, 


174 


Mineral cahout chouc, 


290 


quicksilver. 


177 


charcoal, 


285 


red oxide of lead, 


1:04 


coal, 


£9i 


silver, 


179 


oil, 


288 


sulphur, 


280 


resin, 


£90 


tellurium, 


275 


Mineral coal, 


291 


Native muriate of iron, 


235 


non-bituminous, 


28ft 


Natrolite, 


34 


Minium, native, 


104 


Natron, prismatic. 


131 


Mispickel, 


221 


Natron-snlt, 


cc 


Mocha stone, 


19 


hemi-prismatir, 


<; 


Molybdate of lead, 


210 


Necronite, 


150 


Molybdena, 


356 


Necdlestone, 


34 


ochre, 


257 


Nephcline, 


160 


©xide of, 


<{ 


Nephrite, 


166 



132 



IXDKX. 





!»»£*». 




page. 


Nickci, 


214 


sapphire, 


67 


arsenical, 


215 


topaz, 


74 


native, 


214 


Orpiment, red, 


263 


ochre, 


215 


yellow, 


264 


Nickel-pyrites, prismatic, 


215 


Orthrile, 


267 


Nickel iferous grey antimony 


, 201) 


Osmium, 


278 


Nigrene, 


272 


Oxide of antimony, 


261 


Nitrate of lime, 


117 


of arsenic, 


263 


of potash, 


130 


of bismuth, 


214 


of soda, 


132 


of chrome, 


2§1 


Nitre, 


130 


of cobalt, 


218 


Non-bituminous mineral coal 


,280 


of columbiuni, 


265 


Novaculite, 


43 


of copper, red, 


191 






of iron, 


2'26 


Obsidian, 


145 


of lead, 


204 


Octohedral, alum-salt, 


137 


of manganese, 


252 


ammoniac-salt, 


135 


of molybdena, 


256 


arsenic-acid, 


268 


of tin, 


242 


bismuth, 


212 


of titanium, 


269 


copper, 


180 


oftungsten, 


276 


copper-pyrites, 


188 


of uranium, 


240 


chrome-ore, 


238 


of zinc, red. 


248 


diamond, 


281 






fluor-haloide, 


109 


Pagodite, 


153 


iron-ore, 


224 


Palladium, 


278 


iron, 


219 


Paranthinc. 


36 


oxide of titanium. 


271 


Pargasite, 


58 


Octohedrite, 


271 


Pearl-kerate, hexahedrai, 


179 


Oil, mineral, 


288 


Pearl-spar, 


105 


Olive-malachite. 


199 


Pearl-stone, 


146 


prismatic, 


<< 


Pearl-sinter, 


22 


Oliven-ore, 


.< 


Pea-stone. 


99 


prismatic, 


u 


Peliom, 


78 


trihedral, 


tl 


Peridot, 


•79 


Olivine, 


80 


Petalite, 


169 


Omphacite. 


310 


prismatic, 


*< 


Onyx, 


14 


Petroleum, 


289 


Oolite, 


99 


Pharmacol ite, 


118 


Opal, 


8 


Phosphate of alumine, 


119 


common, 


10 


of copper, 


196 


ferruginous. 


11 


of iron, 


236 


fire, 


10 


of lead, 


208 


Labrador, 


149 


oflime, 


107 


precious, 


9 


of nvuinfanese, 


256 


semi, 


10 


Phosphate of lime, silicious, 


109 


Opal i zed wood, 


11 


massive, 


u 


Opal-jasper, 


<« 


Phosphorite, 


u 


Oriental amethyst, 


67 


Picnite, 


71 


ruby, 


<< 


Picrolite, 


310 



INDEX. 



333 





paw 




page. 


Picrosmine, 


310 


Prismatic triphane-spar, 


31 


Pictorial marlite, 


97 


hal-baryte, 


123 


Pimelite, 


215 


lime-haloide, 


102 


Pinite, 


71 


nitre -salt, 


130 


Pipe clay, 


50 


titanium-ore, 


273 


Pisiform iron-stone, 


231 


wolfram, 


276 


Pisolite, 


99 


quartz, 


78 


Pitch-blende, 


240 


Pumice, 


163 


Pitch-coal, 


295 


Purple copper, 


188 


Pitch-stone, 


162 


Pycnite, 


75 


Pitchy iron-ore, 


235 


Pyrallolite, 


60 


Plasma, 


17 


Pyramidal copper pyrites, 


188 


Platina, 


174 


crysolite, 


138 


native, 


if 


lead-baryte, 


210 


Plaister of Paris, 


114 


tin-ore, 


242 


Pleonaste, 


77 


titanium-ore, 


271 


Plomb arsenic, 


209 


zircon, 


83 


carbonate, 


204 


Pyrenite, 


26 


chromate, 


211 


Pyrgom, 


55 


molybdatl, 


210 


Pyrites, 


221 


Datif, 


201 


argentiferous arsenical. 


• r 


oxide 1 rouge, 


204 


arsenical, 


tt 


phosphate*, 


20* 


common, 


tt 


sulfurl, 


201 


copper, 


188 


sulfur6 antimonifere, 


202 


hepatic, 


823 


Plambago, 


285 


magnetic, 


tt 


Plumbo-cupriferous sulphuret 


radiated, 


222 


of bismuth, 


213 


tin, 


244 


Polishing slate, 


45 


white, 


222 


Polyhalite, 


139 


Pyritous copper, 


188 


Porcelain clay, 


47 


variegated, 


(( 


Porcelain jasper, 


20 


Pyritous tin, 


244 


Porcellanite, 


n 


Pyrope, 


26 


Potstone, 


153 


Pyrophysalite, 


75 


Potash, 


130 


Pyrosmalite, 


235 


nitrate of, 


tt 


Pyroxene, 


53 


Potasse nitrate\ 


it 


granuliforme, 


56 


Potter's clay, 


50 






Prase, 


3 


Quartz, 


1 


.Prehnite, 


31 


avanturine, 


3 


fibrous, 


32 


common, 


1 


prismatic, 


31 


brown, 


5 


Prenite, 


tt 


ferruginous, 


tt 


Prismatic bismuth-glance, 


213 


fetid, 


7 


Prismatic copper mica, 


19S 


granular, 


tt 


Prismatic corundum, 


75 


green, 


3 


chrysolite, 


79 


irised, 


6 


emerald, 


85 


milky, 


4 



43 



334 



INDEX. 



radiated, 


[»«*• 




cobalt, 


page. 
218 


rose, 


4 


copper-ore, 


191 


smoky, 


5 


hematite, 


239 


spongiform, 


7 


iron-ore, 


230 


stalacticaJ, 


6 


Red ochre, 


l€ 


yellow, 


5 


orpiment, 


963 


violet, 


4 


silver; 


188 


Quartz, empyrodox, 


145 


vitriol, 


219 


indivisible, 


it 


Red oxide of copper, 


191 


Quartz-agathe, 




capillary, 


192 


calcldoine, 


13 


ferruginous, 


<€ 


carnaline, 


17 


foliated, 


it 


chatoyant, 


8 


massive, 


it 


grossier, 


21 


Red oxide of iron, 


229 


onyx, 


14 


compact, 


230 


ponctue, 


16 


fibrous, 


229 


prase, 


17 


ochery, 


230 


pyromaque, 


12 


scaly, 


«c 


sardoine, 


15 


Red oxide of lead, native, 


204 


Quartz-hyalin, 


1 


Red oxide of titanium, 


269 


aventurine, 


3 


renticulated, 


270 


concr£tionn6, 


8 


Red oxide of zinc, 


248 


en fume, 


7 


Retin asphalt, 


298 


fibreux, 


6 


Rhetizite, 


72 


granulaire, 


7 


Rhomb-spar* 


104 


gras, 


n 


Rhodonite, 


265 


irise, 


6 


Rhombohedral alum-haloide, 138 


jaun, 


5 


alum-stone, 


130 


latieux, 


4 


apatite, 


107 


pseudomorphique, 6 


baryte, 


122 


rose, 


4 


corundum, 


68 


rubigineux, 


5 


emerald, 


86 


violet, 


4 


emerald-malachite, 


195 


vert-obscur, 


3 


euchlore-mica, 


196 


Quartz jaspe, 


19 


fluor- haloide, 


107 


Quartz jaspe onyx, 


20 


iron-ore, 


226 


Quartz-resinite, 


8 


lime-haloide, 


89 


girasol, 


10 


ruby-blende, 


188 


hydrophane, 


11 


talc-mica, 


141 


opalin, 


9 


zinc-baryte, 


249 


prismatic, 


78 


Rock cork, 


65 


subluisant, 


12 


Rock crystal, 


1 


xyloid, 


11 


Rock milk, 


91 


Quicksilver, 


177 


Rock salt, hexahedral, 


133 






Roestone, 


» 


Realgar, 


263 


Roman zovite, 


29 


Reddle, 


51 


Roof slate, 


42 


Red antimony, 


260 


Rotten stone, 


47 


chalk, 


51 







INDEX. 



336 



Rubellite, 


page. 
158 


Rubicelle, 


77 


Ruby, 


76 


balas, 


77 


oriental, 


67 


spinelle, 


76 


Ruin marble, 


97 


Sahlite, 


55 


Sal ammoniac, 


136 


Salt petre, 


130 


Salt, common, 


133 


Sandy magnetic oxide of iron! 225 


Sappare, 


71 


Sapphire 


66 


asteriated, 


67 


blue, 


66 


green, 


67 


oriental, 


tt 


perfect, 


66 


red, 


67 


violet, 


ti 


yellow, 


tt 


Sarcolite, 


161 


Sard, 


15 


Sardonyx, 


tt 


Satin-spar, 


91 


Saussurite, 


167 


Scapolite, 


35 


compact, 


16S 


Scbaalsiein, 


106 


Sc heel in calcairc, 


277 


ferrugine^ 


276 


Scbeelium-baryte, 


277 


pyramidal, 


it 


Scheelium-ore, 


276 


prismatic, 


it 


pyramidal, 


277 


Schiller-ipar, 


63 


he mi-prismatic, 


tt 


Schiste luisant, 


42 


Schorlous topaz, 


75 


Schorl, 


156 


common, 


tt 


Scorodite, 


200 


Selenite, 


112 


massive. 


tt 


Selenium, 


279 



page. 
Seleniuret of silver and cop- 



per, - 


184 


Semi-opal, 


11 


Seneca oil, 


290 


Septaria, 


100 


Serpentine, 


81 


common, 


82 


noble, 


81 


precious, 


t< 


Severite, 


311 


Shale, 


42 


bituminous, 


41 


Silice flualee alumineuae, 


74 


Silicious anhydrite, 


116 


borate of lime, 


117 


oxide of cerium, 


267 


oxide of manganese, 


254 


oxide of zinc, 


248 


carbonate of lime, 


106 


sinter, 


21 


slate, 


45 


hydrate of alumine, 


311 


Sillimanite, 


J172 


Silver, 


179 


antimonial, 


ISO 


antimonial sulphuretted 


,183 


argillaceous muriate of. 


185 


arsenico-an Union id, 


181 


auriferous native, 


180 


bismutbic, 


181 


black sulplmret of, 


182 


brittle atilphuret of, 


183 


carbonate of, 


184 


flexible sulphuret of, 


182 


hexahedral, 


179 


molybdic, 


181 


muriate of, 


185 


native, 


179 


sulphuret of, 


182 


Sinter, opaline, 


21 


pearl, 


22 


silicious, 


21 


Skorza, 


38 


Slate, adhesive, 


44 


argillaceous, 


41 


alum, 


44 


clay, 


42 


graphic, 


45 



336 



INDEX. 





pag«. 




page. 


flinty, 


45 


Stromnite, 


127 


polishing, 


<f 


Strontian, 


126 


eilicioue, 


« 


carbonate of, 


n 


whet, 


43 


sulphate of, 


127 


Smaragdte, 


63 


Strontiane carbonate, 


126 


Soapstone, 


15J 


sulfate, 


127 


Soda, 


132 


Strontianite, 


126 


carbonate of, 


131 


Sub-sulphate of alumine, 


118 


borate of, 


132 


silicious, 


119 


muriate of, 


133 


Sub-phosphate of alumine, 


cc 


nitrate of, 


132 


Sub-flu ate of cerium, 


268 


sulphate of. 


(< 


Succin, 


296 


Sodalite, 


159 


Succinite, 


29 


Sommite, 


160 


Sulphate of alumine and po- 


Somervillite, 


313 


tash, 


137 


Sordawallite, 


it 


of ammonia, 


135 


Soude borate, 


132 


of barytes, 


123 


car bonatee, 


131 


columnar, 


124 


muriatee, 


133 


compact, 


125 


nitratee, 


132 


earthy, 


it 


sulfa tee, 


it 


fetid, 


tt 


Spar, adamantine, 


68 


fibrous, 


124 


calcareous, 


89 


granular, 


125 


bitter, 


104 


lamellar, 


124 


brown, 


105 


Sulphate of cobalt, 


219 


Derbyshire, 


11 


of copper, 


196 


fluor, 


109 


of iron, 


238 


heavy, 


123 


of lead, 


207 


rhomb, 


104 


of iron, 


236 


satin, 


91 


of lime, 


112 


tabular, 


106 


anhydrous, 


115 


Sparry iron, 


236 


of magnesia, 


121 


Spathose iron, 


n 


of soda, 


132 


Specular oxide of iron, 


226 


of 3trontian, 


127 


Sphaerulite, 


313 


fibrous, 


123 


Sphene, 


273 


foliated, 


tt 


Spinellane, 


159 


of zinc, 


251 


Spinelle, 


76 


Sulphato-carbonate of lead, 


266 


ruby, 


a 


tri-carbonate of lead, 


207 


Spinelle zincifere, 


73 


Sulphur, 


280 


Spodumene, 


170 


hemi-prismatic, 


263 


Stalactite, 


92 


native, 


28 


Stalagmite, 


u 


prismatoidal, 


264 


Staurolite, 


72 


volcanic, 


281 


Staurotide, 


tt 


Sulphuret of antimony, 


259 


Steatite, 


152 


compact, 


CC 


pogodite^ 


153 


plumose, 


tt 


Stein heilite, 


7b 


radiated, 


tt 


Stilbite, 


32 1 


Sulphuret of arsenic, 


263 



INDEX. 



337 



page. 

red, 263 

yellow, 264 

Sulphuret of bismuth, 2 i 3 

cupreous, " 

plum bo-cupreous, " 

Sulphuret of cobalt, 218 
of cobalt and copper, " 

of copper, 187 

pseudomorphous, " 

Sulphuret of iron, 22 1 

arsenical, 223 

auriierous, " 

hepatic, " 

magnetic, " 

radiated, 222 

Sulphuret of lead, 201 

antimouial, 202 

Sulphuret of manganese, 255 

Sulphuret of mercury, 177 

compact, 178 

fibrous, " 

hepatic, " 
slaty, 

Sulphuret of molybdena, 257 

Sulphuret of silver, 182 

cupreous, 184 

Sulphuret of silver and copper, " 

black, 182 

brittle, 183 

flexible, 182 

Sulphuret of zinc, 245 

black, 247 

cadmiferous, " 

fibrous, " 

phosphorescent, 246 

Sulphuretted antimonial sil- 
ver, 183 

Sulphuretted oxide of anti- 
mony, 260 

Swinestone, 98 



Tabular-spar, 
Talc, 

indurated, 

scaly, 
Talc graphique, 

granuleux, 

ollaire, 

steatite, 



106 
151 
152 
144 
153 
144 
153 
152 



page, 

zographique, K»5 

Talc-mica, prismatic, 151 

Tantale ox'ide\ 265 

Tantalite, " 

Tantalum, " 
TelIure,natifauro-argentitere,275 

natifauro-ierrifere, " 

natifauro-plumbifere, 276 

Tellurium, 274 
auro-argentiferous native.275 
auro-plumbiferous native, 276 

native, 275 

Tennantite, 190 

Thomsonite, 35 

Thulite; 3l3 

Thumerstone, 39 

Tile-ore, 192 

Tin, 242 

oxide of, " 
sulphuret of, and copper, 244 

Tin pyrites, " 

Tin stone, 242 

Titaue, oxid6, 269 

ferrifere, 271 

siliceo-calcaire, 273 

Titanite, 269 

Titanium, " 

oxide of, '*' 

ferruginous oxide of, 271 
siliceo-calcareous oxide 

of, 273 

Topaz, 74 

Bohemian, 5 
false, 

oriental, 67 

Siberian, 74 

Topazolite, 28 

Torrelite, 314 

Touchstone, 45 

Tourmaline, 156 

black, " 

blue, 158 

.green, 157 

red, 158 

yellow, 157 

white, 158 

Tremolite, 59 

bladed, 60 

crystallized, ' 59 



338 



INDEX. 



Wacke, 



46 





pa*e. 




page. 


fibrous, 


59 


Wagnerite, 


315 


Triphane-spar, prismatic, 


170 


Wakke, 


.46 


Tripoli, 


49 


Wavelite, 


119 


Tufa, calcareous, 


101 


Wernerite, 


35 


Tungstate of iron, 


276 


White copper, 


190 


Tungsten, 


ti 


Withamite, 


315 


calcareous oxide of, 


277 


Witherite, 


123 


oxide of, 


276 


Wolfram, 


276 


Turkey hone, 


43 


Wood opal, 


11 


Turquoise, 


69 


Wood tin, 


244 


mineral, 


it 






oriental, 


tt 


Yellow tellurium, 


276 






Yellow orpiment, 


263 


Umber, 


229 


Yttro-cerite, 


968 


Umboldilite, 


317 


Yttrious oxide of columbium, 265 


Uncleavable cerium-ore, 


267 


Yttro-columbite, 


it 


Uncleavable staphaline-mala 


L- 


Yttro-tantalite, 


tt 


chite, 


194 






Uranium, 


240 


Zeagonite, 


315 


black oxide of, 


tt 


Zeolite, 


33 


earthy oxide of, 


242 


dodecahedral, 


142 


green oxide of, 


241 


foliated, 


33 


Uran ochre, 


240 


mealy, 


34 


Uran oxidule, 


<( 


prismatic, 


33 


oxide, 


241 


pyramidal, 


52 


Uranite, 


tt 


Zinc, 


245 


Uranium-ore, uncleavable, 


240 


carbonate of, 


249 






sulphate of, 


251 


Vauquelinite, 


212 


silicious oxide of, 


248 


Variegated copper, 


188 


red oxide of, 


tt 


Vermiculite, 


314 


sulphuret of, 


245 


Vesuvian, 


29 


Zircon, 


83 


Vitriol, prismatic, 


196 


common, 


85 


rhomboidal, 


123 


pyramidal, 


83 


Volcanic sulphur, 


281 


Zoisite, 


36 






Zurlite, 


8l# 



ERRATA. 

Page xx, For Sihenite read Selenite. 

" xxvi, For Arroganite read Arrogonite. 

" lxviii, For Heliaotrope read Heliotrope. 

" lxix, For Scopolite read Scapolite. 
" " For Automollite read Automolite. 
" " For Pyeniie read Pycnite. 
" " For Bruceite read Brucite. 

" lxxii, For Pearstone read Pearlstone. 

" lxxih, For Aurifirous read Auriferous. 

" 8, For amgdaloid read amygdaloid. 

" 10, For runs read run. 

" 29, For Roxborough read Boxborough. 

" 139, For Brithene-spar read Brithene-salt. 

" 143, For Andalucite read Andalusite. 
'• " For Axtomatous read Axotoraous. 

" 157, For Stafford read Strafford. 

" 161, For Carlton read Calton. 

" J 67, For Saussureite read Saussurite. 
" " For Chabaise read Chabasie. 

" 172, For Abite read Albite. 

cc 179, For Hornsilver read Horn Quicksilver. 

" 181, For Sulphur read Silver. 

" 207, For Sulfato read Sulphato. 

" 281, For Saltafara read Solfaterra. 

11 301, For Bucrlandite read bucklandite. 



33U 



liNDEX. 



fibrous, 51) 
Triphanc-spar, prismatic, J 70 

Triiwli, 49 

Tufa, calcareous, 10 1 

Tuugstatc of iron, 276 

Tungsten, " 
calcareous oxide of, 277 

oxide of, 276 

Turkey hone, 43 

Turquoise, 69 

mineral, " 

oriental, " 

Umber, 229 

Umboldilite, 317 
Uncleavable cerium-ore, 267 
Uncleavable staphaline-mala- 

chite, 194 

Uranium, 240 

black oxide of, " 

earthy oxide of, 242 

green oxide of, 241 

Uran ochre, 240 

Uran oxidule, " 

oxide, 241 

Uranite, " 
Uranium-ore, uncleavable, 240 

Vauquelinite, 212 

Variegated copper, 188 

Vermiculite, 314 

Vesuvian, 29 

Vitriol, prismatic, 196 

rhomboidal, 123 

Volcanic sulphur, 28 1 

Wacke, 46 



Wagnerite, 

Wakke, 

Wavelite, 

Wernerite, 

White copper, 

Withamite, 

Witherite, 

Wolfram, 

Wood opal, 

Wood tin, 



315 
.46 
119 

35 
190 
315 
123 
276 

11 
244 



Yellow tellurium, 276 

Yellow orpiment, 263 

Yttro-cerite, 268 
Yttrious oxide of columbium, 265 

Yttro-columbite, " 

Yttro-tantalite, " 

Zeagonite, 315 

Zeolite, 33 

dodecahedral, 142 

foliated, 33 

mealy, 34 

prismatic, 33 

pyramidal, 52 

Zinc, 245 

carbonate of, 249 

sulphate of, 251 

silicious oxide of, 248 

red oxide of, " 

sulphuretof, 245 

Zircon, 83 

common, 85 

pyramidal, 83 

Zoisite, 36 

Zurlite, 316 



ox 



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